明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年06月25日 23:41:27

Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, second son of Ilya, was born in this house in Votkinsk on 7th, May, 1840.伊利亚的第二个儿子彼得·伊里奇·柴科夫斯基,在1840年5月7日出生在沃蒂斯克的这所房子里。His father, a hard working chief inspector of mines, was both liked and respected in the local community.他的父亲是一位努力工作的矿山总监察, 在当地社区受人尊敬和爱戴。Ilya Tchaikovsky had no particular musical talent, although he had played the flute in his youth and has an interest in a theatre.伊利亚·柴可夫斯基并没有特定的音乐天赋,虽然在年轻时代曾喜欢吹笛子并且喜欢去剧院。But he was even tempered and fair minded and enjoyed a warm and committed relationship with his second son throughout his life,但他甚至有些脾气并且想法公平, 终其一生他和自己的第二个儿子并保持着温暖及坚定的关系,supporting him and guiding him through many difficult crisis.这持他并引导他渡过很多困难的危机。注:听力文本来源于普特 201210/204430

  FOR four years New York was adrift. When Eliot Spitzer, a crusading lawyer, became governor in 2007, his uncompromising ways caused political gridlock in Albany, the state capital. Just over a year later, he was caught frolicking with a prostitute and resigned. His successor, David Paterson, was affable enough, but too weak to push the state legislature to balance the books. When Andrew Cuomo, a Democrat like his predecessors, handily won the 2010 governorrsquo;s race on a promise to ;rebuild the government, restore competence, restore trust, [and] get the people of this state believing once again;, New Yorkers gave a cynical snort.近四年来,纽约的政局并不稳定。2007年,时任州长艾略特?斯皮策,他律师出身,作风凌厉,毫不妥协。这种做法曾让纽约州首府奥尔巴尼一度陷入政治僵局。且任职仅一年多,斯皮策就陷入招妓门事件,辞去了州长职务。民主党人大卫?帕特森继任,他亲和有余,力度不足,无力推动纽约州立法机构平衡财政收。同为民主党人的安德鲁?科莫,于2010年参加州长竞选,并轻松取胜。他承诺要;重建政府,重塑能力,重拾信任,让州民能够再次相信政府;。纽约民众曾对此不以为然。But Mr Cuomo has had an extraordinary year. In the first six months of his term he could point to three historic achievements. First, he balanced the budget: not only bringing spending under control;filling a billion hole and nudging the public-sector unions to make concessions worth 0m;but putting mechanisms in place to control spending in future. He even got the cantankerous legislature to agree. In June Mr Cuomo brought in a cap on property taxes, in a state which the Tax Foundation ranks as the sixth-most-taxed in the country. Robert Ward of the Rockefeller Institute called it ;the biggest change in New Yorkrsquo;s fiscal policy since the creation of Medicaid;, almost 50 years ago.但科莫继任一年来,政绩斐然,任期前半年便取得三大有历史意义的成就。首先,他平衡了纽约的财政收,填补了100亿美元的财政漏洞,并促使公共机构的工会做出了4.5亿美元的让步。此举不仅使当前的财政花销得到控制,而且使相关部门机构各司其职,以控制今后的花销。更为难得的是,他甚至征得了一向刁钻苛刻的立法机构的同意。六月,科莫引入财产税上限政策,此前按税务基金会的统计,纽约州的税收排名全国第六。洛克菲勒政府研究所副所长罗伯特?沃德称此项政策为继50年前;创立lsquo;医疗补助计划rsquo;后,纽约财政政策的巨变;。Then, also in June, Mr Cuomo signed a bill legalising same-sex marriage, having worked hard to drive the bill through the Republican-controlled state Senate. In December he got bipartisan backing to change the income-tax code, which he says will generate .9 billion in additional revenue for the state. It sets in place the lowest tax rate for the middle class in 58 years, while;according to Mr Cuomorsquo;s opponents and the Manhattan Institute;leaving the tax burden on the richest at its highest level since 1986.其次,科莫还于六月签署法案,将同性婚姻合法化,并全力推动该法案通过由共和党掌控的州参议院。十二月份,他获得两党持,修改个税法条款。科莫称此举将会为纽约州带来19亿美元的附加收入。新条款将中产阶级的税率降至58年以来的最低点。曼哈顿研究所和科莫的竞争对手们称,如此一来,课税负担便落在了富人肩上,富人的纳税金额将升至自1986年以来的最高水平。Still, most New Yorkers are not upset with him. Indeed, they rate him very highly. He learnt much about Albany politics at the knee of his father, Mario, a former governor. He is clever and determined. His most noticeable flaw is his arrogance, which he has tried to keep in check, but which slipped out in November when he remarked: ;I am the government.;但是大多数的纽约民众并没有因此对科莫不满,反而对他给予很高的评价。