郑州/中牟县做处女膜修复多少钱中华解答

来源:搜狐娱乐
原标题: 郑州/中牟县做处女膜修复多少钱问医指南
Scientists from two landmark heart-disease studies are joining forces to wield the power of genetics in battling the leading cause of death in the U.S. 参加过两项具有里程碑意义的心脏病研究项目的科学家现在正通力合作,运用遗传学的力量来对抗这种在美国导致死亡的主要疾病。Cardiologists have struggled in recent years to score major advances against heart disease and stroke. Although death rates have been dropping steadily since the 1960s, progress combating the twin diseases has plateaued by other measures. 心脏病医生近年来付出了很大努力,争取在治疗心脏病和中风方面获得重大进展。虽然死亡率从1960年代以来就一直在稳步下降,但是从其它标准来看,与这对兄弟疾病的斗争没有再取得更多的进步。Genetics has had a profound impact on cancer treatment in recent years. Now, heart-disease specialists hope genetics will reveal fresh insight into the interaction between a person#39;s biology, living habits and medications that can better predict who is at risk of a heart attack or stroke. 遗传学近年来对癌症的治疗产生了深远的影响。如今,心脏病专家希望遗传学可以揭开新的奥秘,让人深入了解一个人的生命机理、生活习惯和药物治疗之间的相互作用,以此更好地预测谁有心脏病发作或中风的危险。#39;There#39;s a promise of new treatments with this research,#39; said Daniel Jones, chancellor of the University of Mississippi and former principal investigator of the 15-year-old Jackson Heart Study, a co-collaborator in the new genetics initiative. 美国密西西比大学(the University of Mississippi)校长丹尼尔#12539;琼斯(Daniel Jones)说:“这项研究可望找到新的治疗方法。”他是历时15年的杰克逊心脏研究项目(Jackson Heart Study)的前首席研究员,也是新的遗传学研究项目的共同合作伙伴。Prevention efforts also could improve with the help of genetics research, Dr. Jones said. For example, an estimated 75 million Americans currently have high blood pressure, or hypertension, but only about half of those are able to control it with medication. It can take months of trial-and-error for a doctor to get the right dose or combination of pills for a patient. Researchers hope genetic and other information might enable doctors to identify subgroups of hypertension that respond to specific treatments and target patients with an appropriate therapy. 琼斯说,在遗传学研究的帮助下,预防工作也可以得到提升。比如,目前估计有7,500万美国人患有高血压,但是只有大约一半人能够使用药物进行控制。医生为病人确定恰当的用药剂量或者药物组合可能需要好几个月的反复尝试。研究人员希望遗传学及其它信息可以帮助医生找到对特定治疗方法产生疗效反应的高血压亚组,对病人实行对症下药。Also collaborating on the genetics project is the 65-year-old Framingham Heart Study. Its breakthrough findings decades ago linked heart disease to such factors as smoking, high blood pressure and high cholesterol. Framingham findings have been a foundation of cardiovascular disease prevention policy for a half-century. 参与遗传学项目合作的还有历时65年的弗雷明汉心脏研究 (Framingham Heart Study)团队。该研究在几十年前取得的突破性发现将心脏病与吸烟、高血压和高胆固醇等因素联系起来。弗雷明汉的研究发现半个世纪以来一直是心血管疾病预防政策的基本根据。More than 15,000 people have participated in the Framingham study. The Jackson study, with more than 5,000 participants, was launched in 1998 to better understand risk factors in African-Americans, who were underrepresented in Framingham and who bear a higher burden of cardiovascular disease than the rest of the population. Both studies are funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, part of the National Institutes of Health. 超过15,000人参与了弗雷明汉研究。参加人数达5,000多人的杰克逊研究是1998年启动的,目的是为了更好地弄清楚非洲裔美国人面临的危险因素,这个群体在弗雷明汉研究中代表人数不足,而且他们承受的心血管疾病负担高于其它人群。上述两项研究都是由美国国家卫生研究院(the National Institutes of Health)所属的国家心脏、肺和血液研究所(the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute,简称NHLBI)提供的资金持。Exactly how the collaboration, announced last week, will proceed hasn#39;t been determined. One promising area is the #39;biobank,#39; the collection of more than one million blood and other biological samples gathered during biennial checkups of Framingham study participants going back more than a half century. 上周公布的这项合作计划如何具体地进行还没有决定。很有希望的一个领域是“生物样本库”(biobank),一个拥有超过100万个血液及其它生物样本的数据库。这些生物样本是在对过去半个多世纪中参与弗雷明汉研究的人员进行两年一度的体检时采集来的。The samples are stored in freezers in an underground earthquake-proof facility in Massachusetts, said Vasan Ramachandran, a Boston University scientist who takes over at the beginning of next year as principal investigator of the Framingham Heart Study. Another 40,000 samples from the Jackson study are kept in freezers in Vermont. By subjecting samples to DNA sequencing and other tests, researchers say they may be able to identify variations linked to progression of cardiovascular disease -- or protection from it. 波士顿大学(Boston University)科学家瓦桑#12539;拉马钱德兰(Vasan Ramachandran)说,这些样本储存在马萨诸塞州(Massachusetts)一个抗震的地下设施内的冷藏库中,拉马钱德兰即将于明年年初接任弗雷明汉心脏研究的首席研究员。杰克逊研究中的另外40,000个样本保存在佛蒙特州(Vermont)的冷库中。研究人员说,通过对样本进行DNA测序和其它测试,他们或许能够确认心血管疾病发展过程中出现的各种变体――或者预防心血管疾病的因素。Each study is likely to enroll new participants as part of the collaboration to allow tracking of risk factors and diet and exercise habits, for instance, in real time instead of only during infrequent checkups. 作为合作项目的一部分,每一项研究都很可能要招募新的参与者,对他们的危险因素、饮食习惯和锻炼习惯进行跟踪,跟踪采取实时的形式,而不是仅在并非经常进行的体检时才进行。Heart disease is linked to about 800,000 deaths a year in the U.S. In 2010, some 200,000 of those deaths could have been avoided, including more than 112,300 deaths among people younger than 65, according to a recent analysis by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. But those avoidable deaths reflected a 3.8% per year decline in mortality rates during the previous 10 years. 在美国,一年大约有80万例死亡病例与心脏病有关。根据美国疾病控制与预防中心(the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)最近的一份分析资料,2010年,那些死亡病例中大约有20万例本来是可以避免的,其中超过112,300例的死亡病人年龄低于65岁。不过那些可以避免的死亡病例在过去十年中让死亡率每年下降了3.8%。Now, widesp prevalence of obesity and diabetes threatens to undermine such gains. And a large gap remains between how white patients and minorities -- especially African-Americans -- benefit from effective strategies. 现在,普遍存在的肥胖和糖尿病对取得的这些成绩构成了威胁,而且白人患者和少数民族――尤其是非洲裔美国人――在从有效的治疗策略中获益的程度上存在很大的差异。There have been few new transformative cardiovascular treatments since the mid-1980s to early 1990s, when a stream of large-scale trials of new agents ranging from clot-busters to treat heart attacks to the mega class of statins electrified the cardiology field with evidence of significant improvements in survival from the disease. One reason: Some of those remedies have proven tough to beat with new treatments. 从1980年代中期到1990年代初期,治疗心血管疾病的方法就没有多少新的改变(自那以后,对治疗心脏病发作的溶血剂和大量降低胆固醇的他汀类药物等新药进行的一系列大规模试验明患心脏病的生存几率可以大大提高,这让心脏病学界兴奋不已)。