上饶玉山县激光治疗鸡眼多少钱知道常识

来源:搜狐娱乐
原标题: 上饶玉山县激光治疗鸡眼多少钱网上互动
Have you ever been driving down a pothole filled street, thinking, ;I wish the city, someone, anyone would fix the roads!; Soon, roads and streets may be able to fix themselves.你曾经开车走过满是坑洼是街道,并想着“我希望这个城市的有些人会修理这条路!”也许很快,路和街道就能自行进行修理了。Researchers at the University of Michigan have developed a type of concrete that heals itself when it cracks. Regular concrete is like ceramic when it breaks. It really breaks, opening a wide chasm that requires serious mending.如今,密歇根大学的研究人员研发出了一种破裂后可以自行修复的混凝土。普通的混凝土被打碎时就像陶瓷一样。破裂严重时会撕开一个大口,需要认真修补。Self healing concrete behaves more like metal.It bends without breaking thanks to special fibers holding it together. Bending or stressing the new concrete creates hairline fractures instead of gaping holes. All it takes to mend the tiny fissures is exposure to water and carbon dioxide. Chemicals in the concrete mix with water and carbon dioxide to form a healing scar.自我治愈的混凝土表现得更像金属。因为有一种特殊的纤维撑所以将这种混凝土弯曲之后仍然不会破裂。弯曲或者挤压这种新型的混凝土会产生发丝那么细的裂缝而不是漏洞。要修复细小的裂纹只需让其接触到水和二氧化碳。然后混凝土结合水和二氧化碳就会发生化学反应,填充裂痕。In the lab, the concrete was able to heal itself back to nearly full strength after a slab was stretched to three times its normal size. Self healing concrete could help cut costs for rebuilding not only new roads but also bridges and other structures that use the material.在实验中,混凝土板被拉伸至原尺寸的三倍时,混凝土就能够完全恢复。自愈混凝土能够帮助消减重建的成本,不论是新修的道路还是桥梁以及其它使用混凝土的结构。You wont find self healing concrete on roads just yet. The researchers are working on bringing it to market in the next few years. And when its y for widesp use, self healing concrete could make potholes a thing of the past.不过,你还不能在街上找到自愈混凝土。接下来几年,研究人员将致力于将这种混凝土推向市场。一旦被广泛应用,自愈混凝土会让凹坑变成历史。原文译文属!201305/240140

Business商业报道Italian fashion意大利时尚French invasion法国的入侵Galling as it is, it makes sense for Italian brands to sell to big French firms如此难堪,意大利品牌卖给法国大公司是有道理的Italian style, French capital意大利风格,法国资本A PEOPLE of poets, artists, heroes, saints, thinkers, scientists, navigators, migrants.一个有着无数诗人、艺术家、英雄、圣人、思想家、科学家、航海家和移民的民族。So runs the inscription topping the Palace of Italian Civilisation, a fascist-era monument in Rome.意大利文明宫的碑文上这样写道,它是位于罗马的法西斯时代的一座纪念碑。Fashion stylists should now be added to the list that made Benito Mussolinis regime proud.如今时尚设计师应该被加到该列表中,使得本尼托?墨索里尼的政权显得自豪。Fendi, an Italian clothing and accessories brand controlled by Louis Vuitton Moet Hennessy,芬迪,一个由法国奢侈品集团路易?威登?酩悦?轩尼诗控股的意大利饰名牌,a French luxury-goods group, said on July 17th that it will take over the long-empty fascist folly to use as a headquarters and a showcase for Made in Italy brands.在7月17日宣布它将接管这长期空置的法西斯荒唐遗物(,以作为其总部和意大利制造品牌的展示橱窗。It is the latest in a series of moves by LVMH to strengthen its grip on Italian luxury.这是LVMH加强其对意大利奢侈品品牌控制的一系列举措中的最新一项。In June it bought control of Cova, a family-owned patissier with a coffee shop in Milans fashion district that featured in Hemingways A Farewell to Arms.六月,LVMH买得了科瓦及其一咖啡啡店的控制权,科瓦是一个由家族拥有的糕点品牌,而这家咖啡店则位于海明威《永别了,武器》中的米兰时尚区。And on July 8th it paid 2 billion for 80% of Loro Piana, a family-owned cashmere and fine-woollens firm.还有,7月8日它以20亿欧元的价格买入了Loro Piana80%的股份,LP是一家由家族拥有的山羊绒和优质羊毛织品的企业。Two years ago the French group bought Bulgari, a jeweller, having netted Pucci, a maker of clothes and accessories, in 2000.两年前,该法国集团买下了宝格丽珠宝品牌,而宝格丽在2000年已经收购了一家饰制造商普齐。Kering, a rival French luxury group, has not been idle. Gucci, a Florence-based fashion house it has controlled since 2001,开云,一个法国奢侈品集团,这个竞争者它也没闲着。