科莫的父亲马里奥?科莫是前纽约州长,科莫从小受父亲熏陶,谙熟奥尔巴尼政事。因此他更加机敏,更加坚定。他最明显的缺点是其傲慢的态度,虽然他竭力控制但还是在十一月的一次演讲中说漏了嘴,一句;我就是政府;令众人哗然。In that case, his cockiness was accurate. There is not much transparency in how he is getting the results, notes Gerald Benjamin of the State University of New York at New Paltz. Disappointingly, it is still three men (Mr Cuomo, the assembly Speaker and the Senate president) in a room making all the decisions.科莫的傲慢由此可见一斑。新帕尔茨纽约州立大学院长杰拉尔德?本杰明指出,科莫制定政策的透明度并不高。令人失望的是,做决定的仍然是州长、州众议员院长和州参议院议长三个人。 201202/170233



  Its Thursday,July 7th 2011,Im Wilson Tang on Cnet.com and its time to get loaded.今天是2011年6月30日,周四。我是Cnet.com的Wilson Tang。是时间接收本周的最新资讯了。Yesterday Facebooks CEO Mark Zuckerberg made a number of announcements related to the Facebook messaging and chatting platform. The big news is that the social network is partnering with the converting giant Skype. Users will now be able to initiate a chat with their friends via their profile pages or the chat window. In addition, the chat widget now displays your friends that you actually message regularly, and now Facebook chat supports group chat as well.昨天,脸谱网首席执行官马克·扎克伯格公布了一系列脸谱网信息和聊天平台的相关信息。这一头条消息就是脸谱社交网路和视频软件巨头Skype展开合作了。用户现在可以通过个人页面或聊天窗口和好友视频通话。另外,这一应用上还会显示经常和你互通消息的好友,脸谱网的这款应用还持群组聊天。Amazon is stepping up its cloud music efforts to compete with Google and Apple. The company announced that for a year, users will receive unlimited storage space for their MP3 and AAC music files. The offer is for a limited time though, but in comparison Apples Itunes music match service will only allow users to back up 20,000 non-itune songs for 24.99 a year. Additionally, Amazon has released a cloud player for the Ipad.亚马逊展示了云音乐的功能,并和谷歌苹果公司展开竞争。亚马逊宣布,用户只需每年交付20美金,就可拥有无限储存空间来储存MP3和AAC音乐文件。虽然存放时间是有限制的,但相比之下,苹果的Itunes Match音乐务每年收取24.99美金的费用,用户只能存放2万首非itune歌曲。另外,亚马逊还发布了专用于iPad的云音乐应用。Spotify, the popular European assuming music service has officially announced that itll be launching in the U.S. soon. While the company had offered few details about the out-coming service, it does confirm what many have been speculating for months now. Spotify is reportedly in negotiation with the top four major music record companies to license music in the ed States.欧洲盛行的音乐务Spotify正式宣布,近期将在美国发售。虽然这家公司对未来提供的这项务只提供了很少细节,但他们肯定了许多外界流传了几个月的信息。据报道,Spotify和4家顶级的音乐唱片公司合作,使其音乐能够在美国上市。Civilization, the popular PC gaming series that focused on building a nation into a world power is now entering the world of social media gaming in the form of civilization world. The new game is more social than ever before by forcing gamers to partner with individual players they may not even know. Civ-world as its known will be free initially on Facebook, but there are opportunities to purchase civ bucks which can be spent on virtual resources.大受欢迎的游戏系列《文明》的剧情是要玩家建造一个国家并逐渐使它成为世界强国,现在游戏《文明》融入到了社交媒体游戏界,走进了真实的文明世界。这款新型的游戏社交性更强,它将要求玩家们组队,甚至是和完全不认识的人组队。游戏的开始部分可供用户在脸谱网上免费试玩,但剧情往后发展用户需要选择是否用虚拟货币购买游戏。Most Mac users have given up on the ability to play blue-ray disc, but now a third party developer Mac-go released a new media player called Mac blue ray player that promises for blue ray support. Users will have to buy a third party blue-ray drive, the Mac blue-ray player comes in a 33 month trial version, but a full license will cost you .95.大多数Mac用户都已经放弃了使用蓝光光盘的权利,但现在第三方开发者Mac-go发布了一款名叫Mac blue ray的全新媒体播放器。它将为用户提供蓝光功能。用户需要购买第三方蓝光驱动器,Mac蓝光播放器,这款播放器将试用33个月,完整版售价为39.95美元。The highly anticipated Motorola Droit 3 finally has an official release date and price. Verizon wireless customers can now purchase the phone for 9 with a two-year contract on July,14.