其中一个原因是:那些疗法中有些被明很难被新的治疗手段所超越。What#39;s more, use of the current of medicines for reducing heart risk remains an imprecise art. Besides blood pressure drugs, cholesterol-lowering statins also are widely prescribed. Drug-trial statistics show that to prevent a single first heart attack in otherwise healthy patients can require prescribing a statin to scores of patients, but no one knows for sure who actually benefits and who doesn#39;t. 此外,使用现行的药物目录来降低心脏病风险还是一件没有把握的事情。除了降血压的药物之外,处方里大量出现的还有降低胆固醇的他汀类药物。药物试验统计数字表明,为了防止在其它方面十分健康的病人出现第一次心脏病发作,数十位病人可能都会被开据他汀类药物的处方,但是没人确切知道这药对谁真正有用,对谁没有作用。#39;It would be great if we could make some more paradigm-shifting discoveries,#39; said Michael Lauer, director of cardiovascular sciences at the NHLBI, which is a part of the National Institutes of Health. 美国国家卫生研究院下属 NHLBI的心血管学科主任迈克尔#12539;劳尔(Michael Lauer)说:“如果我们能够在转变思维模式方面做出更多发现的话,那就太好了。” Finding new treatments isn#39;t the only aim of the new project. #39;You could use existing therapies smarter,#39; said Joseph Loscalzo, chairman of medicine at Brigham and Women#39;s Hospital in Boston. 找到新的治疗方法并不是新研究项目的唯一目的。波士顿布里格姆妇科医院(Brigham and Women#39;s Hospital)的医务委员会主席约瑟夫#12539;洛斯卡尔佐(Joseph Loscalzo)说:“你可以更高明地使用现存的疗法。” The American Heart Association launched the initiative and has committed million to it over the next five years. The AHA sees the project as critical to its goal to achieve a 20% improvement in cardiovascular health in the U.S. while also reducing deaths from heart disease and stroke by 20% for the decade ending in 2020, said Nancy Brown, the nonprofit organization#39;s chief executive. 美国心脏病学会(The American Heart Association,简称AHA)发起了本次研究行动,并答应在今后的五年中拨付3,000万美元(约合人民币1.83亿元)的资金。AHA打算在2020年之前的十年时间里将美国的心血管健康水平提升20%,同时将心脏病和中风引起的死亡病例减少20%,它把本项目看成是实现目标的关键。The Jackson study has aly identified characteristics of cardiovascular risk among African-American patients #39;that may have promise for new insights#39; in a collaborative effort, said Adolfo Correa, professor of medicine and pediatrics at University of Mississippi Medical Center and interim director of the Jackson study. 密西西比大学医学中心(Mississippi Medical Center)的医学及儿科学教授、杰克逊研究项目的临时主管阿道夫#12539;科雷亚(Adolfo Correa)说,杰克逊研究已经找到了非洲裔美国人心血管疾病患病危险的特征,这在合作项目中“也许有望让人获得新的认识”。For instance, there is a higher prevalence of obesity among Jackson participants than seen in the Framingham cohorts. Obesity is associated with high blood pressure, diabetes and cardiovascular risk. Diabetes is also more prevalent among blacks than whites. 比如,杰克逊研究的参与者中肥胖者所占比例比弗雷明汉研究队伍中的人高。肥胖与高血压、糖尿病和心血管疾病危险有关。黑人中患糖尿病的人也比白人普遍。But African-Americans of normal weight appear to have higher rates of hypertension and diabetes than whites of normal weight. #39;The question is, should [measures] for defining diabetes be different or the same for the [different] populations and are they associated with the same risk of cardiovascular disease?#39; said Dr. Correa. The collaboration, he said, may provide better comparisons. 然而体重正常的非洲裔美国人相比体重正常的白人似乎有更高的高血压及糖尿病患病率。“问题在于,定义糖尿病(的手段)对于(不同的)人群来说应该是相同的还是不同的?他们面临的心血管疾病危险是否是相同的?”科雷亚如是说。他说这个合作项目也许会提供更好的比较。Researchers, who plan to use tools other than genetics, think more might be learned about blood pressure and heart and stroke risk by monitoring patients in real time using mobile devices rather than taking ings only in periodic office visits. For example, high blood pressure during sleep or spikes during exercise could indicate risks that don#39;t show up in a routine measurement in the doctors#39; office. 研究人员还打算利用遗传学之外的其它工具。他们认为,通过利用移动设备对病人进行实时监测而不是只在病人定期到诊室就诊时才读取数据,人们可以对血压、心脏和中风了解得更多。比如,睡眠期间血压升高或者运动期间血压陡增可能预示着危险,这在医生诊室的常规测量中是不会出现的。A big challenge is making sense of the huge amounts of data involved in sequencing DNA and linking it to medical records, diet and exercise habits and other variables that influence risk. 一个巨大的挑战是要弄清DNA测序中大量数据代表的意义并将它与病历、饮食和锻炼习惯以及影响到患病危险的其它变量关联起来。#39;The analytical methods for sorting out these complex relationships are still in evolution,#39; said Dr. Loscalzo, of Brigham and Women#39;s Hospital. #39;The cost of sequencing is getting cheaper and cheaper. The hard part is analyzing the data.#39;“整理这些复杂关系的分析方法尚在逐步完善之中,”布里格姆妇科医院的洛斯卡尔佐说,“DNA测序的成本越来越低了,难的部分是对数据进行分析。” /201312/268171

Sushi is no longer the sole preserve of the adventurous diner. These days, grabbing a pack for lunch is almost as common as picking up a cheese and pickle sandwich.寿司不再是美食冒险家的专利了。如今,买一盒寿司作午餐几乎就像买奶酪泡菜三明治一样稀松平常。The Japanese dish can be bought from every major supermarket (where sales have risen a staggering 88 percent in the past two years).在每个大型超市都可以买到这一日本料理(在过去两年内寿司销售量猛增了88%)。Indeed, the British sushi industry — of which Tesco has a 60 percent market share — is worth more than #163;56#8201;million annually.事实上,英国的寿司产业(其中乐购公司占了60%的市场份额)每年收益超过了5600万英镑。The main reason for its surge in popularity is its reputation as a healthy meal. Japanese women are among the healthiest in the world, while slender celebrities such as Victoria Beckham, Cheryl Cole and Keira Knightley are all fans of the raw fish dish.寿司变得如此受欢迎,主要原因是它被誉为健康食品。日本女性是全世界最健康的,而像维多利亚#8226;贝克汉姆、谢丽尔#8226;科尔和凯拉#8226;奈特莉这些拥有苗条身材的名人都是这种生鱼料理的粉丝。But do sushi’s nutrition credentials — especially the Western version — stack up? Not always, according to dietitian Rachel Beller. In her book Eat To Lose, Eat To Win, she says a ‘light lunch’ of sushi may mean you overdose on calories and carbohydrates.但是寿司(尤其是西方版寿司)确实有营养学明吗?营养学家瑞秋#8226;贝勒表示,并非总是如此。她在自己的书《瘦在饮食,赢在饮食》中说,一份“简单的”寿司午餐可能意味着你摄入了过量卡路里和碳水化合物。‘A typical sushi roll contains 290 to 350 calories and has the carbohydrate equivalent of two-and-a-half to four slices of b,’ says Ms Beller.贝勒女士说:“一个典型的寿司卷含有290至350卡路里,其碳水化合物含量相当于两片半到四片面包所含的碳水化合物。”‘So a California roll (round rolled sushi, containing a small piece of fish and avocado plus fatty mayonnaise) equals two sandwiches filled with crab sticks (processed fish that is flavoured and coloured to look and taste like crab), a sliver of avocado and a tiny bit of veg.’“因此一个加州卷(圆形的卷状寿司,含有一小片鱼、鳄梨和含油脂的蛋黄酱)相当于两个夹有蟹肉棒的三明治(蟹肉棒是经过调味和上色、使其具有蟹肉的外观和口感的一种鱼类加工产品)、一片鳄梨和一点蔬菜。”