首页>>娱乐>>滚动>>正文

广汉水光针美白嫩肤多少钱妙手互动

2019年09月20日 15:37:42|来源:国际在线|编辑:京东大全
Google has taken a 60-year lease on a Nasa airfield next to its Silicon Valley headquarters as it pushes deeper into researching areas like space exploration and vehicles capable of navigating other planets.谷歌(Google)签署了一份租用其硅谷总部旁边一个美国国家航空航天局(Nasa)下属机场60年的合约。谷歌正深入许多研究领域,比如太空探索和能飞行至其他行星的飞行器。The lease includes a commitment to spend 0m on the facilities at the Moffett airfield, including renovating a gigantic, historic airship hangar that has become a prominent local landmark.这份租约的内容包括,承诺对莫菲特(Moffett)机场的设施投资2亿美元,比如要对一个体积巨大、具有历史意义的飞机库进行翻新。该飞机库已成为当地一处著名地标。Google’s founders, Larry Page and Sergey Brin, along with chairman Eric Schmidt, have had an agreement with Nasa for some time to use the airfield as a base for their private jets.谷歌创始人拉里#8226;佩奇(Larry Page)和塞吉#8226;布林(Sergey Brin),以及董事长埃里克#8226;施密特(Eric Schmidt),此前已同Nasa签订了一份协议,在一段时间内使用莫菲特作为他们私人飞机的基地。The space agency rejected an offer to pay for the renovation of Moffett’s Hangar One, which stands some 200 feet high, in return for allowing Google executives to house their planes in the building, opting instead to run a competitive tender for facilities last year.此前Nasa拒绝了谷歌付翻新莫菲特机场一号飞机库的费用的提议,但允许谷歌高管将私人飞机停靠在该机场,并在去年提出对机场设施翻新项目进行招标。Announcing a deal with Google on Monday, Nasa said the Moffett facilities would be used for “research, development, assembly and testing in the areas of space exploration, aviation, rover/robotics and other emerging technologies”.Nasa周一宣布与谷歌达成租约时表示,莫菲特机场设施将被用于“太空探索、航空、月球车/机器人等新兴科技领域的研究、开发、装配和试验。”Google has not disclosed any plans of its own to engage in interplanetary exploration, though it has offered a m prize for any private mission before the end of next year that can land a robot on the moon, travel 500 meters and send back images.谷歌没有披露自己参与星际探索的任何计划,但设立了2000万美元奖项,用于奖励在明年底之前实现机器人登陆月球、行走500米并发回图像的任何民间项目。The lease will bring in .16bn in rents over its 60-year life and save .3m a year in operating costs, Nasa said on Monday. The agency and a Google real estate subsidiary called Planetary Resources first reached a tentative deal for the airfield in February, though terms were not disclosed at the time.Nasa周一表示,这份租约将在60年内带来11.6亿美元租金收入,每年节省运行成本达630万美元。今年2月,Nasa首先与谷歌的房地产业务子公司行星资源(Planetary Resources)达成了一项租用莫菲特机场的初步协议,不过当时没有披露协议条款。Sitting alongside Google’s headquarters, Moffett has aly become a focus of the company’s attention as it outgrows its campus and sps into nearby neighbourhoods in Mountain View and Palo Alto. Besides using it for the private planes of its top executives, Google has aly agreed to lease part of the land to extend its facilities.除了把莫菲特机场作为谷歌顶级高管的私人飞机基地外,谷歌还将租用机场部分土地以扩建其设施。The three hangars and the airstrip covered by the latest lease include 1,000 acres of land alongside San Francisco Bay, part of which is used as a private golf course.最新租约涵盖的三个飞机库和跑道,包括旧金山湾(San Francisco Bay)沿岸的1000英亩土地。其中部分土地上目前坐落着一个私人高尔夫球场。 /201411/341746Someday, if the dreams of movie-technology designers come true, you#39;ll flash your smartphone ticket, settle into your plush cinema seat and be greeted with a hyper-real picture, sounds from every direction and -- if you need them -- closed captions projected on special glasses.如果有一天,电影技术设计师的梦想成真,那么你只需扫描智能手机上的电影票,就可坐进豪华舒适的电影院座椅中,迎接你的是一部感觉无比真实的电影,声音从四面八方漫入耳中──如果你需要的话,还可看到投射在特殊眼镜上的隐藏字幕。Such were the possibilities raised last month at the CinemaCon convention in Las Vegas, where technology companies pitched theater operators on the merits of faster projection rates to improve clarity; new, immersive, surround-sound audio systems; laser 3-D projectors; paperless ticketing; and more.这便是上个月在美国举办的CinemaCon展会上提出的电影的发展可能。展会上,技术公司向影院运营商推销了能提升清晰度的更快的投影速度、新沉浸式环绕立体声音响系统、3D激光投影机和非纸化电影票等。Theater owners were listening, but wary. Box offices have started off strong this year, but the number of tickets sold in the U.S. and Canada slumped 19% to 1.3 billion last year from 2002, Motion Picture Association of America data show. This has left cinema operators open to experimenting with new technologies that might lure back more cash-conscious viewers -- especially younger ones -- from their home plasma-TV screens, DVD and game players and, increasingly, Internet streaming services.影院运营商在倾听的同时也非常谨慎。据美国电影协会(Motion Picture Association of America)的数据显示,虽然今年的票房开局强势,但美国和加拿大去年的票房收入与2002年相比下降了19%,跌至13亿美元。这使得影院运营商有可能愿意尝试新技术,以期能将更多花钱谨慎的观众──特别是年轻观众──从他们家里的等离子电视机、DVD、游戏机和越来越多的互联网电影串流务上吸引回来。Dolby Laboratories Inc., for example, is expected to test its Atmos audio system in screenings in 10 to 15 world-wide theaters of #39;Brave,#39; a film from Walt Disney Co.#39;s Pixar Animation Studios scheduled to premier in June.Oscilloscope Laboratories3D激光投影机:使用激光而非灯泡来将画面投射到屏幕上,光线更加明亮、更有真实感。这一投影机最早也要到2013年年末才能投放电影市场,但CinemaCon展会的一些参展者抢先领略了它的风采。图中是放映的影片《轮回》(Samsara)的一幅截图。比如,杜比实验室(Dolby Laboratories Inc.)有望在全世界10至15家电影院放映《勇敢传说》(Brave)时试用其全景声音频系统。《勇敢传说》由华特-迪士尼公司(Walt Disney Co.)的皮克斯动画工作室(Pixar Animation Studios)制作,预计将于今年6月进行首映。Atmos allows sound to be focused through specific speakers placed around a theater, even on the ceiling. Current systems usually just deliver sound from groups of speakers placed on walls.杜比全景声音频系统通过置于影院四面八方,包括天花板上的特定音响集中传递声音。目前的音频系统则通常是通过置于 上的数组音响来传递声音的。#39;Imagine you#39;re watching a suspenseful film and someone is trapped in a basement and there#39;s a kidnapper walking across the ceiling,#39; says Matt Cuson, Dolby Laboratories senior marketing director, cinema. #39;It doesn#39;t do you any good to have a creak coming from a whole wall.#39;杜比实验室负责影院业务的高级市场总监库松(Matt Cuson)说,“想象你正在看一部悬疑片,有人被困在一个地窖里,而绑匪正在地窖上方走动。从 上传来的嘎吱嘎吱的声音对你感受这个电影情境没有任何帮助。”Three more films using the technology are expected to be announced by Christmas, Mr. Cuson adds.库松补充道,另外还有三部运用了杜比全景声音频系统的电影有望于圣诞节上映。