佛罗伦萨时装屋古奇自2001年以来已由开云所控股,bought Richard Ginori, a Florentine porcelain company, out of bankruptcy in May.古奇在5月买下了理查德?基诺里这家佛罗伦萨的瓷器公司,使其免于破产。Other foreign investors, notably Qatars royal family and one of its state investment funds, have also been shopping for bargains among world-famous Italian brands.其它的外国投资者,尤其是卡塔尔皇室家族及其一个主权投资基金,也已经一直在世界闻名的意大利品牌中寻找便宜货。But Italians have been particularly touchy about French raiders coming across the Alps since 2011, when Lactalis, a French dairy company,但是自从2011年以来,意大利人就已经对于跨过阿尔卑斯山而来的法国侵袭者尤为敏感,因为在那时,succeeded in a hostile bid for control of Parmalat, an Italian rival that had earlier been hit by an accounting scandal.一家叫拉克塔利斯的法国乳品公司成功地恶意收购了帕玛拉特这一家意大利竞争对手,而帕玛拉特早前因会计丑闻而重创。There was more Transalpine tension last year when Lactalis got Parmalat to buy the French firms American operations for a price some Italians thought too rich.在去年,有着更多来自阿尔卑斯山那边的紧张气氛,那时拉克塔利斯让帕玛拉特买下了这家法国企业在美国的业务,而一些意大利人认为这一收购价格过高了。Innocenzo Cipolletta, a former head of Marzotto, a clothing company, argues that Italian firms lack the financial muscle of the large French groups to consolidate Italys mostly family-run luxury business.装公司玛卓托的前总裁Innocenzo Cipolletta认为,意大利企业缺乏像法国大集团那样的财力,因而不足以整合意大利的大多数家族经营的奢侈品生意。Fortunately, the French have so far taken good care of their Italian purchases.幸运的是,法国人到目前为止还算善待他们在意大利收购来的这些品牌。Even so, some Italians still dream of a national consolidator.即便如此,一些意大利人仍然梦想着一个民族的整合者的出现。Ferragamo, a Florence-based fashion house that floated on the stock market in 2011, has been mooted.菲拉格慕,一家于2011年上市的位于佛罗伦萨的时装屋,就一直是大家议论的对象。Never say never, but it is hard to persuade family firms to get together, sighs Ferruccio Ferragamo, chairman and son of the founder.永不言弃,但要说家族企业走到一块是艰难的,菲拉格慕创始人儿子兼现任主席费鲁奇奥?菲拉格慕如此叹息道。 /201308/251898

America and the second world war美国和第二次世界战争The workshop heroes车间里的英雄A tribute to the unsung workers致敬无名工作者MacArthur had help engineering victory麦克阿瑟将军曾对工程师的胜利作过贡献Engineers of Victory: The Problem Solvers who Turned the Tide in the Second World War.By Paul Kennedy.工程师的胜利:问题解决者曾扭转了二战的局势NEARLY 70 years after the second world war and with most of the combatants now dead, a leading historian can praise the Wehrmacht. Not, of course, its evil racism but its military prowess. On the battlefields, writes Paul Kennedy of Yale University, Germanys soldiers earned universal respect for their “capacity to react swiftly and fiercely to an assault on any front”. His superlatives continue to flow. The Wehrmacht possessed a fabulous capacity to recover and strike back; Germanys paratroopers were ultra- competent; the Reich fought with astounding tenacity.二战结束近70年后,大部分的参战者已与世长辞。也许主流的历史学家会赞扬纳粹德国,当然是它英勇的军队,而非那邪恶的种族主义。耶鲁大学教授保罗肯尼迪写到,德国士兵因战场上敏捷的反应能力及勇猛地向前方发起攻势而赢得普遍尊重。保罗肯尼迪的巅峰之作继续流传。纳粹德国拥有极好的反应和反击能力,空降兵相当出色,整个帝国持久作战的能力也十分惊人。How then did Germany come to lose the war? The British-born historian strives to avoid reductionism. Unlike others, he says, he does not claim that the Allies victory can be explained solely by brute force or by a wonder weapon or by some magical decrypting system. There were multiple factors. Some have been exaggerated. Bletchley Park was “certainly far less important” than most of the popular literature about the codebreakers suggests. Sir Arthur “Bomber” Harriss determination not to target the enemys oil, transport and electricity grids but to blast cities instead was, he writes, a “weird panacea”.