Bear in mind a sushi lunch contains two or three of these rolls, a total of up to 1,050 calories, and it’s easy to see how we’re conning ourselves that we’re enjoying a low-calorie, healthy lunch.别忘了一顿寿司午餐包含两到三个这种寿司卷,总热量达到1050卡路里,这样很容易可以看出,我们以为吃寿司午餐是在享用低热量健康饮食,其实是在自欺欺人。Many of us believe eating sushi is a good way to get the Government’s recommended two portions of fish each week, but here’s the problem: most sushi contains very little protein, despite its expense.许多人认为吃寿司是达到政府建议的每周两份鱼的饮食标准的好方法,但是问题是:尽管寿司价格不菲,但大部分寿司所含的蛋白质很少。Health experts say a portion of fish should weigh 140g, but on average, the fish in a California roll or piece of nigiri (rice with fish balanced on the top) weighs just 5g.健康专家称,一份鱼的重量应为140克,但是平均来看,一个加州卷或一个生鱼片寿司(把鱼片均匀地放在米饭上的料理)中的鱼肉重量只达到5克。You’d need to eat 28 pieces of sushi to reach your 140g portion — or more, if you choose a mixed sushi box containing vegetarian varieties.你将需要吃28个寿司才能达到140克的鱼肉摄入标准,或需要吃更多——如果你选择的是含有多种蔬菜的混搭寿司盒。Even ‘fish’ sushi boxes don’t contain much. Marks amp; Spencer Fish Sushi Selection (191g, #163;4.68) has just 36g of fish, meaning you would have to eat four boxes and consume 1,184 calories to get one of your recommended fish portions.即使“全鱼”寿司盒所含的鱼肉也不多。玛莎百货的精选鱼片寿司(191克,4.68英镑)只含有36克鱼,这意味着你将必须吃掉四盒这样的寿司,摄入1184卡路里才能达到建议的鱼肉摄入量。 /201403/280681The Winter Olympics are as important as the Summer Olympics. They can be forgiven for this one. After all, it was the International Olympic Committee who in 1925 decided to grace what started as an #39;International Winter Sports Week#39; with the name Winter Olympics. But let#39;s face it, while the Summer Olympics are a test of man#39;s strength that goes back to ancient Greece, the winter variety is just 48 types of skiing.冬季奥运会跟夏季奥运会一样重要。关于这一点,我们可以原谅他们,毕竟是国际奥委会在1925年决定给“国际冬季运动周”增光而冠之以冬奥会的名义的。但是,让我们面对事实,夏季奥运会是对人类力量的考验,它的历史可以追溯到古希腊,而冬奥会则仅仅是48种滑雪运动。 /201407/311114In a cultural twofer that makes it Frank Gehry week here, the Louis Vuitton Foundation, a private cultural center and contemporary-art museum designed by Mr. Gehry, had its official inaugural ceremony on Monday, attended by the French president, Fran#231;ois Hollande. At the same time, the Pompidou Center across town is giving Mr. Gehry, based in Los Angeles, a major career retrospective.巴黎,本周可谓弗兰克·盖里(Frank Gehry)周(本文最初发表于2014年10月21日——编注)。周一的时候,盖里先生设计的路易威登基金会大楼(Louis Vuitton Foundation)举行了正式落成仪式,这是一个具有双重用途的文化建筑——它既是一处私有的文化中心,也是一座当代艺术物馆。出席落成仪式的,包括法国总统弗朗索瓦·奥朗德。与此同时,位于巴黎另一侧的蓬皮杜中心(Pompidou Center)为这位来自洛杉矶的建筑师举办了大型的回顾展,这也是他在欧洲的第一个职业生涯展。The Pompidou exhibition, “Frank Gehry,” establishes a narrative arc for a career that effectively started with small-scale, experimental wood-frame studios and houses in Southern California and culminates in the Vuitton Foundation in the Bois de Boulogne, which some critics have called one of the most technologically sophisticated, artistically motivated buildings of his oeuvre. A 126,000-square-foot, 5 million structure that formally opens to the public next Monday, it promises to add a major contemporary monument to Paris’s long list of historic architecture.蓬皮杜中心的“弗兰克·盖里展”从南加州的试验性小型木结构工作室和住宅开始,以位于布洛涅林苑 (Bois de Boulogne)的路易威登基金会大楼结束,为这位建筑师的职业生涯建立了一条叙述弧。一些建筑家认为,路易威登基金会大楼是弗兰克·盖里的所有作品中技术最为复杂、最具艺术感的建筑之一。这个占地12.6万平方英尺、耗资1.35亿美元的建筑将在下周一正式对公众开放,无疑令巴黎厚重的历史建筑名单上又增添了一件重大的当代杰作。At the end of the ceremony, President Hollande described the building as a “cathedral of light” that was “a miracle of intelligence, creativity and technology.”在落成仪式的最后,奥朗德总统形容该建筑是“智慧、创造力和技术的奇迹”,是一座“开明大教堂”(cathedral of light)。Mr. Gehry’s moment in Paris comes after his Dwight D. Eisenhower Memorial in Washington was approved last week, following a bruising five-year process in which Mr. Gehry’s design went through more than 15 committees and commissions and many adjustments. In Paris, after settling concerns about building in a park, he needed the approval of only one client, Bernard Arnault, chairman and chief executive of the luxury goods conglomerate LVMH, whose foundation owns the new building.盖里的“巴黎时刻”到来之前,就在上一周,他设计的华盛顿艾森豪威尔纪念碑(Dwight D. Eisenhower Memorial )获得了通过,该方案在五年时间里经过了至少15个委员会的评估,做了大量的修改。在巴黎,平息了公众对于在公园里兴建建筑的疑虑之后,盖里只需要获得一个人的许可,他就是大型奢侈品集团LVMH的董事会主席和首席执行官伯纳德·阿诺特(Bernard Arnault),他的基金会是这栋新建筑的主人。“The guy knew what he wanted, and he wanted a building that would be different than anything else anybody had ever seen,” said Mr. Gehry, interviewed over coffee on Monday in his hotel off the Champs #201;lysées.“他很清楚自己想要一个什么样的建筑,他要的是一个前所未见的东西,”周一的时候,盖里在位于香榭丽舍大道附近的酒店,就着咖啡接受采访的时候说道。Mr. Arnault hired Mr. Gehry, he has said, after seeing his Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao, Spain, a spectacle of fluid forms that reshaped that city’s derelict waterfront while enclosing classical white galleries inside. At Vuitton, Mr. Gehry builds on the Bilbao precedent, creating a more complex structure clad in glass rather than titanium.阿诺特曾经说过,他在看了盖里设计的西班牙毕尔巴鄂古根海姆美术馆之后,就决定让他来做设计;那是一个有着流畅线条的壮观建筑,将古典的白色展厅圈在中间,它的落成令该城破败的滨海区焕然一新。对于路易威登基金会大楼,盖里在毕尔巴鄂的那栋建筑基础上做了更为复杂的结构设计,外立面没有像前者一样采用钛板,而是选择了玻璃。Visitors encounter what looks like a Cubist sailboat, with glass sails and spinnakers rising above the tree line and billowing simultaneously fore, aft, port and starboard. The building appears to glide over a cascade of water lapping down a stepped embankment below its cantilevered prow. The two-story structure has 11 galleries, a voluminous auditorium and multilevel roof terraces for events and art installations.来这里参观的人,看到的是一个立体派的帆船式建筑,玻璃材质的蓬帆和大三角帆在树梢高度,同时朝着前后左右四个方向扬起。水在从悬臂装船首下方的阶梯状护坡滚滚而下,令整栋建筑看来似乎行于水面。这栋两层楼的建筑有11个展厅、一个大礼堂以及多层屋顶露台,方便举办各种活动和陈列艺术装置。The site is next to the Jardin d’Acclimatation, a 19th-century children’s park and zoo at the north edge of the Romantically landscaped Bois de Boulogne. The architect had to build within the square footage and two-story volume of a bowling alley that previously stood here; anything higher had to be glass. Mr. Arnault’s program for the Foundation, whose stated mission is to stimulate artistic creation, called for a museum with galleries for permanent and temporary exhibitions, and a concert hall.这栋建筑毗邻Jardin d’Acclimatation,这是一座19世纪的儿童乐园、动物园,位于有着浪漫主义景致的布洛涅林苑北侧。之前伫立于此的是一座相当于两层楼高的保龄球馆,建筑师在建筑面积和体量方面都必须受制于它,高出的部分只得采用玻璃。路易威登基金会的使命是激励艺术创作,根据阿诺特对于该基金会的想法,它还得是一个美术馆,带有多个可举办临时或者常设展览的展厅,以及一座音乐厅。