备受瞩目的托罗拉Droit 3最终确定发售日期及价格。7月14日,威瑞森公司的无线用户可以以199美元的价格购买这款手机,并附带两年的话费套餐。The Droit 3 still features the slide-out qwerty keyboard but comes with a larger 4-inch screen, the smart phone will run Android 2.3 Gingerb, features a dual-core processor, 16 gigabytes of internal memory and an 8-megapixel of camera with 1080p capture, but doesnt support Verizons 4G LTE service.这款Droit 3仍是滑盖,传统键盘的设计,但配有全新4英寸屏幕,这款智能手机将运行安卓2.3系统,配有双核处理器,16G存储量和8百万像素摄像头,1080p视频捕捉,但不持威瑞森的LTE务。Those are your headlines for today, Im Wilson Tang for Cnet.com and youve just been loaded.以上就是今天的头条,我是Cnet.com的Wilson Tang。感谢您的收看。注:本篇文章英文来自普特论坛,译文属原创,,。201211/211375Forensics辩论术/ 法医学A murder has been committed. The scene of the crime is a secluded area. There were no witnesses, and the body is considerably decayed.有一场凶手案。凶案现场是一个隐蔽的地方,没有目击人,尸体也严重腐烂了。As the chief investigator, you have a suspect who was in town a week ago. But to convict him, youll need to know the date and time that the victim was murdered. How can you tell? And besides, whats that annoying buzzing in your ear? Wait, dont swat that fly! Hes your star witness. In fact, that little fly just told you the date of the crime!身为首席侦查员,你在一周前就在镇子里有一个怀疑对象。但是要明其有罪,你需要知道受害人被害的日期和时间。你要怎么说呢?除此之外,你耳朵里那些恼人的嘈杂声又是什么呢?等等,不要拍打这只“苍蝇”,它就是你的重要目击人。事实上,这只小苍蝇就告知了你犯罪日期。Flies dont carry pocket calendars, and they cant testify before a jury. How can a crime-scene insect help a police investigation? By doing what it naturally does—eating and laying eggs.苍蝇并没有在兜里自带日历,它们也不能在陪审团面前作。那一只在犯罪现场的虫子是怎样帮助警察调查的呢?通过它们正常的方式—— 食用(尸体)并产卵。When someone dies outdoors, the first investigators on the scene are usually bright greenbottle blowflies. Attracted by the smell of decaying flesh, these usually arrive within ten minutes of the death. While this smell might make us retch, for the blowfly its as savory as grandmas apple pie. The blowflys scientific name is ;Sarcophagi;, which means ;corpse eater;.当一个人死于户外时,到现场的第一批侦查员通常都是亮亮的绿头苍蝇。他们被正在腐烂的肉味所吸引,通常在死亡后十分钟内就到来了。这些(腐肉)气味或许会令我们作呕,但对于绿头苍蝇来说他们就像是外婆做的苹果派一样可口。绿头苍蝇的学名是“Sarcophagi(中文意思为“石棺”)”,意思是“尸体食用者”。While they eat, the blowflies lay eggs in the softer parts of the body, and these hatch into maggots twenty-four hours later. These maggots attract other insects, like the predatory rove beetle(隐翅虫), who feast on them. And so on. Wave after wave of hungry insects arrive, marking time as accurately as a clock.这些苍蝇一边嗜(尸体),一边在尸体较软的地方产卵,然后这些卵又会在24小时后会孵化称蛆。蛆又会引来其它的昆虫,比如说以蛆为食的肉食型隐翅虫等。饥饿的昆虫们一波接一波的到来,时间精准的跟时钟一样。Meanwhile, the blowflies follow their natural life cycle. Maggots become pupae, the pupae become adults. By surveying the insects in and around a corpse, forensic scientists can help a police investigator determine how long ago a victim was murdered.与此同时,绿头苍蝇们继续这它们的正常生命循环。蛆变成蛹,蛹再长大。通过调查尸体周围的昆虫,法医可以帮助警方调查人员确定受害者遇害的时间。 /201209/201312

  Finance and Economics;Man and machine;财经;投资人与经济机器;The economic ideas of the worlds most successful hedge-fund boss;世界最成功的对冲基金经理的经济思想;“The most beautiful deleveraging yet seen” is how Ray Dalio describes what is now going on in Americas economy. As America has gone through the necessary process of reducing its debt-to-income ratio since the financial crash of 2008, he reckons its policymakers have done well in mixing painful stuff like debt restructuring with injections of cash to keep demand growing. Europes deleveraging, by contrast, is “ugly”.“这是我所见过的最美丽的去杠杆化”Ray Daio如此描述美国的经济现状。2008年经济危机以来,美国经历了为降低负债收入比而必须的的过程,他认为美国的政策制定者们在均衡棘手事务如债务重调和资金注入从而保持需求的持续上升方面做得可圈可点。相比之下,欧洲的去杠杆化显得“丑陋不堪”。