IMAX Corp. is showcasing an early prototype of a digital-projection system, developed with Barco Inc., that uses lasers instead of bulbs to project images onto screens, casting a brighter, more reliable light. The projectors won#39;t be y for the market until late 2013, at the earliest, the film and technology companies say, but some CinemaCon attendees got a sneak peek.CinemaCon展会上,IMAX公司展示了一个数码投影系统的早期样品。该系统由巴可公司(Barco Inc.)研发,使用激光而非灯泡来将画面投射到屏幕上,光线更加明亮、更有真实感。据电影技术公司称,这一投影机最早也要到2013年年末才能投放电影市场,但CinemaCon展会的一些参展者抢先一睹了它的风采。#39;With the laser projection, the movies look phenomenal,#39; says Tim League, co-founder and chief executive of Alamo Drafthouse Cinema.连锁影院Alamo Drafthouse Cinema的联合创始人、首席执行长利格(Tim League)说,“采用了激光投影技术的电影看起来会非常有震撼效果。”Another new technology: Later this year, upgraded 4K digital projectors from Sony Corp. will start showing films at the higher, 48 frames-per-second rate, making images appear crisper and more lifelike than the current 24 fps -- in use since the late 1920s.另一项新技术:今年晚些时候,索尼公司(Sony Corp.)升级后的4K数码投影机将以更快的、每秒48帧的速度来放映影片,使电影画面比目前每秒24帧的投影机所放映出的更为清晰和生动。目前的投影机从20世纪20年代晚期就开始使用了。#39;The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey,#39; the first of two prequels to Peter Jackson#39;s #39;Lord of the Rings#39; trilogy, will be the first feature film shown at 48 fps when it opens in December. (Regal Entertainment Group cinemas is upgrading its projectors to use the faster frame rate; other theater companies are considering it.)《霍比特人:意外旅程》(The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey)是杰克逊(Peter Jackson)执导的《指环王》(Lord of the Rings)三部曲的两部前传的第一部,将在今年12月上映,它将成为第一部使用每秒48帧的投影机放映的电影长片。#39;It#39;s beautiful -- like night and day,#39; says John Knepp, president of Cleveland-based Cooperative Theatres Inc., a chain with around 300 screens, who saw 10 minutes of raw #39;Hobbit#39; footage that was shown at the higher frame rate at CinemaCon.Disney/Pixar全景声音频系统:杜比全景声音频系统通过置于影院四面八方,包括天花板上的特定音响集中传递声音。杜比实验室有望在全世界10至15家电影院放映《勇敢传说》(Brave)时试用其全景声音频系统。总部位于俄亥俄州克里夫兰的Cooperative Theatres Inc.是一家拥有约300块屏幕的连锁影院公司。该公司董事长克内佩(John Knepp)在CinemaCon展会上观看了10分钟用每秒48帧的投影机放映的《霍比特人》未经剪辑的原片后说,“它太漂亮了,旧的和它比起来简直有着天壤之别。”Some theaters are skeptical, however.但仍有些影院持怀疑态度。With the hyper-realistic feel, #39;the sense I have is that the older people will have a harder time with it, says Dan Tocchini, CEO of SR Entertainment Group, a chain with about 100 screens in Northern California. However, #39;the younger people will embrace it because it looks like a game.#39;北加利福尼亚州拥有约100块屏幕的影院连锁公司SR Entertainment Group的首席执行长托基尼(Dan Tocchini)说,用新投影机放映的电影会有一种超现实的感觉,“我感觉老年人会比较难以接受,但年轻人会相对容易,因为它看起来跟差不多。”While a broad uptake in 3-D technology over the past few years has tempted a sizable chunk of movie goers, especially adolescents and young adults, there isn#39;t any guarantee the newest -- frequently pricey -- advances in viewing technology will pay off for cinemas.虽然过去几年间许多采用3D技术的电影吸引了数量可观的观众,特别是青少年和年轻人,但没人能保,视觉技术方面的最新进步在电影业一定会取得成功,而且这种进步常常价格不菲。