Mr. Gehry said, “We talked to him about the site, and it was clear that it had to be something that fits into a garden, something in the tradition of a 19th-century glass pavilion or conservatory.”盖里说:“我们跟他谈到了地点的问题,显然它必须是一个适合放在花园里的建筑,遵循19世纪的玻璃房或者温室传统。”Unlike his compatriot I. M. Pei, who placed the glass Pyramid at the Louvre to acknowledge the long axis of the Champs #201;lysées, Mr. Gehry ignored France’s geometric traditions. “The clouds of glass respond to nature’s geometry, to the park’s English landscaping,” he said of the Bois de Boulogne. “Nature’s apparent disorder has its own order.”与另一位美国设计师贝聿铭不同——后者给卢浮宫设计的玻璃金字塔位于香榭丽舍大道的轴线上,盖里完全没有理会法国的几何传统。“大量的玻璃运用,与大自然的几何图形和公园的英式风景形成了应答关系,”他在谈到布洛涅林苑时说道。“大自然表面看起来乱,其实乱中有序。”In trying to create a spirited adult version of the Jardin d’Acclimatation’s fantasy buildings, Mr. Gehry said he was “very moved by the park, which reminded me of Proust’s Paris.” He added: “I him over and over again, and I realized it was a pretty emotional site for everybody. It brought tears to my eyes.”在打造Jardin d’Acclimatation里那些奇幻建筑令人兴奋的成人版过程中,盖里称自己“被这座公园深深打动了,让我想到了普鲁斯特的巴黎”。他又补充,“我一遍又一遍地读他的书,我发现这里对每个人来说,都是一个令人动感情的地方。它让我的眼睛充满泪水。”He had two mandates: respecting the park and garden and satisfying the requirements for the galleries.他接到了两条要求:尊重那座公园和花园,满足展览的所有需求。“Once we had the big, basic premise that there was a solid piece for the galleries, which we started to call the icebergs, and then the glass sails for the garden, we started to work them independently,” Mr. Gehry said. “Merging the two would not work, because you couldn’t have curvy galleries, and you can’t hang paintings on glass.” The diaphanous sails, supported on an acrobatic armature of wood and steel, project outside the iceberg.“一旦敲定基本的大前提——一个用作展厅的固体部分,我们称之为冰山,一个是给花园做的玻璃风帆,我们开始进行各自分开的设计工作,”盖里说。“把两个部分生生并到一起不可行,因为展厅不可能是曲线形的,而且画又不可能挂在玻璃上。”半透明的风帆伸在冰山的外侧,由一个木头和钢材材质的、杂技演员般的架来撑。The glass structure takes its place in a long Parisian tradition dating from the 13th-century Gothic Sainte-Chapelle on the #206;le de la Cité, with its tall walls of stained glass, and the 19th-century Grand Palais, an exhibition hall whose glass vaults echo the vast public spaces of Rome. The Foundation’s fragmented, multidirectional forms recall the Cubism of Braque and Picasso. The mission statement of the Foundation acknowledges 20th-century Modern art movements as a basis of the contemporary art it champions.在巴黎漫长的建筑传统中,玻璃结构占有着一席之地,其历史可以上溯到圣路易岛上有着色玻璃墙、十三世纪的圣礼拜堂(Gothic Sainte-Chapelle),以及十九世纪的巴黎大皇宫,这个大展厅的玻璃拱顶是对罗马大型公共空间的效仿。路易威登基金会大楼四分五裂的多向外形,让人联想到布拉克和毕加索的立体主义。该基金会的目标宣言指出,二十世纪的现代艺术运动是其所倡导的当代艺术的基础。Visitors enter a tall hall from which angled staircases and meandering paths lead to the galleries and to a roofscape of outdoor terraces enclosed by the glass sails. Between the iceberg and the sailboat, accordion spaces expand and contract, alternately intimate and grand, in what Mr. Gehry called “a chaotic dance.” The white galleries, some with tall ceilings that act as chimneys of light, are “a refuge,” said Edwin Chan, a former design partner in the Gehry firm, who worked with Mr. Gehry and the main project architect, Laurence Tighe. One opens to the sky.参观者进入一个高大的大厅,这里有楼梯和蜿蜒的步道通往展厅和玻璃帆背后的屋顶露台。在冰山和帆船之间,是可伸缩的空间,气氛可以亲密可以宏大,盖里称其为“一曲无序的舞蹈”。白色的展厅有些带有高大的天花板,起到采光井的作用,盖里建筑事务所的前设计伙伴埃德温·陈(Edwin Chan)称这里是“一处庇护所”,他曾与盖里和大项目建筑师劳伦斯·泰伊(Laurence Tighe)合作。有一个展厅的屋顶还是开放式的。Frédéric Migayrou, the deputy director of the Pompidou, organized the full retrospective and a smaller boutique show of Mr. Gehry’s development drawings that will be on view at the Foundation. “This building doesn’t reveal itself at once, but over many encounters,” he said. “It’s a provocation for the viewer; you have to be part of it, as with an artwork where you make your own experience.”此次的全面回顾展由蓬皮杜的副馆长弗雷德里克·米盖鲁(Frédéric Migayrou)策展,此外他还在基金会大楼组织了一个规模小一些的精品展,展出盖里先生的展开图。“它不是那种将自己豁然展现出来的建筑,它需要你一次次地与之相遇来进行品咂,”他说。“它对于观者来说是一个挑衅;你必须要融入其中,就像与一件艺术品建立你自己独有的体验。”Claude Parent, France’s 91-year-old éminence grise in architecture whose work in the 1950s and ’60s anticipated deconstructivism, said that when he first saw the Foundation building, “I was seized by an emotion so strong that it seemed to come from something other than architecture.” He called Mr. Gehry’s design “an act of unbridled imagination.”法国91岁的建筑泰斗、上世纪五六十年代就开始在设计中尝试结构主义的克劳德·帕朗泰(Claude Parent)说,当他第一次看见基金会大楼的时候,“产生了一股并非建筑所带来的强烈情绪。”他称盖里的设计为“天马行空的想像”。Others describe the building less favorably. The architecture critic of The Observer, Rowan Moore, known for his Spartan architectural attitudes, wrote dismissively, “Everything that is good about the Fondation could have been achieved, and better, without the sails.” Denis Lafay, writing in the online financial newspaper La Tribune, did not criticize the architecture but called the building the ostentatious result of an oligarch’s commodifying of artistic creation to burnish his own brand.不过,也有人不是那么喜欢这栋建筑。以斯巴达式的建筑态度(主张简单朴素——译注)著称的《卫报》建筑家罗昂·穆尔(Rohan Moore)不屑一顾地写道:“若是没有那些风帆,基金会大楼的所有优点也还是能达到,而且会更好。”网络财经报纸《La Tribune》的撰稿人但尼·拉费(Denis Lafay)没有对建筑进行直接的批评,但称该建筑为一个寡头将艺术创作商品化加以铺张的结果,目的是令自己的品牌熠熠生辉。At the Foundation, Mr. Migayrou’s immersive show, “Voyage of Creation,” explains the building, with large-screen s filmed from overhead cranes and drones that flew over and through the building.米盖鲁在基金会大楼做的沉浸式展览“创造之旅”(Voyage of Creation),用高架式起重机以及摄影飞行器从空中和内部拍摄了大屏幕视频,以此对这栋建筑进行了诠释。“I wanted to give a dynamic view of the building, and the films put the building into movement,” he said in an interview. The show includes many conceptual and development models, along with the seminal sketches Mr. Gehry drew on the long flight back to Los Angeles after he and Mr. Arnault first met to discuss the project.“我希望能从一个动态的角度来展现这栋建筑,而这些画面让它动了起来,”他在一次采访中说道。这个展览还展出了该项目的许多概念模型和开发模型,以及盖里与阿诺特讨论这个建筑项目后坐飞机回洛杉矶的长途旅行中画的原始素描。In the Pompidou retrospective, Mr. Migayrou includes little-known urban designs for housing projects and town plans, evidence of an urban-planning expertise that he said had informed the organization of all of Mr. Gehry’s architectural work. The exhibition also features a wall of previously unexhibited photographs by Mr. Gehry, who gravitated to raw moments in the cityscape, like cement plants, that his eye made beautiful.