德国是如何输掉这次战争的呢?一位英国的历史学家极力避免还原真相。他说,他不像其他人那样断言盟军的胜利只因为强大的军事力量或一件神奇的武器或某些神秘的解密系统。盟军的胜利有多种原因。一些事实被夸大。布莱切利园 (Bletchley Park)当然远不比关于破译者自述的那些大量流行著作重要。他写道,“轰炸机”阿瑟哈里斯的决心不是把目标放在敌人的石油、交通和电网上,而是要炸毁整座城市,“怪异的灵丹妙药”。Against this, Mr Kennedy argues, some reasons for the Allies success deserve much greater emphasis. One of them, the stupendous might of Americas military-industrial complex, was recognised at last in Arthur Hermans “Freedoms Forge”, reviewed here last year. Mr Kennedy celebrates another crucial component: the role of engineers. What they invented, improvised and improved had, by 1943, begun to turn the tide against Germany and Japan.肯尼迪反对道:盟军胜利有一些更值得强调的原因。其中,美国军工铁三角惊人的势力最终在亚瑟赫尔曼《铸就自由》一书中被实,去年本杂志也过此事。肯尼迪赞美盟军胜利的另一个重要因素是:工程师的角色。到1943年,他们的发明、创造和改进开始扭转抗衡德国和日本的局势。By then long-range B-24 Liberator bombers protected convoys of merchant ships crossing the Atlantic; Hedgehog grenades destroyed Grand Admiral Karl D?nitzs U-boats; B-17 Flying Fortress bombers flew from airfields in England deep into Germany and drove the Japanese back in the Pacific; T-34 tanks led the blood-soaked Soviet counter-attack on the Eastern Front; Mustang fighter planes decimated Germanys flying aces.那时超远程的B-24“解放者”轰炸机保护商船的护航队穿过大西洋;“刺猬”手榴弹摧毁德国大海军上将 Karl Dnitzs的潜艇;B-17空中堡垒轰炸机在英国机场起飞,深入德国内部,穿过日本返回太平洋;苏联的血腥武器T-34坦克东线进行反击;野马战斗机摧毁了德国顶尖飞行员。Mr Kennedy also rescues the engineers of the US Navy Construction Battalions from relative obscurity. Popularly known as the “Seabees”, these were the units that built the bases, the installations, the assembly points and the roads that carried the Allied fight forward. Their achievements more than justify Mr Kennedys assertion that engineers are essential to military victory. Yet, as he rightly complains, historians of grand campaigns all too often take their work for granted and assume that troops, fleets and air squadrons can be moved long distances by the stroke of a pen on a large map.肯尼迪还救助过默默无闻的美国海军建设营的工程师,也就是人们俗称的“海军工程营人员”。他们负责建设基地,设备,集散地点和盟军向前进攻的道路。这些人的成就远远足以明肯尼迪的说法,工程师是军事胜利的重要部分。然而,正如他抱怨地那样,研究大事记的历史学家往往把他们的工作看成是理所当然的,他们认为军队、舰队和空军中队可以很容易地移动像在地图上随笔一挥那样长的距离。Seabee statistics are still amazing. In the Pacific alone they built, in the midst of war, 111 major airstrips and 441 piers, tanks for the storage of 100m gallons of fuel, housing for 1.5m men and hospitals for 70,000 patients. The famous photograph of General Douglas MacArthur fulfilling his “I shall return” promise to the Philippines was possible only after skilful Seabees had managed the pontoon bridges and causeway units that brought the army ashore—along with the photographers, of course.海军修建营人员所作成就的数据仍令人惊讶。战争年代他们在太平洋孤岛上修建了111个主要简易机场和441个码头,存放100加仑燃料的坦克,容纳150万人的住房和容纳70,000例病人的医院。麦克阿瑟将军对菲律宾承诺“我还要回来”,这张著名的照片可能只有在技术娴熟的海军修建营成员成功管理浮筒桥梁和铜锣单位之后才可能实现。当然是铜锣单位把军队和摄影师一起带上岸。Mr Kennedys best-known book is “The Rise and Fall of Great Powers”and his knowledge of earlier conflicts adds depth and colour to his history of the middle years of the war. Alexander the Great, Julius Caesar, the Duke of Marlborough, Napoleon, William Tecumseh Sherman and others march across the pages as Mr Kennedy compares and contrasts their actions with those of their counterparts in 1943-44. And he is able to cite several instances of British-American-Soviet bickering to sustain the Duke of Wellingtons grumble that having enemies is nothing like as bad as having allies.保罗肯尼迪的著作是《大国的兴衰》,他早年的斗争经历增加了中年战争历史的深度和色。此书对亚历山大大帝、凯撒大帝、马尔伯勒公爵、拿破仑、威廉特库姆塞谢尔曼和肯尼迪等人进行了整篇幅的描述,并将他们与同处1943-44年代的对手们进行了对比。威灵顿公爵曾怨言:有敌人一点也不像有盟友那样糟糕,保罗肯尼迪就此能举出英、美、苏联验这句话的几个实例。 /201405/300911