Mr Dalios views are taken seriously. He made a fortune betting before the crash that the world had taken on too much debt and would need to slash it. Last year alone, his Bridgewater Pure Alpha fund earned its investors 13.8 billion Dollor, taking its total gains since it opened in 1975 to 35.8 billion Dollor, more than any other hedge fund ever, including the previous record-holder, George Soross Quantum Endowment Fund.Dalio的观点备受界内关注。在经济危机产生之前,他曾对经济局势做了一个断言,即世界经济需要大幅度地削减过重的负债。只去年一年,他的Bridgewater Pure Alpha基金就给投资者带来了138亿美元的回报,这也使得该基金达到自开创以来的358亿美元,并超过了包括以前的纪录保持者George Soros的 Quantum Endownment基金在内的任何一项对冲基金。Mr Dalio, an intense 62-year-old, is following in the footsteps of Mr Soros in other ways, too. Mr Soros has published several books on his theories, and is funding an institute to get mainstream economists to take alternative ideas seriously. Mr Dalio, too, is now trying to improve the public understanding of how the economy works. His economic model “is not very orthodox but gives him a pretty good sense of where the economy is,” says Paul Volcker, a former chairman of Americas Federal Reserve and one of Mr Dalios growing number of influential fans.在其他方面,现如今富有的已62岁的Dalio也在紧跟Soros的步伐。Soros至今已经出版了多本有关其理论的书籍,并正在资助一个机构,以便促使主流经济学家对另类思想加以重视。Dalio也在努力促进公众对经济运作过程的理解。美联储前主席Paul Volcker,作为Dalio日益增多且颇具影响力的粉丝之一,称其经济模式“并非绝对正统,但带给了他相当敏感的经济趋势把握能力”。Whereas Mr Soros credits the influence of Karl Popper, a philosopher who taught him as a student, Mr Dalio says his ideas are entirely the product of his own reflections on his life as a trader and his study of economic history. He has little academic economics (though his work has echoes of Hyman Minsky, an American economist, and of best-selling recent work on downturns by Carmen Reinhart and Kenneth Rogoff) but has conducted in-depth analysis of past periods of economic upheaval, such as the Depression in America, post-war Britain and the hyperinflation of the Weimar Republic. He has even simulated being an investor in markets in those periods by ing daily papers from these eras, receiving data and “trading” as if in real time.不同的是,Soros把他的成功归于其学生时代的哲学家老师Karl Popper的影响。Dalio则说他的思想完全是自己作为一个交易商的生活感悟和对经济学历史研究的产物。他几乎没有读过正统的学术经济学(虽然他的著作得到了美国经济学家Hyman Minsky以及Carmen Reinhart和Kenneth Rogoff最近有关经济低迷的畅销书的回应),但是他对过去的经济剧变时期的情况作了深入分析,其中包括美国的经济大萧条,战后的英国和魏玛共和国的恶性通货膨胀。他甚至曾假装自己是当时的投资者,通过阅读当时的日报来获得数据信息,并进行现实般的“交易”。In the early 1980s Mr Dalio started writing down rules that would guide his investing. He would later amend these rules depending on how well they predicted what actually happened. The process is now computerised, so that combinations of scores of decision-rules are applied to the 100 or so liquid-asset classes in which Bridgewater invests. These rules led him to hold both government bonds and gold last year, for example, because the deleveraging process was at a point where, unusually, those two assets would rise at the same time. He was right.在20世纪80年代早期,Dalio就开始积累决策规律以备引导他日后的投资。以后的日子里,他会根据这些规律预测事实的准确度来修改它们。现在这项工作已由计算机来处理,从而得出大量决策规律的组合并将其应用于Bridgewater投资的约100项流动资产中。比如在去年,因为不同寻常的是,在去杠杆化进程中政府债券和黄金会同时涨价,这些决策规律指导他同时握有二者。果不其然,他是正确的。What Mr Dalio calls the “timeless and universal” core of his economic ideas is set out in a 20-page “Template for Understanding” that he wrote shortly after the collapse of Lehman Brothers in 2008 and recently updated. The document begins: “The economy is like a machine.” This machine may look complex but is, he insists, relatively simple even if it is “not well understood”. Mr Dalio models the macroeconomy from the bottom up, by focusing on the individual transactions that are the machines moving parts. Conventional economics does not pay enough attention to the individual components of supply and, above all, demand, he says. To understand demand properly, you must know whether it is funded by the buyers own money or by credit from others.Dalio所谓的“不受时间限制,放之四海而皆准”的经济思想核心陈述于20页的《用于理解的模板》中。