在蓬皮杜的回顾展上,米盖鲁还收录了盖里不太有名的住宅区项目及城市设计规划。他说,对于城市规划的了解,构成了盖里所有建筑设计工作的基础。该展览还展出了盖里拍摄的从未公开的照片,挂了整整一面墙。片中他捕捉到城市景观中的一些罕见瞬间,比如水泥厂,他的双眼令这些地方有了别样风情。“He was photographing the city, the spaces between places,” Mr. Migayrou said.“他用照相机记录这个座城市,记录地点与地点之间的空间,”米盖鲁说道。He also chose models and original drawings to show the evolution of Mr. Gehry’s ideas leading up to the Vuitton Foundation. Other shows, Mr. Migayrou said, “have portrayed Gehry’s buildings as an object, a shape.”为了展现盖里的路易威登基金会大楼的设计成型过程,米盖鲁还挑选了许多模型和原图。他说,其他的那些展品“则是把盖里的建筑设计当作一个物品、一个形状加以呈现”。“I tried to do the reverse,” he said, “going through all the works to define the evolution of the language, the continuities, the idea of dynamic movement, how he opens form so that they interact with the city and provoke the movement of the body around the building.”“我尝试着反过来倒推,”他说,“通过检视他所有的作品,来定义其建筑语言的进化过程、连续性以及动态运动的理念,以及他是如何让建筑形式采取开放的姿态,从而令建筑与城市展开互动,激发建筑四周物体的流动。” /201411/340812

Washing your face seems pretty simple, yet dermatologists and beauty companies think there#39;s room for improvement.洗脸看起来特别简单,但皮肤科医生和化妆品公司却认为,它还有改进提高的空间。Easy does it is the message experts have for consumers, as a new generation of facial cleansers promises mild formulas that won#39;t dry out the skin. New devices offer deep-clean claims but with a lighter touch. Some doctors even say that people with good skin should wash their face just once a day -- at night.随着新一代洁面产品问世,许诺其温和配方不会使皮肤变干,专家们向消费者传递出这样的信息:洁面别着急,需要放轻松。新产品宣称能够提供深度清洁,而且对皮肤的触碰也更为柔和。有些医生甚至称,皮肤好的人每天只应洗一次脸──在晚上洗。It#39;s a tough sell for consumers familiar with strong formulas that can make skin feel tight and squeaky clean. Many people take that feeling as a sign of effectiveness, when actually it is a signal of overdrying or damage.这个说法很难让那些熟悉强力配方的消费者接受,这类配方能使皮肤感到紧绷和异常洁净。很多人认为这种感觉是产品效果好的表现,但实际上它是皮肤过干或受损的信号。And most people still assume that any skin problem -- whether dull skin, acne or age spots -- can be solved by scrubbing a bit harder. #39;They think, #39;All I need to do is clean it more thoroughly, more vigorously.#39; That#39;s everyone#39;s answer,#39; says Susan Taylor, medical director at Society Hill Dermatology in Philadelphia, and a spokesperson for Johnson amp; Johnson, makers of Neutrogena and Clean amp; Clear skin-care lines.大多数人仍认为任何皮肤问题─不论是暗沉肌肤、痤疮或老年斑──都能通过多用点儿力搓洗来解决。费城(Philadelphia) 索赛蒂希尔皮肤病医院(Society Hill Dermatology)医疗总监、强生公司(Johnson amp; Johnson)发言人、露得清(Neutrogena)及可伶可俐(Clean amp; Clear)护肤系列制造商苏珊?泰勒(Susan Taylor)说:“他们认为‘我唯一需要做的就是更彻底、更用力地清洁它。’那是每个人的。”Most cleansing products have a surfactant, a chemical or natural compound that helps break through the surface tension of the skin. The cleanser absorbs dirt and oil and removes them during rinsing, according to Menas Kizoulis, scientific engagement leader on Johnson amp; Johnson Consumer Cos.#39; Ramp;D team.强生公司消费部研发组科研参与负责人米那斯?伊佐利斯(Menas Kizoulis)说,大多数清洁产品都含有一种表面活性剂,它是一种有助于打破皮肤表面张力的化学或天然合成物。清洁用品会在漂洗过程中吸收并消除污垢和油脂。While removing dirt and oil, the surfactant interacts with the stratum corneum, the skin#39;s outermost layer and protective barrier -- and that is where problems begin. The surfactant can remove the good oils skin produces, resulting in overdrying, Mr. Kizoulis says. And it also can remain in the stratum corneum, exacerbating irritation.在祛除污垢与油脂时,表面活性剂会与角质层发生反应。角质层是皮肤的最外层,也是它的防护屏障──而这正是问题的根源。伊佐利斯称,表面活性剂会祛除皮肤产生的有益油脂,导致皮肤过干。而且它还会遗留在角质层中,加剧对肤质的刺激。Stinging, burning and irritation are #39;actually a sign of harmful stripping of the skin,#39; says Patricia Farris, a Metairie, La.-based dermatologist and a fellow at the American Academy of Dermatology. A compromised skin barrier also makes a person more susceptible to infection and environmental harms, such as pollution. #39;Feeling squeaky clean -- we don#39;t want to go there. It#39;s too aggressive,#39; says Dr. Farris.美国皮肤病学会(American Academy of Dermatology)会员、路易斯安那州梅泰里市(Metairie, La.)皮肤病学家帕特丽夏?法里斯(Patricia Farris)称,刺痛感、灼烧感和红肿“实际上都是皮肤遭到有害剥离的迹象”。皮肤保护层受损还会使人更容易感染,遭到污染之类的环境侵害。法里斯士说:“感觉异常洁净──我们不想干净成那样儿。那太过激了。”Stephanie Samuel, a 28-year-old attorney in Chicago, told her dermatologist, #39;I get the squeaky clean feeling.#39; To which the doctor responded, #39;No! No squeaky!#39; Ms. Samuel now uses a gentle cleanser in the morning and an exfoliating cleanser in the evening.芝加哥28岁的律师斯蒂芬妮?塞缪尔(Stephanie Samuel)告诉她的皮肤科医生说:“我就觉得自己特别干净。”她的医生对此回应道:“不!不要特别干净!”如今,塞缪尔白天使用的是一种温和洁面乳,晚上使用的是一种去角质洁肤露。Facial cleansing has been a growth opportunity for the skin-care industry in recent years, with sales of cleansing liquids, creams, bars and wipes topping .8 billion last year, up nearly 4% from the prior year and more than 7% from 2010, according to Euromonitor International.根据欧睿国际(Euromonitor International)的数据,近些年来,洁面已成为护肤品行业的一个增长点。去年,清洗液、洁肤霜、清洁皂和湿巾的销售额高达18亿美元,比前年增长近4%,较2010年增长超过7%。When the founders of Clarisonic set out to create their first face-cleansing device, there weren#39;t many supporters. #39;Cleansing is the boring step. People don#39;t like to do it,#39; one dermatologist told Robb Akridge, a co-founder of Clarisonic, a unit of L#39;Oreal, and the brand#39;s global general manager. Another dermatologist gave Dr. Akridge this mandate, he recalls: #39;You have to make cleansing sexy.#39;当科莱丽 (Clarisonic)的创始人着手打造他们首个洁面仪时,当时的持者并不多。一位皮肤科医生告诉科莱丽──现在是欧莱雅旗下公司──联合创始人之一、该品牌全球总经理罗伯?阿克瑞芝(Robb Akridge)说:“清洁是特别无聊的事情,人们都不喜欢做。”另一名皮肤科医生也给了阿克瑞芝一项任务,他回忆说:“你必须得让清洗这事儿变得有意思。”The resulting product, a motorized oscillating brush, has renewed consumer interest in the cleansing category, many dermatologists say. The bristles move rapidly back and forth by about a millimeter, which #39;wiggles#39; the dirt out of the pores, Dr. Akridge says.许多皮肤病医师称,针对这个目标生产出来的产品──一种电动振动刷──重建了消费者对洁面的兴趣。阿克瑞芝士说,这些刷毛一毫米一毫米地来回迅速移动,就把污垢从毛细孔中“揪”出来了。It takes only a light touch to use the device. But Clarisonic knew some people would #39;want to push hard, like they are scrubbing the floor,#39; Dr. Akridge said. So it added a stopgap measure: When too much pressure is used, the motor keeps running but the bristles stop moving.阿克瑞芝士还称,在使用这款洁面仪时,只需轻轻触碰脸部即可。但科莱丽料到有些人会“想要使劲按压,就像他们在擦地板一样。”所以它增用了一个权宜之计:当使用者用力过大时,该仪器还会继续运转,但刷毛却停下来不动了。