The canyon has power and attraction compelling the visitor to gaze into its depth. 大峡谷有着吸引来访者们深入探究的无穷魅力。These few points to a time when rainfall here would be significantly greater and the river evermore able to cover its channel through the granite landscape. 这几个地方曾经有非常大的降雨量而且河流永远能够通过花岗岩景观冲刷这个通道。This volcanic rock would have been formed many kilometers underground and pushed to the surface by the movements of the earths crust. 数千公里地下的火山岩形成之后通过地壳运动被推到地表。In geologic terms, the weird and wonderful rock forms at the recent result of severing temperatures, shattering frosts, eroding winds and flush floods.-Hello!用地质术语来说,奇形怪状的岩石在最近似的温度,霜冻的鬼斧神工,风的侵蚀及洪水冲刷中形成,太绝妙了!201310/261994

This is an infomercial I saw over the summer,Im promising you, this is real,the Parakeet,so beautiful,great to look at,and what a wonderful companion.接下来给大家放一段我在暑假看过的广告 我保 这个广告绝对是真的 鹦鹉 不仅漂亮 赏心悦目 而且还是人类的好朋友But like birds can be a lot of work.well,now you can share that beauty without the mess,with perfect polly,the singing parekee.可是他们会为你带来很多繁琐的家务 现在 有了perfect polly牌鹦鹉 你再也不用担心那些麻烦了Perfect Polly is so live.Its the worlds perfect pet.perfect polly是如此逼真 是世界上最完美的宠物Watch as perfect pollys head moves back and forth,along with its tail feathers.Its actually live-size,and so amazing live-size.看那可爱的小脑袋摆来摆去 尾巴一动一动的 而且还和真的鹦鹉尺寸一摸一样Youll almost believe its real.In fact, even this live parakeet cant tell the difference.完全可以以假乱真 即使这位小伙伴也分不清Perfect Polly even makes a great companion for your other pets.perfect polly甚至可以为你的其他宠物带来慰藉live parakeets need a cage,food and multiple accessones,but pefect polly ,complete with perch,is yours for only .99饲养鹦鹉需要鸟笼 鸟食 还要各种备品 但是我们的perfect polly只要.99哦 还附赠栖木 绝不坑爹 亲Oh wow.Well really?Are they sure the parakeet couldnt tell that it was fake? I dont know.哇 天哪 真的吗 他们确定那只小鹦鹉看不出来 它的小伙伴是假的吗 我怎么有点不相信呢Its so amazingly lifelike,look at this...I got one, and it really is...hey perfect polly,are you sure you worth .99.它看起来是挺逼真的 大家来看看 我买了一个 它还真的挺 嗨 你确定你值.99吗No? I dont...I agree.Alright ,so...不值? 恩 我也这么觉得 好啦It does save a lot of time and hassle...Ah, hours of fun...I hate to put it down.它的确能给大家省去不少时间和麻烦的 啊 百玩不厌啊 我都舍不得放手了So...I came up with my own product,and heres my informercial:所以呢 我自己也构想出来了一个新产品 接下来就是我的广告 大家请看Babies, they are so wonderful.婴儿们 他们简直太完美了They are cute,they smell good,and they are so much fun to make,but boy,are they a lot of work?他们不仅可爱 闻起来香喷喷 连制作过程都能让人笑翻天 可是 老天 照顾他们可真麻烦啊Well, now you could have all the joy of a beautiful bouncing baby without the muss of fuss with the better baby.但现在 better baby牌宝宝 帮你免去照顾孩子的麻烦 让你体验拥有漂亮宝宝的幸福Better Baby is so lifelike.Its the worlds perfect choice in offspring.better baby 是如此逼真 是婴儿中的完美选择Watch as better babys head moves back and forth.Its actually life-size.In fact,better baby is so realistic,even this pediatrician cant tell the difference.看他那可爱的小脑袋转来转去 完全遵照真人尺寸 事实上已经逼真到了 连这位儿科医生都看不出拉力和他的真宝宝有什么不同with the Better Baby, you could say goodbye to whine time,and hello to a wine time.有了be tter baby 你就可以告别烦恼时光 迎来欢醉时段BetterBaby makes a great companion for your mother-in-law,so she will finally stop bugging you about real grand kids.不仅如此 better baby还能成为婆婆们最好的陪伴 这样她们就不会整天催你生宝宝了plus,you could even use the better baby to legally drive in the car pooling,and better baby folds away for easy storage.还有 你从此就可以合法的 在合驾车道上开车了 而且 他还可以折叠易携Real babies need food,multiple accessorise,and a lot of attention.