他写于2008年雷曼兄弟(Lehman Brothers)破产后不久并于近日更新。该文件以“经济就像一台机器”开始,他坚信,这台机器可能看起来复杂,但实际上它是相对简单的,即使是在它“不被很好地理解”的情况下。Dalio通过对经济机器的移动组成部分——个体交易,来自下而上地模拟宏观经济。他说,传统经济学对个体组成的供应尤其是他们的需求关注不够。要恰当地了解需求,你就必须知道为它提供资金的钱是来自购买者自己还是从他人的借贷。A huge amount of Bridgewaters efforts goes into gathering data on credit and equity, and understanding how that affects demand from individual market participants, such as a bank, or from a group of participants (such as subprime-mortgage borrowers). Bridgewater predicted the euro-zone debt crisis by totting up how much debt would need to be refinanced and when; and by examining all the potential buyers of that debt and their ability to buy it. Mr Volcker describes the degree of detail in Mr Dalios work as “mind-blowing” and admits to feeling sometimes that “he has a bigger staff, and produces more relevant statistics and analyses, than the Federal Reserve.”Bridgewater公司花了大力气来收集有关信贷和普通股的数据,并分析其是如何影响单个市场参与者比如一家和一群参与者(比如次级抵押贷款者)的需求的。该公司通过对需要再贷款的债务总值的合计,以及对欧元区债务潜在购买者的数量和他们的购买能力的研究,成功预测了欧元区的债务危机和其发生的时间。Volcker如此描述Dalio工作的细节详细程度——“叹为观止”,他也承认,在有些时候“他(Dalio)有更强大的团队,并能给出比美联储更中肯的统计数据和分析”。Two sorts of credit cycle are at the heart of Mr Dalios economic model: the business cycle, which typically lasts five to eight years, and a long-term (“long wave”) debt cycle, which can last 50-70 years. A business cycle usually ends in a recession, because the central bank raises the interest rate, reducing borrowing and demand. The debt cycle ends in deleveraging because there is a “shortage of capable providers of capital and/or a shortage of capable recipients of capital( borrowers and sellers of equity) that cannot be rectified by the central bank changing the cost of money.” Business cycles happen often, they are well understood and policymakers are fairly adept at managing them. A debt cycle tends to come along in a country once in a lifetime, tends to be poorly understood and is often mishandled by policymakers.Dalio的经济模式中有两种核心的信贷周期:通常持续5-8年的商业周期和长期的(“长波”)债务周期,后者长达50-70年。一次商业周期一般在经济衰退中结束,因为在经济衰退期,中央会提高利率,以降低贷款和需求。债务周期结束于去杠杆化过程中,此时“缺乏有能力的资金提供者或资金接收者(股权的贷方和卖方),而中央却无法通过改变资金成本来加以调节。”。商业周期时常产生,它们易于理解,也是政策制定者们善于控制的;然而,对某个国家而言,债务周期往往在人一生中只发生一次,所以他们对此不甚了解且往往处理不当。An ordinary recession can be ended by the central bank lowering the interest rate again. A deleveraging is much harder to end. According to Mr Dalio, it usually requires some combination of debt restructurings and write-offs, austerity, wealth transfers from rich to poor and money-printing. A “beautiful deleveraging” is one in which all these elements combine to keep the economy growing at a nominal rate that is higher than the nominal interest rate. (Beauty is in the eye of the beholder: Mr Dalio expects Americas GDP growth to average only 2% over a 15-year period.)中央通过降低利率来解决一般情况下的经济衰退。而去杠杆化远非如此简单,据Dalio称,它通常需要均衡债务重调与销账、财政紧缩、财富由富有阶层到贫困阶层的转移以及钞票印刷之间的关系。所谓“美丽的去杠杆化”是指能综合所有提及的因素从而保持经济的名义增长率高于名义利率。(所说的美丽是在旁观者眼中的:Dalio预期在为期15年的时间里,美国的GDP平均增长率仅为2%)Print too little money and the result is an ugly, deflationary deleveraging (see Greece); print too much and the deleveraging may become inflationary, as in Weimar Germany. Although Mr Dalio says he fears being misunderstood as saying “print a lot of money and everything will be OK, which I dont believe, all deleveragings have ended with the printing of significant amounts of money. But it has to be in balance with other policies.”