Another source of growth is pre-moistened facial towelettes, or wipes. Ido Leffler, co-founder of Yes to Inc., a line of natural skin-care products, says consumers like the convenience, whether using them at the gym or for a quick cleanse at night. Friends tell him they keep wipes on their bedside table. #39;They get home after a little bit of a big night, a little bit tired and little bit drunk, and remove their makeup using the towelette,#39; Mr. Leffler said. Amy Hart, Yes to product development manager, says the towelettes deliver a different textural feel than washing with water but the same cleanliness.另一个增长源是预湿面巾,或称湿巾。生产天然护肤品系列的Yes to公司联合创始人伊多?莱夫勒(Ido Leffler)说,不论是在健身房使用湿巾,还是在夜间用它进行快速清洁,消费者都喜欢它的便利。朋友们告诉他,他们都会在床头柜上放些湿巾。莱夫勒称:“他们在晚上参加活动后回到家,有点累,还有点醉,就会用面巾纸抹掉脸上的妆容。”Yes to产品研发经理艾米?哈特(Amy Hart)称,与用水洗相比,这些面巾能起到同样的清洁作用,但却能给使用者带来不同的质感。Face washing at night is most important, dermatologists say. It removes dirt, grime and pollutants that have gathered on the skin during the day, as well as makeup. Some doctors say people without a serious skin-care issue, such as acne, can skip the soap and just rinse in the morning.皮肤科医生说,在夜间洗脸最重要。它会清除白天聚集在皮肤上的尘垢、污渍和污染物,还有妆容。有些医生说,没有严重护肤问题(比如痤疮粉刺)的人早上可以不用肥皂,用水冲洗下即可。#39;Your skin has just slept on a pillow, it is clean, it doesn#39;t necessarily need to be washed,#39; said Gervaise Gerstner, a Manhattan dermatologist and consultant for L#39;Oreal Paris. Dry skin from overcleansing is a problem for people as they age, she says.巴黎欧莱雅(L#39;Oreal Paris)顾问、曼哈顿的一名皮肤科医生杰瓦伊斯?格斯特纳(Gervaise Gerstner)说:“你睡觉的时候皮肤只接触了枕头,很干净,真没必要洗。”她还称,等人们老了的时候,那些因为过度清洗引发的干性皮肤就会是一个问题。For men, the biggest face washing issue is which product they use -- or lack thereof. About half of men wash their face solely with water, says Rob Candelino, vice president of marketing for skin care at Unilever, maker of a Dove Men+Care brand. Of men who do use a cleanser, many use a bar of regular body soap, shampoo or whatever else they can find in the shower. Making matters worse, men generally don#39;t moisturize or wear sunscreen every day and so tend to be more susceptible to drying and sun damage, Mr. Candelino says. Alcohol-based products like after-shave can also cause irritation, he says.对于男性而言,洁面的最大问题是他们使用哪款产品──或者少用了哪种产品。联合利华(Unilever)护肤市场部副总裁罗布?坎戴里诺(Rob Candelino)称,约有一半的男性只用清水洗脸。联合利华是多芬男士+护理(Dove Men+Care)品牌的生产商。而那些使用了清洁产品的男性,许多人都只用一块普通的沐浴皂、洗发露或他们能在浴室找到的其他什么东西。让情况更糟的是,男性通常都不会天天给肌肤保湿或涂抹防晒霜,所以皮肤通常更易干燥和被太阳晒伤。坎戴里诺还称,像男士须后水这种含有酒精的产品也会引发红肿。Dr. Gerstner suggests men wash their face with a cleanser in the evening to remove dirt and oil. The morning cleanse -- which often overlaps with the morning shave -- is optional, especially if the skin is feeling dry, she said. To make shaving easier, men can apply a warm, moist towel to the face beforehand to soften the skin and beard.坎戴里诺士建议男性在夜间使用清洁产品洗脸来祛除尘垢和油脂。她说,晨间的清洁工作──常常会和早上的刮脸重合──不是必须的,尤其是如果你感到皮肤干燥的话。为了让刮脸更容易,男性可以事先用一条温暖潮湿的毛巾擦脸来让皮肤和胡须软化。Many Americans, especially teens, prefer cleansers that foam or create suds. #39;They like the sensation,#39; says Cindy Kee, senior brand manager at Cetaphil, a line of gentle skin-care products, both foaming and nonfoaming, from Galderma Laboratories. People also tend to believe foam cleans better, which it doesn#39;t.许多美国人,尤其是青少年更偏爱泡沫型或能产生起泡肥皂水的清洁用品。丝塔芙(Cetaphil)高级品牌经理辛迪?凯(Cindy Kee)说:“他们就喜欢这种感觉。”丝塔芙是高德美公司(Galderma Laboratories)旗下温和护肤系列品牌,包括泡沫型和不起泡产品。人们一般倾向于认为,泡沫型清洁效果更好,但事实并非如此。The urge to scrub is often formed as a teenager, when the skin is producing more oil and breakouts are common. #39;Teens really crave that deep-down-to-the-pores type clean,#39; says Katie Decker, group brand director at Johnson amp; Johnson. The average age of the first breakout is 13. From 13 to 17, girls spend an average of 34 minutes a day on skin care, 11 minutes more than the national average for all women, Ms. Decker says.想要擦洗的冲动通常是在一个人青少年时形成的,这个时期,皮肤分泌了更多的油脂、长痘非常普遍。强生集团品牌总监凯蒂?德克尔(Katie Decker)说:“青少年真的渴望那种深到毛孔内部型的清洁。”人们首次长痘的平均年纪是13岁。德克尔士还称,从13岁到17岁,女生每天平均会花34分钟来护肤,这比全国所有女性花费的平均时间要长11分钟。Acne sufferers are likely to overcleanse, either with harsh products or rough scrubbing. #39;You can#39;t wash the pimples off your face,#39; say Katie Rodan, a dermatologist and co-founder of the Proactiv three-step system, which is owned by Guthy Renker. Many acne cleansers deposit a treatment product, such as benzoyl peroxide or salicylic acid, to kill bacteria and absorb oil.痤疮患者更易进行过度清洁,要么会使用刺激性强的产品,要么会使劲擦洗。高伦雅芙(Proactiv)三步祛痘法联合创始人、皮肤科医生凯蒂?罗丹(Katie Rodan)说:“你不能把你脸上的痘痘洗掉。”高伦雅芙现归高西伦克(Guthy Renker)所有。很多痤疮洗护用品中都含有治疗药物,像过氧化苯甲?或水杨酸,就是为了杀菌和吸油。Exfoliators, which contain particles that scrape dead cells from the surface of the skin, are getting gentler, too. Procter amp; Gamble Co.#39;s Olay brand recently released the Pro-X Microdermabrasion Plus Advance Cleansing System, which it says offers a gentler experience using a device with a motorized rotating brush, a foam head and a one-minute timer.含有能刮掉皮肤表面死细胞的微粒的去角质产品也变得越来越温和。宝洁公司(Procter amp; Gamble Co.) 玉兰油(Olay)品牌近来发布了Pro-X微晶亮肤洁面仪+高级清洁套装(Pro-X Microdermabrasion Plus Advance Cleansing System)。该公司称,使用配有一电动旋转刷、一个泡沫喷雾头和一分钟计时器的洁面仪,它会提供更温和的体验。The need for exfoliation increases with age, as the skin#39;s ability to repair and shed itself slows. #39;You can see visible differences as the skin piles up,#39; Ms. Goodman says.随着年纪的增长,皮肤自行修复的能力减弱,自行脱落的速度也减慢,所以人们对去角质产品的需求会随之增加。古德曼(Goodman)说:“当皮肤皱在一起时,你就能看到这些显而易见的不同。”Many exfoliators contain sharp, jagged crystals made from particles of apricot pits or nuts that can cut into the skin, causing irritation and inflammation, says Laura Goodman, a senior scientist at Pamp;G. The crystals in the Pro-X formula are small, round and made of sodium bicarbonate -- also known as baking soda -- which dissolve during cleansing.宝洁公司高级科学家劳拉古德曼(Laura Goodman)称,很多去角质产品都含有锋利的、锯齿状的晶体,这些晶体由杏仁或坚果的微粒制成,它们会刺进皮肤,引发红肿和炎症。而Pro-X产品配方中的晶体微小圆润,且由碳酸氢钠─也被称为苏打粉─制成,它们在清洁过程中就会溶解。 /201311/266491