婴儿们需要食物 各种玩具或衣物 还需要你经常关心她们Plus,youll have to save up for college. But better baby can be yours for just .99.更别忘了 你还得为他们将来上大学存钱 但是better baby只需要14.99哦And ,if you order now,well throw in a Terrific Teen,who will never talk back,or get on sidely piercings.现在购买 我们还会赠送terrific teen 牌完美少年 他永远不会跟你拌嘴 也不会往身上穿各种钉Have the family youve always dreamed of with the better baby and the terrific teen.有了better baby牌宝宝和terrific teen牌完美少年 你可以轻松拥有梦寐以求的幸福家庭Order now.Alright,well be right back.赶快拿起手中的电话订购吧 好的 马上回来继续精注:EllenShow中英字幕来源于:艾伦秀字幕组 /201310/261996Tourism and the economy旅游与经济Easy come, easy go来也匆匆去也匆匆Booming post-Olympics tourism won’t boost the economy as much as hoped蓬勃发展的后奥运旅游不会如期望那样提振经济Sep 28th 2013 |From the print editionBRITONS have had some good economic news to celebrate over the past few months. Unemployment is falling, house prices in England hit a record high in July and economic output appears to be growing at its fastest pace since 2010.过去几个月英国人有很多利好的经济新闻值得庆祝。失业率在下降,7月英格兰的房价创下历史新高,GDP呈现自2010年来的最快增速。At first glance Britain’s tourism industry appears to be contributing to the economic bounce. Data released this month by the Office for National Statistics suggest that there has been a big increase in foreign tourists visiting Britain since London hosted the Olympics last year. In the first seven months of 2013, foreign visitor numbers rose by 4%, compared with the same period in 2012, and spending was up 12%. In July 2013 foreign visitors spent 30% more than in July 2012, setting a new record.乍一看,英国的旅游业对经济反弹有所贡献。英国国家统计局本月公布的数据表明,自去年伦敦举办奥运会以来前往英国旅游的外国游客数量大增。2013年的前7个月相比2012年同期外国游客数量增加了4%,游客花费也增加了12%。2013年7月外国游客花费比去年同期增加了30%,创下了新纪录。Hotels and attractions nationwide say they are benefiting from the unexpected boost in the tourist trade. According to data produced by STRGlobal, a consultancy, hotel-occupancy rates rose in nearly every English region in the first half of 2013. London, in particular, has seen a surge in foreign tourists since the Olympics ended: hotel-occupancy rates in the capital jumped by seven percentage points to 89% in June compared with a year earlier.全国范围内的旅馆和旅游景点表示他们从旅游贸易意想不到的增加中受益。据咨询公司STRGlobal的数据显示,2013年前半年英国所有区域的酒店入住率都有所上升。尤其是伦敦的外国游客数量激增,奥运会结束以来,六月份伦敦的酒店入住率从去年的7%增加到89%。The government has been quick to attribute the tourism boom to the Olympics, in an effort to justify some of the £8.9 billion (.3 billion) spent staging them. There may be some truth in this. Visits from countries keen on the Olympics increased the most: up by 24% from Latin America and 11% from China, compared with growth of 1% from Europe and a fall of 4% in visitors from North America, according to VisitBritain, a tourism quango.政府迅速将这归因于奥运会的旅游热潮,努力为奥运会高达89亿英镑(143亿美元)的花费辩护。可能有一些道理。根据旅游半官方机构旅游英国的数据,来自热衷于奥运会国家的游客数量增长最多,相比欧洲增长的1%和北美4%的下降,来自拉丁美洲的游客数量增长了24%,来自中国的游客数量增长了11%。Will this post-Olympics surge in visitors attracted to Britain contribute much to its economic recovery? The net impact of tourism on output depends not only on how much cash foreign visitors spend, but also on what Britons spend abroad. And although record amounts are being spent in Britain by foreign tourists, Britons have upped their spending on foreign holidays by a similar amount. So far for 2013, the gap between what Britain earns and spends on tourism has remained around the same since the summer of 2011 (see chart). The average monthly tourism deficit for January to July 2013 was £1.125 billion, only £7m less than the previous two years’ average. And in spite of the influx of tourist cash this year, the tourism deficit this summer is still higher than during the Olympics.