#39;We have to continue raising the bar for our customers and providing them with an all-encompassing theatrical experience so they#39;ll want to return over and over again,#39; says Ellis Jacob, the president and chief executive of Cineplex Inc., Canada#39;s largest theater chain. #39;But we also have to make sure our decisions are viable from a financial perspective, and we provide a fair ticket price to consumers.#39;加拿大最大的影院连锁公司Cineplex Inc.的董事长兼首席执行长雅各布(Ellis Jacob)说,“我们必须不断更上一层楼,为电影观众提供全方位的影院经历,这样他们才会一次又一次地想回来。但我们也必须确定这些决定从经济角度来说具有可行性,确定我们能为观众提供价格合理的电影票。”Other innovations rolled out recently -- like gourmet in-theater dining; or vibrating, motion-simulator seats -- have yet to catch on broadly. Film-industry observers say audiences have also resisted paying surcharges for badly converted 3-D titles and are proving intolerant of chatty and text-messaging teenagers who seem to treat movie theaters like their own living rooms.近来其它方面的创新──如美食餐厅影院和模拟动作震动椅──并没有大规模地流行起来。电影业观察者称,观众也拒绝为劣质的3D转换影片付额外费用,并且无法容忍那些在影院窃窃私语和发手机短信、把影院当成自己家客厅的青少年。#39;To invest in technology that#39;s #39;gee-whiz#39; but doesn#39;t drive more people to the theater or increase revenue . . . doesn#39;t make sense,#39; says Terrell Mayton, director of marketing for Carmike Cinemas Inc.影院连锁公司Carmike Cinemas Inc.的营销总监梅顿(Terrell Mayton)说,“投资技术并无多大意义,这些技术虽然激动人心但并不会吸引更多的人去电影院或增加票房收入。”And while owners don#39;t want to be left behind in the theatrical arms race, many say the dust has only just settled on another industrywide upgrade: digital cinema.虽然老板们并不想在影院的军备竞赛上落于人后,但许多老板称,另一场行业范围内的升级──数字影院──才刚刚尘埃落定。Over the last 10 years, major film studios urged theater owners to replace print-film projectors with digital ones. Studios partially subsidized the transition, which allowed them to do away with the task of producing and physically delivering reels of 35-millimeter film to the theaters. (Most digital movies are delivered on hard drives, though one consortium of theaters and studios said at CinemaCon that they plan to experiment with satellite delivery.)过去10年间,各大电影制作公司敦促影院老板用数字投影机取代传统的胶片放映机。在这个转换过程中,电影制作公司对影院进行了部分补贴,这样也省了他们制作无数卷35毫米胶片并将其逐一送到电影院的麻烦。(大部分的数字电影通过硬盘驱动器传输,不过CinemaCon展会上有一个影院和电影制作公司联盟称,他们计划尝试通过卫星传输数字电影。)As of March 31, 69% of the roughly 40,000 theaters in the U.S. and Canada had converted to digital projectors and screens, according to an estimate from IHS Screen Digest. By year#39;s end, that number will be closer to 85%, the research firmestimates.据全球市场研究机构IHS Screen Digest估计,自今年3月31日起,美国和加拿大约四万家电影院中,有69%都转换成了数字投影机和投影屏,并且这一数字将在今年年末达到将近85%。#39;The exhibitors just did this big conversion to digital, and now Hollywood is asking us to make another upgrade -- and we#39;re not going to make more money off of it,#39; says Mr. Knepp of Cooperative Theatres, about the switch to a higher projection speed.Cooperative Theatres Inc.的克内佩在谈到使用更快速度的投影机时说,“电影院才刚刚完成数字化的巨大转变,现在好莱坞又要让我们进行另一个升级,并且我们还没法从中获得更多利润。”Some manufacturers are trying to smooth the transition for theater owners. Sony Digital Cinema will offer for sale to current users of its 4K digital cinema projectors a remote software update to make sure its projectors will be able to play movies like #39;The Hobbit#39; at the higher, 48 fps frame rate.