印制过少货币的结果是“丑陋”的、通货紧缩的去杠杆化(比如希腊);印制过多则会导致类似德国魏玛的通货膨胀的去杠杆化。Dalio说“我并不同意所有去杠杆化都要大量地印制货币,那么只要印制钞票就会万事大吉的观点。但是这(货币的印制)确实需要和其他政策均衡作用”。即使他说自己担心被人误解。Mr Dalio admits to being wrong roughly a third of the time; indeed, he attributes a big part of his success to managing the risk of bad calls. And the years ahead are likely to provide a serious test of whether the economic machine is as simple as he says. For now, he is in a more optimistic mood thanks to the European Central Banks recent moves, in effect, to print money. Although he still expects debt restructuring in Spain, Portugal, Italy and Ireland, on top of that in Greece, he says that the “risk of chaos has been reduced and we are now calming ourselves down.”Heres hoping he is right again.Dalio承认他可能在犯第三次错误,而事实上,他把自己成功的大部分归功于对错误预测的风险的把握上。而且,过去的几年似乎是对他严峻的考验——验经济机器是否同他说的一样简单。就现在来说,因为今日欧洲中央正实行的货币印刷举措,他处于较乐观的心态。即使他仍希望西班牙、葡萄牙、意大利和爱尔兰尤其是希腊的债务重组。他说“混乱的风险已被降低,我们正在逐步安定下来”。这一次,我们希望它仍然是对的。 /201302/226337Plants Arming Themselves植物的自我武装Yaeuml;l: Don, imagine this scenario. Youre a plant, and a butterfly lays its eggs on you. What do you do?Don,试想一下这样的情景:你是一株植物,一只蝴蝶在你的叶子上产下了很多的卵,作为植物的你会做什么呢?Don: What can I do Yaeuml;l, Im a plant. I have roots, I think Im stuck.你说我能做什么呢,我是株植物,我是有根的,被死死固定在泥土里。Y: Actually, Don, it turns out that you can do plenty.事实上,你可以做很多事情。D: Even with caterpillars gnawing on my leaves?即使毛毛虫在啃我的叶子?Y: Especially them, you see plants arent as static as you think they are. In fact, some plants are so tuned into their predators that they know exactly what kind of insect is munching on their leaves.特别是这种情况,你要知道植物并非你所想的那样一直静止不动。事实上,许多植物对其天敌相当敏感,所以能很清楚地辨识出是什么昆虫在啃食自己的叶子。D: Like whether its a caterpillar or a beetle? Amazing!能辨识出是毛毛虫还是甲虫?太神奇啦!Y: And this means that individual plants can also adjust their physiology in response to their current conditions. So they may release substances that are toxic to the particular insect, adjust the ways they look and smell, and even adjust their growth patterns.这意味着单株植物能根据眼前的情况调整自身的生理学特征——释放对特定昆虫有毒的物质、改变自身的形态、散发不同的气味、甚至于改变自身的生长模式。D: Really?真的吗?Y: And this can work both for and against the other species, depending on whether the plant needs its help. For example, plants being attacked by an insect might release scents that attract the predators of that insect. And dont think the insects dont adjust in return. For example, they may adjust the balance of enzymes in their stomach in order to better digest the plant.这样的改变对其他的物种有好处也有坏处,这取决于该植物是否能获得益处。比如说,某种植物被昆虫攻击时可能会释放出能引来该种昆虫天敌的气味。但是,不要认为昆虫都是“傻子”,它们也会进行相应的调整。例如,昆虫会改变胃液中消化酶的平衡以此更好地消化植物。D: So its like the plants and the insects are engaged in some elaborate arms race.那这样说来,岂不是说植物与昆虫都“醉心于”一场“精锐武器”大赛! /201210/204555

  fight tooth and nail全力拼In our civilized, modern life, we use our teeth for eating only, and our fingernails and toenails are used hardly at all, except for decoration. Among animals, however, teeth and nails are often used to collect food or catch prey. More aggressive animals, such as tigers and bears, use teeth and nails to attack other creatures or defend their territory. If attacked themselves, they will fiercely ;fight tooth and nail; to avoid being wounded or captured.在现代文明生活中,我们只用牙齿吃东西,但是手指和脚趾却鲜有派上用场的时候,除了用来装饰。然而动物则经常使用牙齿和指甲来采集食物或者追捕猎物。攻击性更强的动物,例如老虎和熊,则用牙齿和指甲攻击其它动物或者保卫自己的领土。如果自身被攻击,它们会拼命用牙齿咬,挥舞爪子,以避免受伤或者被俘。From that animal origin, we have imported this idiom into our civilized, modern life to represent any situation where we humans feel we must fight aggressively for some cause or purpose. It does not mean to fight physically, as animals do, but to fight verbally using ideas and arguments.从动物身上,我们将这一习惯用语引入到文明的现代化生活中,来表示我们人类为了某些原因或目的,去全力拼搏的情况。不一定是像动物一样来肉搏,而是指用各种想法和争论,从言语上力拼到底。原文译文属!201208/194642


