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2019年12月11日 13:29:35 | 作者:赶集新闻 | 来源:新华社
Qin Dynasty秦朝General概况Much of what came to constitute China Proper was unified for the first time in 221 B. C.中国本土的大部分地区在公元前221年获得了统一。In that year the western frontier state of Qin, the most aggressive of the Warring States, subjugated the last of its rival states. (Qin in Wade-Giles Romanization is Ch’in, from which the English China probably derived.)那一年,战国时代最具野心的国度——地处西陲的秦国征了最后一个对手。(“Qin”在威玛妥式拼音法里的发音是“Ch’in”,这也是“中国”英文发音的来源。)Once the king of Qin consolidated his power, he took the title Shi Huangdi (First Emperor), a formulation previously reserved for deities and the mythological sage-emperors, and imposed Qin’s centralized, nonhereditary bureaucratic system on his new empire.秦朝的国君一确立自己的统治,就自称“始皇帝”(意为“第一问君主”),这个名字原先称呼神和神话中的圣明天子的,现在则被始皇帝用来描述秦国的集中且非世袭的官僚体制。In subjugating the six other major states of Eastern Zhou, the Qin kings had relied heavily on Legalist scholar-advisers.在征东周的其他六个主要国家时,秦国曾经非常依赖与法家学派的谏言者。Centralization, achieved by ruthless methods, was focused on standardizing legal codes and bureaucratic procedures, the forms of writing and coinage, and the pattern of thought and scholarship.从冷酷的执政下获得的中央集权关注于标准化的法令和官僚流程、造币和书写的形式以及学派的思考模式。To silence criticism of imperial rule, the kings banished or put to death many dissenting Confucian scholars and confiscated and burned their books.为了消除人们对于帝国统治的异议,秦始皇放逐或处死了许多持不同意见的儒家学派学者,并把他们的典籍没收和焚烧。Qin aggrandizement was aided by frequent military expeditions pushing forward the frontiers in the north and south.秦朝的扩张是借助于频繁的军事远征来扩大其版图的北部和南部。To fend off barbarian intrusion, the fortification walls built by the various warring states were connected to make a 5 000-kilometer-long great wall.为了抵御蛮族人的进犯,由战国的一些国家建造的防御城墙被连接起来构成了一个长达5000千米的长城。What is commonly referred to as the Great Wall is actually four great walls rebuilt or extended during the Western Han, Sui, Jin, and Ming periods, rather than a single, continuous wall.我们通常所说的长城其实是在西汉、隋朝、晋朝和明朝时期重建和扩展的四座长城而不是一座单一的持续了很长时间的长城。At its extremities, the Great Wall reaches from northeastern Heilongjiang Province to northwestern Gansu.长城最远从黑龙江省的东北部一直延伸至甘肃省的西北部。A number of public works projects were also undertaken to consolidate and strengthen imperial rule.还有其他一些公共事业项目在进行以稳固和强化帝国的统治。These activities required enormous levies of manpower and resources , not to mention repressive measures.这些活动需要征集大量的人力和物力,更不必说一些镇压措施了。Revolts broke out as soon as the first Qin emperor died in 210 B. C.秦始皇在公元前210年一去世,反叛就立刻爆发了。His dynasty was extinguished less than twenty years after its triumph.他的王朝在胜利之后仅仅存在了不到20年。The imperial system initiated during the Qin dynasty, however, set a pattern that was developed over the next two millennia.然而,由秦朝首创的国家体系为今后两千多年的朝代建立了模式并得以发展。 /201509/397316Among those killed Monday when a Taliban suicide bomber attacked a patrol in southern Afghanistan was the first openly gay female U.S. soldier to die in combat.美国一巡逻队星期一在阿富汗南部遭到塔利班自杀炸弹杀手的袭击,阵亡军人中包括第一位公开性倾向的美国同性恋女军人。The Pentagon identified 36-year-old Air Force Major Adrianna Vorderbruggen as one of the six troops killed in the blast.五角大楼说, 36岁的空军少校弗德布拉吉是在爆炸中阵亡的六名军人之一。