一些制造商正尝试使影院老板的技术更新换代之路平缓一些。索尼数码影院(Sony Digital Cinema)将向目前使用4K数码投影机的影院标价出售一款远程软件升级,确保这些投影机能放映像《霍比特人》这样用每秒48帧技术拍摄的电影。Larry Allen, president of the 94-screen Allen Theatres Inc. chain in New Mexico, says he is optimistic the higher frame rate won#39;t require a hardware update. But upgrading to other technologies, like laser projectors -- which haven#39;t been priced yet -- might pose greater challenges, he says, adding he#39;d start with one or two screens, but wait to recoup his investment before expanding.新墨西哥州拥有94块屏幕的连锁影院公司Allen Theatres Inc.的董事长艾伦(Larry Allen)说,这种帧频更快的电影并不要求硬件方面的升级,他对此表示乐观。但升级到其它技术,如尚未定价的激光投影机,可能会带来更大的挑战。他补充道,他会先从一两块屏幕开始,等收回投资后再进行扩展。Mr. Allen says he still has a warehouse full of 35-millimeter film projectors #39;sitting there, collecting dust#39; even after the conversion to digital: #39;We weren#39;t sure whether the conversion to digital would work out, so we held on to all of our stuff.#39;艾伦说,他现在仍有一个堆满了放映35毫米胶片电影的投影机的仓库,“那些投影机堆在那里,落满尘埃”。即使现在已完成了向数码投影机的转换,“我们仍不确定这次转换是否能成功,因此一直将旧设备留在那里。” /201206/185878

Personal computer sales have been sliding for years now because of the ever-increasing popularity of tablets. Next year, consumer tastes will have shifted so much that tablet shipments are expected to pass PCs the first time in 2015.随着平板电脑日益普及,个人电脑销量多年来一直在持续下滑。明年,消费者口味将出现巨大变化,预计平板电脑出货量将在2015年首度超过个人电脑。Manufacturers will ship 321 million tablets globally next year compared with 317 million PCs, according to a report released on Monday by Gartner, the market research firm. Granted, the number of devices shipped isn’t the same as the number sold, but often, the two figures go hand-in-hand.市场调研机构高德纳(Gartner)周一发布的报告称,明年,全球平板电脑出货量将达到3.21亿台,而个人电脑出货量将为3.17亿台。当然,设备发货量并不等于销量,但两者通常联系紧密。But not all tablets will fare well. Expect a slow-down for sales of some brands, particularly those with smaller screens, as shoppers lean towards devices with bigger displays, including ones that blur the line between smartphone and tablets – those awkwardly dubbed “phablets.” And given relative maturity of the certain markets like the U.S., Gartner Research Director Ranjit Atwal argued the next feature tablets will tussle over won’t be faster chips or lighter frames — features that set products like Apple’s AAPL 2.06% iPad apart in the past — but simply, price. Said Atwal: “The next wave of adoption will be driven by lower price points rather than superior functionality.”但并不是所有平板电脑都会热卖。有些品牌平板电脑的销量预计将下滑,尤其是那些屏幕较小的平板品牌,因为消费者倾向于购买更大屏的设备,包括模糊了智能手机和平板电脑间界线的平板手机设备。而且,随着美国等部份市场相对成熟,高德纳研究总监兰吉特o阿特瓦尔认为,平板电脑产品未来竞争的焦点将是价格,而不是更快的芯片,也不是更轻的框架这些过去令苹果(Apple)iPad鹤立鸡群的要素。阿特瓦尔说:“下一波平板购买热潮的推动因素将是更低的价格,而不是卓越的功能性。” /201407/310987