Where does a collection begin? In the mind and imagination of a designer, of course, but also in a physical space, an insider sanctum that is almost never seen by consumers: the office and atelier. In many ways, these private spaces reflect the choices and points of view that inform fashion as much as any runway show. If in doubt, simply consider the outtakes from a series of behind-the-velvet-curtain s in which designers from New York to Paris invited The New York Times into their professional lives. First up: Jason Wu, who opened his namesake label in 2006 and shot to fame as the designer of Michelle Obama#39;s inaugural gowns, in his New York office. (This interview has been edited and condensed.)装系列起源于何处?当然是起源于设计师的头脑和想像,但它也起源于一个物理空间,一个消费者几乎从未见过的密室:办公室/工作室。从很多方面讲,这些私人空间和时装秀一样能反映时尚选择和观点。如果你对此还有怀疑,那就来看看这一系列幕后视频:纽约、巴黎等地的设计师们邀请《纽约时报》走进他们的职业生活。首先登场的是吴季刚(Jason Wu),他在2006年开创了自己的同名时装品牌,因两次为米歇尔·奥巴马(Michelle Obama)设计就职典礼礼而声名鹊起。当然,这两件礼都是在他的纽约工作室里设计的(下面的访谈经过剪辑和浓缩)。Q. How long has this been your professional home?问:你在这里工作多久了?A. I#39;ve been in this office three years. I always wanted to be in the garment district because I make 90 percent of my production here, so I thought it was really important that I was very close to the work, and am still close to the work, and part of New York. It feels really very New York to me. You have people hauling fabric at 8 a.m., and tons of delivery trucks, and loud sirens.答:我在这个办公室工作三年了。之前我一直想搬到装区,因为我90%的装都是在这里生产的,所以我觉得离工厂很近真的很重要,我现在依然离工厂很近,同时也还在纽约市里。在我看来,这里真的很有纽约的感觉。早上8点就有人在搬布料,有很多运货卡车和喧嚣的汽笛声。And you moved here because you outgrew your previous space?问:你搬到这里是因为以前的地方不够用了吗?My last studio was 3,000 square feet, and this one is 10,000 square feet, plus I have another floor, so it#39;s six times the size maybe. My previous office was very primitive. I had painted the walls myself. I did charcoal gray and white. It was very minimal, not because we wanted it to be minimal, but because at the time we couldn#39;t afford anything. With this office I got to kind of explore and play. When I first moved here, it had red walls with gray carpet. It was some sort of a trading firm and it was like 10 offices on this floor, so we had to take everything out.答:我的上一个工作室有3000平方英尺,这个有10000平方英尺,另外还有一层,所以面积大概是原来的六倍。我之前的办公室非常简陋。墙都是我自己刷的。我刷成了炭灰色和白色。它是极简风格的,不是我们想让它成为极简风格,而是我们当时没钱。而这个办公室能够让我探索和玩耍。我刚搬到这儿时,墙是红色的,地毯是灰色的。好像之前是个贸易公司,这一层大概有十个办公室,所以我们必须把所有东西都扔掉。How did you choose your personal corner in this space?问:在这个空间里,你怎么选中了这个私人角落?This nook felt like the most private place in the office. It just felt like it was calling my name.答:这个角落好像是整个办公室里最私密的地方。我感觉它在呼唤我的名字。Is it important to you to have a place to retreat?问:有个休憩之处对你来说重要吗?Yes. My daily life is a lot of hustling and bustling, and a lot of insane moments, especially during fashion week. But sometimes you need that moment of quietness where you put the drapes up and kind of like have five minutes of ;do not disturb.; Not that it really ever happens. But I do start the day everyday here with my coffee. Email, phone calls — it all happens here.答:重要。我每天的生活都忙忙碌碌,有很多让人抓狂的时刻,特别是时装周期间。但有时你需要一个安静的时刻,可以拉上帷幕,拥有五分钟不被打扰的时间。虽然这并没有真的发生过。不过我总是在这里开始新的一天,写邮件、打电话都是在这里。How did you choose your desk?问:你是怎么选择书桌的?This is a vintage desk. I like that it#39;s kind of classic and wood and not your typical work desk. A lot of me is very traditional. I like old bones and classic furniture, and this kind of represents me very well.答:这是个古董书桌。我喜欢古典和木头的感觉,不喜欢典型的办公桌。我很大程度上非常传统。我喜欢老东西和古典家具,这很好地代表了我。And the chairs?问:这些椅子呢?These chairs are from DDC [the design firm]. I used to pass by it all the time as a student at Parsons, seven or eight years ago, and the one thing I wanted was these chairs in black and white. I finally got them.答:这些椅子来自DDC设计公司。七八年前我在帕森斯学院就读时经常路过那里,那时候我想要的东西就包括这些黑白两色的椅子。现在我终于拥有它们了。What#39;s on the shelves?问:书架上有什么?A lot of books. I buy books every week. I guess I#39;m a hoarder of books, but I love the way the paper feels, and the way they look and smell. There is a little cat that represents good fortune. I#39;ve always had this affinity for cats, so my parents gave me that when I was little, and I kept it. There#39;s a little clock, because I#39;m always late, so it#39;s kind of a nice reminder.答:很多书。我每周都买书。我觉得我是书籍囤积狂,但是我很喜欢纸的触感,喜欢它们的样子和味道。这个小猫代表好运。我一直喜欢猫,所以小时候父母给了我这个,我一直留着它。还有个小钟,因为我总是迟到,所以它是个很好的提醒。Do you draw your collection out first, or do you design on the computer?问:你是先把装系列画出来,还是在电脑上设计?I do everything by hand. Computers are only for emails. I#39;m a very computerless person normally. I still cut and paste and use glue and marker. Working with the hand is still the most appealing to me.答:我什么都动手做。电脑只用来收发邮件。总的来说,我是个不用电脑的人。我仍然手动剪贴,使用胶水和记号笔。动手工作依然是我最喜欢的方式。Is that wall made of corkboard?问:那面墙是用软木板做成的吗?Uh-huh. I have the need to pin everything, so you#39;ll see there is corkboard everywhere in my studio. It#39;s like a larger version of the fridge magnet situation, where you just put everything you know. I collect things I like to look at it, and it#39;s kind of become my little history. I build the walls every season according to the collection. Sometimes I start with a person, sometimes with a color, sometimes with an idea and sometimes with a combination of the three. In two weeks this will probably explode with many more pictures. And then, the day after the show, I#39;ll take it all down. It#39;s so liberating. It#39;s kind of the cycle of life.答:嗯哼。我需要把所有东西都钉到墙上,所以你会发现我的工作室里到处是软木板。它像个大号冰箱贴板,我可以把我知道的所有东西都贴在上面。我收藏我喜欢观看的东西,它有点像我的小小历史。我每一季都根据装系列来构建这个墙面。有时是某个人启发了我,有时是一种颜色,有时是一个概念,有时是以上三者的结合。在两周时间内,这面墙很可能会铺满很多图片。在时装秀的第二天,我会把它们全揭下来。有一种释放的感觉。它像是生命的轮回。Afterward, do you keep all the research and pictures or throw them away?问:之后,你会保留所有这些研究和图片,还是把它们都扔掉?I file everything into folders by season. Again, I#39;m a bit of a hoarder. I like to keep things that I looked at or have been inspired by, because I think at some point you do want to go back and have a look. Those are moments that can#39;t really be replaced. Like the note wall.答:我每一季都把所有东西归档。这再次表明我有点像囤积狂。我喜欢保存我看过的或者给过我灵感的东西,因为我觉得将来的某个时刻,你会想回头看一看。那些时刻是不能被代替的。比如那面便签墙。The note wall?问:便签墙?I always loved the idea of having stationery. I#39;m in the habit of writing notes, and when people write me notes it feels too special to throw away. I#39;ve been very fortunate to be able to meet so many different kinds of people who I never thought would a) know who I am, or b) even care. So I decided to put the notes up one section of the cork wall and not recycle them because they are something that can never be replicated again, and that is very, very dear to me. It#39;s become a bit of a project. Those I don#39;t take down.