  Venus clouds cover is mostly made of carbon dioxide then the earth we have the same amount but its tied up in rocks like limestones just tied up in waves.金星的云层覆盖主要是由二氧化碳组成,这和我们地球的含量一样高,但它却在石灰岩的包裹中,就像在光波中一样。On Venus that carbon dioxide is in the air.在金星上,二氧化碳是在空中。Its the difference between these worlds that so intriguing .这是两个世界之间的区别,非常吸引人。Thats because 4.5 billion years ago Venus and earth started out as planeraty twins.这是因为45亿年前金星和地球是行星双胞胎所致。They were formed right next to each other they are very close to each other in the solar system .在太阳系里它们一个接一个的互相形成而且它们非常接近。They have similar sizes.而大小也类似。Not only that the planet swirl to dingy material early on it.这颗星球不仅上面有一些昏暗物质因为旋转而落下。Bits of earth were falling on Venus,而且地球的一小部分也落到了金星上,bits of Venus were falling on earth ,金星的一小部分也落到了地球上,so if life started on any of these worlds it may welcome sp among them through these little chips getting knocked off from all the impacts what happening and all the big collisions.因此如果生命在世界中的任何一点开始,它也许会通过这些小碎片传播直到能影响大碰撞为止。 注:听力文本来源于普特201203/174450

  As Prince William and Catherine plan for their first child, we thought we would try to help them out, and examine just how much it really costs us to raise a baby these days. Now in the UK according to figures compiled by Halifax Bank, it puts the average cost at nearly 13,000 dollars a year, thats an increase of 15% from 2007, and that means spending around 145,000 dollars before the child even hits the age of 12. Now in the US estimates put that figure even higher at 235,000 dollars before the age of 17, thats according to the ed States department of agriculture. Now the total has gone up due to increases in schooling, child care, transportation and housing cost, but lets be honest here, the royal couple probably wont have to worry too much about watching the purse strings and Allen somehow I seem to believe that they probably wont have to worry about things like private school tuition or college tuition those kind of things the rest of us have to worry about. The numbers are fascinating.随着威廉王子和卡瑟琳计划要他们的第一个孩子,我想我们应该帮帮他们,算一算如今养育一个孩子到底需要多少钱?根据哈利法克斯汇编的数据,平均年养育费接近1.3万美元,比2007年增加了15%,这意味着在孩子成长到12岁之前,要花费大约14.5万美元。美国农业部预计的费用则更高,在17岁之前的养育费高达23.5美元。由于学费、儿童医疗费用、交费和住房费用上涨,现在这一数额仍在继续走高。但是,说实话,这对皇家小两口可能根本用不着为此担心,更不需要节衣缩食 。艾伦,我还认为他们根本不必费神象私立学校学费和大学学费之类的事情,这些事情是我们这些余下的人不得不操心的。以上这些数字的确让人侧目。 201212/216154

  Business.商业。African entrepreneurs.非洲企业家。Parallel players.同舞者。Why many of Africas budding businessfolk are jacks-of-all-trades.为何许多非洲的新兴企业家杂而不精。ONE of the many terms Silicon Valley has bequeathed to the business world is ;serial entrepreneur;, a label for those restless souls who start one business after another. Perhaps Africa can now contribute another expression: the ;parallel entrepreneur;. More than in any other part of the developing world, the continents budding business folk create networks of several firms across a number of different sectors of the economy, according to research by IMANI, a think-tank based in Ghana. The 189 successful entrepreneurs it surveyed in Ghana, Nigeria and Kenya own, on average, six businesses each. One boasted more than 60. What explains this entrepreneurial hyperactivity?硅谷留给商界的众多术语之一是;连续企业家;,指的是那些接连创业的不安分的人。也许非洲正在提供另一种表述;并行企业家;。根据加纳智库IMANI的研究,与世界任何发展中的地区相比,更多非洲大陆的新兴企业家创造了横跨不同经济领域的系列公司网络。在参与调查的加纳,尼日尔和肯尼亚的189个成功企业家中,他们人均拥有6家企业,其中一位拥有超过60家企业。