1.The most famous and spectacular meteor shower, the annual Perseids, will peak on August 12th.1.一年一度的英仙座流星雨是最著名、最壮观的流星雨,一般在8月12日达到高峰。2.The Perseids are also called the ;Tears of Saint Lawrence; after a martyred Christian deacon whom the Romans burned to death on an outdoor iron stove in A.D. 258.2.英仙座流星雨也被称作;圣劳伦斯之泪;。这个称呼来源于公元前258年被罗马人烧死在大铁炉里的基督教殉道者圣劳伦斯。3.Technically, a meteor is merely the streak of light we see trailing a meteoroid. A meteoroid is any interplanetary object bigger than a speck of dust and smaller than an asteroid.3.严格说来,;流星;仅仅指;流星体;身后的那一道光,也就是我们看着划过天空那一道。而;流星体;则可以是太阳系内任意一个比尘埃大但比小行星小的天体。4.Once it hits Earth, a meteoroid suffers an identity crisis and becomes a meteorite.4.流星体一旦撞上地球,就变成了;陨石;。5.Chase that, Superman: Perseid meteoroids enter the atmosphere at approximately 130,000 miles per hour.5.英仙座流星雨的流星体进入大气层的速度约为130,000英里/时(209,215公里/时)。6.Meteorites contain the oldest known rocks in the solar system, as well as minerals that formed around other stars perhaps billions of years before our solar system was born.6.流星体中含有太阳系中已知的最古老的岩石,以及在太阳系诞生的几十亿年前在其他恒星周围形成的矿物。7.Each day, up to 4 billion meteoroids fall to Earth.7.每天落到地球上的流星体约有40亿个。8.Don#39;t worry. Most of them are minuscule in size.8.但是不用担心,它们中的绝大多数体积都非常小。9.Meteorite impacts have been blamed for hundreds of injuries, but only one has been verified by scientists. In 1954, Annie Hodges of Sylacauga, Alabama, was struck by an eight-pound meteorite that crashed though her roof and bounced off a radio into her hip while she was napping.9.许多人都声称曾被落下来的陨石砸伤,但真正被科学家实的陨石伤人事件只有一起。1954年,美国亚拉巴马州的Annie Hodges被一颗8磅重(约3.6千克)的陨石砸中:这颗陨石击穿了她的屋顶,砸中了一台收音机,并反弹起来击中了正在打盹的Annie的屁股。10.A study published in 1985 in the journal Nature calculated the rate of impacts to humans as .0055 per year, or one event every 180 years.10.1985年发表在《自然》杂志上的一份研究称,陨石伤人的比例约为每年0.0055人,或者说每180年1人。11.If you find a meteorite, the Nomenclature Committee of the Meteoritical Society demands that you donate 20 percent or 20 grams, whichever is smaller, to a laboratory for future research. You can sell the rest.如果你找到了一块陨石,国际陨石协会命名委员会将要求你捐献它的20%或者20克(看哪个更小)给研究所以备研究。剩下的部分你就可以拿去卖钱了。12.Unless you found it in South Africa, where all meteorites are protected under the National Heritage Law and must be surrendered to the nearest authorities.12.除非你是在南非找到它的;;在南非,所有陨石都受到国家遗产法的保护,必须上交到就近的政府机构。13.Of the more than 24,000 meteorites known to have landed on Earth, only 34 are thought to have originated on Mars. Most of these have been found in Antarctica and North Africa because they are easy to spot on sand dunes and ice.13.在已知的落到地球上的2万4千多颗陨石中,据推测只有34%来自火星,它们大多是在南极或北非被发现的,因为落在冰面或沙丘上的陨石比较显眼。14.Martian meteorites can sell for 0 a gram. Space rocks fetch just a gram.14.火星陨石可以卖到500美元/克,其他陨石则只能卖2美元/克。15.To buy one, try eBay, which often lists more than 1,000 meteorites for auction.15.想买陨石,可以上eBay,那里待售的陨石常常超过1000颗。 /201201/169279