后奥运会英国游客激增会对英国经济复苏带来很大的贡献吗?旅游增长的净影响不仅取决于外国游客的消费,同时取决于英国游客出国的花费。尽管外国游客在英国的花费创了纪录,英国人在国外度假的消费也创下了相似的纪录。到2013年的目前为止,英国人在旅游上的花费和收入的差距一直跟2011年夏天没什么变化(见表)。2013年1月至7月的平均月旅游赤字为11.25亿英镑,只比上两年的平均水平少700万英镑。尽管今年大量现金从旅游业涌入,今年夏天的旅游赤字仍高于奥运会期间。Trading what Britain has lots of—rain and heritage—for reliable sunshine, which it lacks, may be no bad thing for most Britons. But tourism will have less to offer the economic recovery unless more Britons can be persuaded to holiday at home rather than overseas. Alas, selling rainy Britain abroad may prove easier than selling it to Britons themselves.将英国的阴雨和遗产同其缺乏的阳光作交换对大多数英国人来说没什么坏处。但是除非更多的英国人选择在本土度假,不然旅游业对英国经济复苏的影响将会很小。可惜的是,将阴雨连绵的英国推销给外国人比卖给自己人容易多了。201310/260678Finance and Economics;Oil prices;Keeping it to themselves;Gulf states not only pump oil; they burn it, too;财经;油价;为己所用;海湾国家产油亦耗油;Everyone knows why oil prices, at around 5 for a barrel of Brent crude, are so high. The long-term trends are meagre supply growth and soaring demand from China and other emerging economies. And in the short term, the market is tight, supplies have been disrupted and Iran is making everyone nervous.每个人都清楚每桶布伦特原油高达125美元的原因是在未来很长一段时间内,相对于有限的原油供应增长,中国和其他一些新兴经济体对原油的需求会越来越大。而短期内,原油市场吃紧,原油供应链的断裂更是雪上加霜。除此之外,伊朗的局势也是弄得人心惶惶。Saudi Arabia, the only OPEC member with enough spare capacity to make up supply shortfalls, is the best hope of keeping the market stable. The Saudis recently reiterated their pledge to keep the market well supplied as American and European Union sanctions hit Iran. Over time, other producers in the Persian Gulf may be able to pump more. Iraq—and Iran itself—have vast oilfields that could eventually provide markets with millions more barrels a day (b/d). All this is conventional wisdom.石油输出国组织成员,沙特阿拉伯是最有余力来弥补原油供应不足的国家,也是最有希望维持石油市场稳定的国家。最近,在美国与欧洲联手制裁,打击伊朗期间,沙特人重申了他们将对石油市场提供足够补给量的诺言。随着时间的推移,其他一些波斯湾地区的原油生产国将能够生产更多的原油。伊拉克,以及伊朗其自身都拥有广阔的油田,他们能够每天向市场提供多于上百万桶的原油,而这一切都是为世人所共知的。Yet these calculations do not take account of the regions growing thirst for its own oil. Between 2000 and 2010 China increased its consumption of oil more than any other country, by 4.3m b/d, a 90% jump. It now gets through more than 10% of the worlds oil. More surprising is the country that increased its consumption by the second-largest increment: Saudi Arabia, which upped its oil-guzzling by 1.2m b/d. At some 2.8m b/d, it is now the worlds sixth-largest consumer, getting through more than a quarter of its 10m b/d output.然而,考虑到地区自身对原油的需求。在2000年到2010年的十年间,中国的石油消耗量已增加到每天430万桶,较之前增长了90%比任何一个国家的增长速度都要快现在中国已占据了这个世界上大于百分之10的石油消耗量。更令人惊讶的是,如今中国已然成为世界第二大石油消耗国。而位列第六的沙特阿拉伯,其现在每天的石油消耗量大约为280万桶,较之前也增长了每天120万桶。这样的内部消耗量恰恰大约为其每天1000万桶石油出口量的四分之一。Saudi Arabia is not the only oil-producer that chugs its own wares. The Middle East, home to six OPEC members, saw consumption grow by 56% in the first decade of the century, four times the global growth rate and nearly double the rate in Asia (see map).沙特阿拉伯并不是唯一自产自销的石油生产国。石油输出国组织成员的坐落地,中东地区在新世纪的头十年里,其石油消耗量增长了百分之56,这样的增长速度是全球增长速度的4倍,是亚洲地区的2倍。