如何解释这种企业家的极度活跃现象?One reason for it is simply the wealth of opportunity, says Cyril Allen II, a well-connected businessman in Liberias capital, Monrovia. He and his family farm cocoa and coffee, run a cleaning business, lease out property and manage logistics for international companies. ;The civil war here ended less than a decade ago.;利比里亚首都蒙罗维亚一家实力雄厚的家族式企业家,Cyril Allen 二世表示,大量的机会是造成这种现象的原因之一。他和他的家族种植可可树和咖啡树,经营一家清洁公司,财产租赁以及为跨国公司提供物流管理务。他还表示;内战已经结束将近十年了;。Once a firm has established a degree of trust among its customers, that can in turn spawn new businesses, particularly when many other firms are unreliable. ;We work based on relationships, so if I have a good relationship with a client, they might ask for another service,; explains Njeri Rionge, an entrepreneur in Kenya whose interests extend from an internet provider to a management consultancy.公司一旦在客户群中建立了一定的信用度,这就可以育出新的公司,尤其是在其他企业没有信用的情况下。肯尼亚企业家Njeri Rionge的业务涉及网络接入到管理咨询务等领域,他解释说:;我们的工作基于关系网,这样如果我与客户维系一个良好的关系,客户就有可能会要求提供其他务;。Necessity can also give rise to the creation of more than one company. UT Holdings, in Ghana, started out in 1997 granting loans. But Prince Kofi Amoabeng, its founder, soon discovered that he needed to provide additional services to make the loans business work. He first added a debt-collection company, then security firms. ;We found existing companies wanting,; says Mr Amoabeng. He keeps expanding his business portfolio, which now includes a life-insurance firm.需求会导致更多公司的创建。位于加纳的UT Holdings创建于1997年,提供贷款务。但创建者Kofi Amoabeng王子很快发现他需要提供额外的务来维持贷款业务的运行。他首先创立一家债务收缴公司,然后是劵公司。他说:;我们发现已有公司的需求;。他不断的扩展公司的业务组合,目前还包括了一家人寿保险公司。Certain characteristics of African economies also make it more profitable to keep starting new firms rather than build a single big one. Key resources are scarce. Mid-level managers are in sufficient supply, but few are capable of running large businesses, which is why they often apply their talents in several firms simultaneously. Financing is hard to come by (in many countries loans are granted for as little as 20 months); entrepreneurs find it easier to get several small loans for each business rather than a large chunk of money.非洲经济的特性同样使得创建新企业比建立一个大型企业更加有利可图。关键资源非常稀少,中型企业的管理者可以获得充足的供应,但很少人有能力运行一家大型企业,这也是他们使人才同时从事不同企业的原因。融资非常困难(在很多国家需要20个月才能拿到贷款),而企业家发现为几个企业单独申请小额贷款比一宗大笔贷款更加容易。But the most crucial factor may be bureaucracy. Its unpredictability deters businessmen from putting all their resources into one basket-out of fear that the market could be the target of onerous regulation. Separate companies are often used to lower tax payments, says Bright Simons, an entrepreneur in Accra, Ghanas capital, who also works as a business analyst. A second firm might be formed to supply materials to the first, he explains, allowing the owner to adjust the prices and profits. And once an entrepreneur has learned how to navigate the red tape, why not apply this valuable skill to other undertakings?但是最关键的因素应该是政府。它们不可预知的阻碍商人将所有资源集中到一起——由于担心市场会被麻烦的监管条例所限制。Bright Simons是加纳首都阿克拉的企业家,同时也是一名商业分析师。他解释说,单独的公司通常缴纳较低的税金,而第二个公司为第一个提供原材料,这使得企业家可以调整产品的价格和利润。如果一个企业家学会了如何驾驭这些政府的繁杂手续,为何不将这种有价值的技术应用于其他的企业中呢?Critics of Africas parallel entrepreneurs worry that jacks-of-all-trades cannot become masters of any. And some investors are wary of putting money into African firms because of their often labyrinthine ownership structures. But multitasking has its good sides, argues Ms Rionge, who in one of her parallel activities mentors young entrepreneurs. ;It makes African business leaders agile and adaptable—both good skills that are absent in many developed economies.;针对非洲;并行企业家;的批评家担心,这种杂而不精的方式会使企业变得没有专长。一些投资者由于非洲企业错综复杂的所有权结构而采取非常谨慎的投资行为。但在自己的并行企业中培训青年企业家的Rionge女士认为,这种多企业的并行方式有着自身的优点,它培养了非洲企业领导人的灵活性和适应性,而这两种优秀技巧正是许多发达经济体中所欠缺的。 /201209/200062

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