In 2012, she married her partner Heather Lamb in what was one of the first marriages involving an openly gay service member since President Barack Obama repealed the nearly 20-year-old ;Don#39;t Ask, Don#39;t Tell; policy. That rule kept openly gay people from serving in the U.S. military.2012年,弗德布拉吉与她的同性伴侣拉姆结婚。奥巴马总统废除实行近20年的“不问不说”的政策后,她是最先结婚的美国同性恋军人之一。按照“不问不说”政策的规定,公开性取向的同性恋者不能在美国军队中役。The six deaths bring the number of American soldiers killed in action in Afghanistan this year to 10. Another 10 have been killed in non-combat situations, including multiple helicopter crashes.算上这次阵亡的六个人,今年美军在阿富汗作战行动中的阵亡将士总人数增至10人。另外还有10名驻阿美军属于非战斗死亡,包括几起直升机坠毁。There are still 9,800 U.S. troops in the country as part of a mission to advise and assist Afghan troops. The U.S.-led NATO combat mission in the country ended a year ago after 13 years and 2,349 American deaths, according to Pentagon data.目前仍有9800名美国军人留驻阿富汗,为阿富汗军队提供咨询和帮助。美国领导的北约联军一年前结束了在阿富汗的战斗行动。五角大楼的数据显示,共有2349名美国军人在这场历时13年的战争中死亡。 /201512/417787The 2015 state science and technology awards honoring the contributions of 295 research projects and seven foreign experts were bestowed at a ceremony in the Great Hall of the People in Beijing on Friday, but the highest award remained vacant.周五,在北京人民大会堂,国家主席习近平颁发了国家科学技术奖,共有295个科研项目和7个国外专家获此殊荣。The state science and technology awards comprise five award categories, of which the Preeminent Science and Technology Award is the highest.国家科学技术奖包括五大类,其中最高奖项是最高科技奖。The top prize has previously been awarded to 25 scientists, including China#39;s ;father of hybrid rice; Yuan Longping, since it was established in 2000. There were one or two winners each year except 2004, the first time there was no recipient.自2000年设立此奖项以来,先后共有25名科学家获得最高科技奖的殊荣,其中包括“杂交水稻之父”袁隆平先生。每年都会有一两名科学家获得最高奖项,然而备受关注的国家最高科学技术奖继2004年之后,再一次出现空缺。;We can only express regret over the vacancy this year,; an unidentified official from the National Office for Science and Technology Awards, which is in charge of collecting nominations and organizing the voting, was ed by People#39;s Daily as saying.“最高奖项空缺,我们只能表示很惋惜。”国家科学技术办公室中负责收集获奖提名和投票的一名行政官员告诉中国日报。The official said that the country#39;s first Nobel laureate in medicine, Tu Youyou, who won the 2015 Nobel Prize for Medicine in October, was not nominated for this year#39;s prize. The nominations, submitted by more than 130 government agencies, research institutes and individual scientists, were made from early November to mid-December 2014.这名行政人员说道,2015年10月份屠呦呦获得诺贝尔医学奖,然而屠呦呦在国家科学技术奖中并没有被提名。国家科学技术奖提名由130个国家机构,科研机构和科学家个人提名。整个提名过程从11月初一直延续到12月中旬。In other award categories, this year saw a trend in which the average age of principal winners of the State Natural Sciences Award was just 47.6.其他科学技术奖项中,今年我们看到了获奖得主年轻化的这一趋势,平均年龄只有47.6岁。 /201601/421233

With just 10% of the population being left-handed, it can be easy for everyone else to forget we#39;re living in a right-handed world. But aside from making it tough to cut a straight line with a pair of scissors designed for righties, being a southpaw can also have some subtle effects on our physical and mental health.由于左撇子在人口中比例仅为10%,所以人们很容易忽略这样一个事实,即自己正生活在一个左撇子的世界。除了能够轻易地将自己同一般人区分开来之外,左撇子的习惯对个人的身体和心理健康还有着微妙的影响。