MOST people think of the empty space between the stars as being, well, empty. But it is not. It is actually filled with gas. Admittedly, at an average density of 100-1,000 molecules per cubic centimetre (compared with 100 billion billion in air at sea level), it is a pretty thin gas. But space is big, so altogether there is quite a lot of it.大多数人们认为星星之间就是空无一物,但事实并非如此。实际上有气体弥散其中。诚然,分子平均密度10^2-10^3/cm^3的气体非常稀薄(海平面处是10^26/cm^3)。不过由于空间很广阔,气体分子总体数量是可观的。Most of it, about 92%, is hydrogen. A further 8% is helium, which is chemically inert. But a tiny fraction—less than one-tenth of a percent—consists of molecules with other elements, such as oxygen, carbon and nitrogen, in them. Though these other elements are a mere soup#231;on of the interstellar soup, they do give it real flavour.大部分(约92%)的气体是氢,另外8%是惰性气体氦。还有一小部分(不超过千分之一)由氧、碳、氮等其他元素构成的分子。虽然这些元素仅仅是“星际浓汤”轻微的调料,但它们确实增添了汤的味道。Signs of life生命的迹象So far about 180 types of these molecular ingredients have been detected in space from their microwave spectra—the energy produced when molecules rotate around their chemical bonds. There are two reasons for wanting to study them. One is that these molecules are probably the precursors of life. The other is that the rarefied nature of astrochemistry changes the way processes work. It means the individual steps in chemical reactions can be disentangled from one another in a way that is hard—and sometimes impossible—on Earth. And it allows reactions to happen that are unknown on Earth.到目前为止,人们已经通过微波谱线探测出约180种分子成分。分子绕其化学键旋转时,分子能级会发生改变,从而产生微波谱线。研究微波谱线有两个原因。一是分子可能是生命的预兆。二是天体化学其稀薄的属性会改变化学反应的过程。人们可以用这种方式把化学反应中独立的一步从彼此步骤间分离出来,有时这在地球上很难实现。并且还有可能发生人类未知的化学反应。Now the astrochemists have a new tool: the Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimetre Array (ALMA) in northern Chile. It was officially opened on March 13th but has aly been making discoveries, including the most intense bursts of star birth in the early universe. ALMA consists of 66 dishes and is the world’s most powerful radio telescope. At a cost of .3 billion it should provide a hundredfold increase in sensitivity and resolution over the best older instruments.现在天体化学家有了新工具:阿塔卡马大型毫米/亚毫米波天线阵(ALMA,位于智利北部)。3月13日ALMA正式运作,到现在已经有了发现,例如宇宙早期恒星诞生最激烈的爆发。ALMA有66台天线,是世界上最强劲的射电望远镜。花费13亿美元想必会使灵敏度分辨率比过去最好的仪器还要好百倍。Those older telescopes had to focus on nebulae, where the interstellar gas is most concentrated (a familiar one, visible through binoculars, is the gas cloud around the stars that make up Orion’s sword). And older telescopes can detect only strong, simple signals of the sort emitted by small molecules like carbon monoxide and hydrogen cyanide, which have two and three atoms respectively. Spotting more complex substances was almost impossible because their rotational energy is scattered by their numerous bonds across a wide range of frequencies.以往的望远镜必须关注星云,那里是星际气体最集中之处。一个可用双筒望远镜看到的典例是气体环绕恒星所形成的猎户座的”剑”。并且老望远镜只能探测到一氧化碳(双原子)、氢氰化物(三原子)等小分子释放出的强的,简单的信号。而鉴别更复杂的物质几乎不可能,大量化学键占有很宽的频率范围,以至于旋转能被散射掉。ALMA, by contrast, can detect such things routinely. It has aly identified glycolaldehyde and acetone, molecules that have eight and ten atoms respectively. In particular, ALMA’s masters, a consortium of research agencies from Canada, Chile, Europe, Japan, Taiwan and the ed States, hope to find simple sugars and organic acids—molecules most researchers in the field believe were needed to get life going on Earth.