(见地图)Energy use per head is also rising. According to BP, in 1970 in the Middle East it was half what it was in other emerging markets. By 2010 it was three times higher. Global oil consumption stayed at roughly 4.6 barrels a head annually between 2000 and 2010, but the average Iranian and Saudi was getting through roughly 30% more by the end of the decade. The Saudis consume 35.1 barrels each. Overall energy consumption per head, at 7.3 tonnes of oil equivalent, is roughly the same as in America (see chart), which is much richer.人均能源消耗量也在上升。英国石油公司的数据显示, 1970年,东地区的人均能源消耗量是其他新兴市场的一半。而截止到2010年,却已经高出三倍之多。2000到2010年间,全球每人每年的石油消耗量大约为4.6桶,可是伊朗和沙特地区于2010年底的人均消耗量大约高出全球平均量30%。沙特年均每人消耗35.1桶,总计人均能耗7.3吨石油,这一数据大致与相比之下要富裕很多的美国持平。There are three explanations for this growing taste for oil. The first is demography. Populations in the Persian Gulf, and in OPEC as a whole, are growing fast. Tiny Qatars population trebled between 2000 and 2010. Saudi Arabias grew from around 20m to 27.4m, a 37% increase. Demand for power, water and petrol has risen accordingly. Saudi power-generating capacity has doubled in the past decade. Partly this is to mitigate the fearful heat: according to a report from Chatham House, a think-tank, air-conditioning units soak up half of all power generated at peak consumption periods.我们将石油需求量的增加归因于以下三点。首先是人口。波斯湾和石油输出国成员国的人口增长十分快。小小的卡塔尔,其人口在2000-2010年间就增加了3倍。沙特阿拉伯人口从2000万增加到了2740万,上升了37%.相应的对于电力,水资源和石油的需求也增加了。一份查塔姆研究所智囊团的报告显示,在电力消耗高峰期空调的电力消耗量占据了总电力的一半之多。庆幸的是,沙特的电力生产力在过去的十年中得到了成倍的增强,缓减了这一恐慌。The second relates to economic structure. It takes energy to produce energy: pumps must be powered and vast quantities of seawater desalinated. Aramco, the Saudi state oil company, sucks up nearly 10% of the countrys energy output. Attempts to diversify the Saudi economy beyond oil, gas and petrochemicals have not gone far.第二个涉及到的是经济结构。生产能源就需要消耗能源。油泵运行需要电力驱动和大量的脱盐海水。沙特阿美石油公司将近消耗了其出口石油量的百分之十。而力图使沙特经济结构多元化,而不是仅限于石油、天然气和石化产业的尝试却也始终收效甚微。The third reason for rising Gulf consumption is the inefficiency of domestic energy markets. Some 65% of Saudi electricity is generated using black gold, even as successive price shocks and the relative inefficiency of oil generation have seen it all but phased out in rich countries. Oil is used with such profligacy because domestic consumption is massively subsidised. According to the International Energy Agency, global oil subsidies added up to 2 billion in 2010. OPEC countries accounted for 1 billion of the total.海湾地区石油消耗量上升的第三个原因是地区内能源市场的效率低下。,虽然连续不断的价格冲击和低效的石油生产等现象已然在这些富裕国家中匿迹,但仍大约有65%的沙特电力靠石油来生产。当地石油之所以能如此的肆意挥霍还应归因于国内的大量能耗补贴。据国际能源机构统计显示,2010年全球的石油补贴总计为1920亿美元,而石油输出国组织国家占据了其中的1210美元。Saudi Arabia has the cheapest fuel in the Gulf and dirt-cheap electricity, too. This has alleviated poverty but it has also encouraged an American-style driving culture (for men) and limited public transport. Only a third as many Saudis own cars as Americans; as they get richer many more will take to the desert highways.沙特阿拉伯海湾地区有着最便宜的燃料和廉价的电力。这大大减轻了当地的贫困状况,而这也使得许多人开始追求美式的价值观和生活(尤其是男性),并导致了公共交通事业发展缓慢。沙特拥有的汽车只有美国的三分之一,但随着他们变得更加富裕,会有更多的车开上沙漠的高速公路。Many oil-producing countries (including Saudi Arabia) have pledged to cut subsidies. But this is hard to do when regimes are terrified of unrest (and often unelected). Violent protests greeted Nigerias attempts in January to raise the price of imported petrol. Only Iran, which had the most generous subsidy regime, has managed a big price hike—and it had a handy scapegoat in the form of sanctions.许多产油国(包括沙特阿拉伯)曾宣誓要减少石油补贴。但是,政体上的动荡不安(总统职位长期空缺)导致了这一诺言终究难以实现。一月份的武装抗议更是使得尼日利亚尝试提高进口油的价格。而石油补贴一向慷慨的伊朗更是大大的提高了油价,这也使得他成为了被制裁的主要对象。