The brains and bodies of lefties may operate differently than those of right-handed people (and in mixed-handed people, who may have different dominant hands for different tasks). ;Handedness seems to be determined very early on in fetal development, when a lot of other things about your future are being determined as well,; says Ronald Yeo, PhD, professor of psychology at the University of Texas-Austin. Here#39;s a look at some of the most common facts about being left-handed, and what it might really mean for your health.习惯用右手的人,其大脑和身体的运转方式可能和左撇子有所不同 (对双撇子来说,不同任务中他们会习惯用不同的手。)“人的许多特点在胎儿时期就已经形成了,偏手性似乎也不例外,”德克萨斯州大学奥斯汀分校的心理学教授、士罗纳德杨说。下面我们会探讨有关左撇子的一些常识以及左撇子对健康的影响。It#39;s not just genetics左撇子不一定都是遗传因素导致的。Scientists aren#39;t exactly sure why some people are left-handed, but they know that genes are responsible about 25% of the time, says Yeo. Left-handedness does tend to run in families, he says, ;but noticeably less than other inherited traits, like height or intelligence.;科学家们并不确定为什么有些人是左撇子,但是他们确信,左撇子的遗传因素占到25%。“左撇子的确会在家族内部遗传,但与体重和智力等其他遗传特性相比,其遗传几率却要小很多。”罗纳德杨教授说。It#39;s linked to stress in pregnancy左撇子与怀期间的压力有关。In one British study, the fetuses of super-stressed pregnant women were more likely to touch their faces more with their left hands than their right. This could be the first signs of a left-handed child, say the researchers. Other evidence supports that theory. In one 2008 Swedish study of moms and their 5-year-old children, women who were depressed or stressed during their pregnancies were more likely to have mixed- or left-handed kids. In other studies, babies with low birth weight, or born to older mothers, were more likely to be lefties as well.英国一项研究显示,压力较大的妇生出的孩子 更倾向于用左手摸脸。这可能是左撇子在婴幼儿时期的第一个征兆。而其他研究结果也实了这一结论。2008年,瑞典的一项研究显示,期较为压抑或压力较大的妇女,她们的宝宝成为左撇子或双撇子的可能性更大。其他研究还显示,出生时体重较低的婴儿或高龄产妇生产的婴儿成为左撇子的几率更大。 /201511/410785

Zhuge Liang’s Northern Expeditions诸葛亮北伐At the end of Zhuge Liang’s southern campaign, the Wu-Shu alliance came to fruition and Shu was free to move against north.诸葛亮南征结束之时,吴国和蜀国已经结成联军,蜀国因此能够抗击北方。In 227 Zhuge Liang transferred his main Shu armies to Hanzhong, and opened up the battle for the northwest with Wei.227年,诸葛亮将他的主要部队转移至汉中,与西北部的魏国展开战争。The next year, he ordered the general Zhao Yun to attack from Ji Gorge as a diversion whilst Zhuge himself led the main force to Qishan.一年后,他命大将赵云从冀侠出击以分散敌人的注意力,而自己则带领主要部队在祁山。The vanguard Ma Su, however, suffered a tactical defeat at Jieting and the Shu army was forced to withdraw.然而,先锋军马谡在街亭被敌人用战术击败,蜀军被迫撤回。In the next six years Zhuge Liang attempted several more offensives, but supply problems limited the capacity for success.在接下来的六年里,诸葛亮开展了多次攻击,但是供给问题限制了成功的可能性。In 234 he led his last great northern offensive, reaching the Battle of Wuzhang Plains, south of the Wei River.234年,他领导了最后一次北伐,在渭河北部的五丈原展开战斗。Due to the death of Zhuge Liang (234 AD), however, the Shu army was forced once again to withdraw.因为诸葛亮在同年去世,蜀国部队再一次被迫撤军。Zhuge Liang had five attempts in the north, only one of which succeeded (Tianshui) where he gained Jiang Wei after a successful defection plot.诸葛亮曾五次北伐,只有一次获得了胜利(于天水),在一场成功的阴谋叛变之后诸葛亮收复了姜维。Zhuge Liang’s other attempts included Chencang, Mt. Qi, Jieting (supply campaign) and the Wuzhang Plains.诸葛亮的其他出战包括陈仓、祁山、街亭(供给作战)以及五丈原之役。There were also some other minor attempts to the north but they were considered as minor battles that had no major outcomes.还有一些小战斗因为没有取得重要的成果而被认为是次要的。After the death of Zhuge Liang, his assistant Jiang Wan took over.诸葛亮病逝后,他的副将蒋琬取而代之。 /201510/398246

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