相反ALMA可以轻易探测到这些信号:它已经鉴定出了乙醇醛(8原子分子)和丙酮(10原子分子)。特别的,由加拿大、智利、欧洲、日本、台湾及美国的财团组成的研究机构掌控ALMA,希望以此寻觅简单的糖类和有机酸——该领域大多数研究人员认为它们是地球上生命的必需之物。The ability to study chemical reactions stage by stage will be equally important. High-school chemistry lessons, with their neat equations transforming, say, 2H#8322; + O#8322; into 2H#8322;O, miss out a plethora of intermediate steps such as (in this case) the formation of hydroxyl, OH. In a lab, these intermediates are often too short-lived to be detectable. But in space an intermediate may hang around a long time before it encounters its partner in the next stage of a reaction. ALMA can see the microwave traces of such intermediates, and thus gain a better understanding of them.能够研究化学反应中的每一步同样很重要。高中化学课上简单的反应方程式省略了大量的中间步骤。例如2H#8322; + O#8322; 2H#8322;O就没有体现形成羟基(OH)的过程。实验室里,这些中间过程非常短暂,人们难以探测。不过在太空中,一个中间过程会持续很长时间,直到碰到下一步反应的搭档。ALMA可以看到这些中间过程的微波轨迹,因此研究者可以更好的了解这些过程。There are also completely new reactions to discover. Anthony Remijan, of America’s National Radio Astronomy Observatory, who is one of the astronomers putting ALMA through its paces, is studying the formation of methyl formate, a compound widely used on Earth in applications from insulation to insecticides. Usually it is synthesised either from methanol and formic acid, or methanol and carbon monoxide. But there is, in theory, a third route that uses formic acid and an unstable substance made from methanol and hydrogen. This has not been seen in an Earthly laboratory, but Dr Remijan thinks it is an important pathway in space, and ALMA should soon tell him if he is right.还有全新的反应有待人们发现。美国国家射电天文台的Anthony Remijan是将ALMA引入这个方向的天文学家中的一员。他正在研究甲酸甲酯的形成过程。从绝缘体到杀虫剂,可以说地球上到处都是甲酸甲酯。通常它由甲醇和甲酸,或甲醇和一氧化碳合成。但是在理论上,还可以使用甲酸和一种不稳定的物质来制造甲酸甲酯。(不稳定的物质则由甲醇和氢来形成。)这还没有在地球上的实验室中发现,但Remijan士认为在太空中这是一个重要的过程。ALMA应该很快就会告诉他他是否正确。Probably, that particular discovery will have no practical consequences. The known syntheses are effective, and methyl formate is aly cheap. But it will prove a principle about using the cosmos as a chemistry laboratory,and the hope is that similar findings about other molecules that are harder to make may allow chemical engineers at home to reformulate their processes.If that happens, the test tube in the sky really will have proved its worth.也许,上述特别的发现不会产生实用效果。甲酸甲酯熟知的合成方法很有效,而且它很便宜。但是,这明了一个理念:用宇宙充当化学实验室。希望有关其他较难制造的分子的类似发现能够让化学工程师在家里重新制定它们的合成过程。如果可以,天空中的试管确实有其价值。 /201303/231767

  • 光明门户成都/菲菲纹绣
  • 四川立体绣眉
  • 好网攀枝花纹绣价目表哪家好
  • 成都/化妆美甲美容韩式半永久纹眉多少钱
  • 医爱问天水做韩式雾眉多少钱飞度常识
  • 定西做绣眉多少钱
  • 成都/市绣眉与纹眉哪个好中医解答阿克市做韩式定妆眉毛多少钱
  • 美丽咨询德阳韩式半永久纹眉哪家好
  • 重庆/水光美白去青春痘
  • 城市卫生拉萨市做纹绣价目表多少钱
  • 兰州市做纹绣多少钱
  • 阿坝州做林教头纹绣多少钱58中文文山做平眉多少钱
  • 导医指南昆明市做韩式定妆眉毛多少钱
  • 成都/武侯瑞泰融诚口腔医院纹绣纹眉好吗
  • 成都木恩半永久做眉毛好吗百姓晚报中卫市做半永久韩式眉多少钱
  • 88口碑德阳激光脱毛和雾眉哪家哪里医院好
  • 安共享成都市武侯艾米丽整形医院纹眉价格医护对话
  • 宜宾绣眉哪家好
  • 当当健康西藏韩式半永久化妆绣眉管专家
  • 崇州市做文眉绣眉多少钱
  • 四川省怎么让眉毛长得快
  • 解放军第452医院做纹绣多少钱
  • 国际在线娱乐微信

    返回顶端