It is costing Saudi Arabia dear to burn through so much oil. With “lifting” costs of to a barrel the fuel is cheap but the opportunity cost, given a global price of 5, is huge. And like many Gulf oil producers Saudi Arabia has failed to use its abundant natural-gas supplies properly.沙特阿拉伯以每桶3-5美元的价格,大量的使用着石油。而同时,国际油价飙升至了每桶125美元。这样的代价是巨大的。除此之外,由于当地石油资源价格低廉,像许多海湾地区国家一样,沙特阿拉伯没有去合理开发利用当地丰富的天然气资源。Gas does now contribute 35% to power generation, but rock-bottom prices and a sniffiness about gas as oils poor relation mean that exploiting its bounty (Saudi Arabia apparently has the worlds fifth-largest gas reserves) has proven hard. Initiatives to attract Western oil companies to get at the gas foundered as low prices and stingy terms failed to attract bidders. Much of the “unassociated” gas that doesnt spew out alongside oil is tough to extract, and would require prices four or five times higher than now to make it worthwhile. According to BP, oil makes up 74% of the regions energy production. By 2030 it will have dropped only to 67%.天然气为该地区提供了35%的发电量,但是由于其市场价值与石油相比十分的低,因此当地人都不愿去大力开发和利用它(尽管沙特阿拉伯地区是世界第五大天然气储备区)。由于天然气低廉的市场价值和当地政府苛刻的一些条件使得一些吸引西方石油公司和竞标商的努力一再受挫。并不伴随原油析出的“非伴生气”提炼很困难,需要将其市场价格提高4-5倍才能彰显其价值。根据英国石油公司的统计预测称,如今石油占据了该地区能源供应的百分之74,而到了2030年,该数值将会下降到百分之67.Saudi Arabia is trying to develop nuclear and solar energy. But its fleet of oil-fired power stations will keep going for years. And as Mark Lewis of Deutsche Bank points out, two more big ones are now being built. On current trends the kingdom would become a net importer of oil by 2038 (unlikely though that is).沙特阿拉伯还致力于发展核能和太阳能工业。可是燃油发电站仍将持续发展数年。正如德意志的Mark Lewis指出的那样,两个更大的电站正在建造中。照此下去,沙特阿拉伯将会于2038年成为石油纯进口国。(虽然不太可能发生)This puts big strains on oil markets. In the short term Saudi spare capacity is an important factor in oil prices. As the year progresses seasonal Saudi demand is likely to jump. Last year the upswing between March and July was some 750,000 barrels of fuel a day, according to Barclays Capital. Much of that will be driven by air conditioners working overtime. This will put pressure on the countrys ability to maintain exports and keep oil prices stable.这给石油市场带来了很大的压力。短期来看,沙特地区的产油余力将会成为主导石油价格的一个重要因素。并且随着时间的推移,沙特国内石油需求量也会周期性的上升。根据巴克莱统计书卷显示去年3月至7月的耗油量上升到了750000桶。这大多是空调装置过度使用的结果。并且,这还会给沙特维持石油出口量和维持油价稳定带来压力。The longer-term picture is equally worrying. Global demand for oil is projected to rise to over 100m b/d by 2030. The Gulf states of Saudi Arabia, Iran and Iraq, which have vast and easily accessible reserves, are regarded as the obvious sources of new supply. But Iranian oil production will decline as sanctions bite and the country loses access to equipment and expertise. Iraq, currently producing 3m b/d, has the reserves to increase production significantly. But fragile politics, dodgy security and a battered oil infrastructure are deterring the investment required to boost supplies. And Saudi Arabias thirst for its own oil shows little sign of abating. The Gulf is usually seen as the answer to the worlds oil problems, but it looks ever more like a question-mark instead.长远来看,前景也是十分的令人担忧。全球石油需求量到2030年预计会达到每天1亿桶。沙特阿拉伯,伊朗以及伊拉克等海湾国家的巨大的石油储备将会是最大的供应源。但是,对伊朗的国际制裁,会使其失去大量技术设备与专家组的持,致使其石油产量下滑。近来产油量为每天300万桶的伊拉克虽具有足够的原油储量来大大提高其产量,可是其国内分崩离析的政治体系,不完善的安全体制,以及破败的石油基础设施将会大大影响其对海外投资的吸引力,从而影响到其产油量提高的进程。而沙特阿拉伯对石油的巨大内需,也使得局势更加的不稳定。我们都以为海湾地区的石油供给将会解决世界缺油难题,然而在现在看来,它反倒成了一个更令人担忧的问题。 /201306/244863

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