答:我一直很喜欢用纸笔的感觉。我有写便条的习惯,有人给我写便条时,我会觉得很特别,不舍得扔。我觉得自己非常幸运,能遇到这么多不同的人,我以前根本没想到他们竟会知道我是谁,更别说去在乎我。所以我决定把这些便签贴在软木墙上的一块地方,再也不取下来,因为它们是不能被复制的,对我来说特别特别珍贵。它变得有点像一个艺术作品。那些东西我不会取下来。 /201409/330097If people need motivation to get up from their office chairs or couches and become less sedentary, two useful new studies could provide the impetus. One found that sitting less can slow the aging process within cells, and the other helpfully underscores that standing up — even if you are standing still — can be good for you as well.如果人们需要一些动力才愿意从办公椅和沙发上站起来,少坐一会儿,那么两项有用的新研究能提供这种动力。其中一项研究发现,少坐能减缓细胞衰老速度;另一项研究强调站立——哪怕只是静静地站着——也对健康有益。For most of us nowadays, sitting is our most common waking activity, with many of us sitting for eight hours or more every day. Even people who exercise for an hour or so tend to spend most of the remaining hours of the day in a chair.静坐是我们大部分人清醒时最常见的状态,很多人每天坐八小时以上。甚至连那些每天锻炼一小时左右的人其他大部分时间也都是坐着。The health consequences of this sedentariness are well-documented. Past studies have found that the more hours that people spend sitting, the more likely they are to develop diabetes, heart disease and other conditions, and potentially to die prematurely — even if they exercise regularly.久坐会带来健康隐患,这一点据确凿。过去的研究发现,人们坐的时间越长,越有可能患上糖尿病和心脏病等疾病,甚至可能早死——即使进行有规律地锻炼。But most of these studies were associational, meaning that they found a link between sitting and illness, but could not prove whether or how sitting actually causes ill health.但是这些研究大多得出的是关联性结论,也就是说,它们发现久坐与患病有关,但是不能明久坐是否的确或者如何导致健康问题。So for the most groundbreaking of the new studies, which was published this month in the British Journal of Sports Medicine, scientists in Sweden decided to mount an actual experiment, in which they would alter the amount of time that people spent exercising and sitting, and track certain physiological results. In particular, with this experiment, the scientists were interested in whether changes in sedentary time would affect people’s telomeres.到目前为止,新研究中最具突破性的是本月在《英国运动医学杂志》(British Journal of Sports Medicine)上发表的研究——瑞典科学家们决定进行一项实际实验,他们在实验中改变人们锻炼和静坐的时间长度,然后追踪某些生理后果。科学家们对这个实验最感兴趣的是,这些改变是否会影响人们的染色体端粒。If you are unfamiliar with the componentry of your genes, telomeres are the tiny caps on the ends of DNA strands. They shorten and fray as a cell ages, although the process is not strictly chronological. Obesity, illness and other conditions can accelerate the shortening, causing cells to age prematurely, while some evidence suggests that healthy lifestyles may preserve telomere length, delaying cell aging.你可能对基因的组成部分不太了解,所以我简单介绍一下,染色体端粒是DNA链条末端的小帽子。随着细胞老化,它们会缩短、磨损,不过这一过程不完全由时间决定。肥胖、疾病和其他健康问题会加速端粒缩短,导致细胞提前老化,而有些据表明健康的生活方式能维持端粒长度,延缓细胞衰老。For the new experiment, the Swedish scientists recruited a group of sedentary, overweight men and women, all aged 68, and drew blood, in order to measure the length of telomeres in the volunteers’ white blood cells. Then half of the volunteers began an individualized, moderate exercise program, designed to improve their general health. They also were advised to sit less.为了这个新实验,瑞典科学家招募了一群习惯久坐的68岁超重男女,采血测量他们白细胞中端粒的长度。然后,其中一半志愿者开始个性化的适度锻炼计划,旨在提高总体健康状况。同时建议他们少坐。The other volunteers were told to continue with their normal lives, although the scientists urged them to try to lose weight and be healthy, without offering any specific methods.科学家们让其他志愿者继续像往常那样生活,但是鼓励他们尽量减肥,保持健康,不过没有提供具体方法。After six months, the volunteers all returned for a second blood draw and to complete questionnaires about their daily activities. These showed that those in the exercise group were, not surprisingly, exercising more than they had been previously. But they were also, for the most part, sitting substantially less than before.六个月后,志愿者们第二次抽血,完成关于日常活动的问卷。结果表明,锻炼组的人不出所料比从前锻炼得更多。但是他们大部分人坐的时间也比从前少了很多。And when the scientists compared telomeres, they found that the telomeres in the volunteers who were sitting the least had lengthened. Their cells seemed to be growing physiologically younger.科学家们在比较端粒时发现,坐得最少的志愿者的端粒延长了。从生理上讲,他们的细胞似乎更年轻了。Meanwhile, in the control group telomeres generally were shorter than they had been six months before.与此同时,控制组志愿者的端粒总体来说比六个月前更短了。But perhaps most interesting, there was little correlation between exercise and telomere length. In fact, the volunteers in the exercise group who had worked out the most during the past six months tended now to have slightly less lengthening and even some shortening, compared to those who had exercised less but stood up more.但是也许最有趣的是,锻炼与端粒长度之间几乎没有联系。实际上,在锻炼组中,在这六个月里锻炼最多的人与锻炼得不多但是站立时间更长的人相比,端粒增长得略微少一些,有些甚至缩短了。Reducing sedentary time had lengthened telomeres, the scientists concluded, while exercising had played little role.科学家们得出结论,减少静坐时间延长了端粒长度,而锻炼对此几乎毫无作用。Exactly what the volunteers did in lieu of sitting is impossible to say with precision, said Per Sj#246;gren, a professor of public health at Uppsala University in Sweden, who led the study, because the researchers did not track their volunteers’ movement patterns with monitors. But “it’s most likely,” he said, that “sitting time was predominantly replaced with low-intensity activities,” and in particular with time spent standing up.这项研究的领导者、瑞典乌普萨拉大学的公共健康教授佩尔·肖格伦(Per Sj#246;gren)说,志愿者们用什么活动来代替静坐无从准确得知,因为研究者们没用监测器追踪志愿者们的活动模式。但是他说,“最可能的情况是,静坐时间主要是被低强度的活动代替”,尤其是站立。Which makes the second new study of sedentary behavior particularly relevant. Standing is not, after all, physically demanding for most people, and some scientists have questioned whether merely standing up — without also moving about and walking — is sufficiently healthy or if standing merely replaces one type of sedentariness with another.这让另一项关于静坐行为的新研究显得格外重要。毕竟,对大多数人来说,站立不是生理需求。有些科学家质疑,只是站立——不动,也不行走——是否足够健康;站立是否只是另一种形式的久坐。If so, standing could be expected to increase health problems and premature death, as sitting has been shown to do.如果是这样的话,站立可能会和静坐一样增加健康问题,导致早逝。To find out whether that situation held true, Peter Katzmarzyk, a professor of public health at the Pennington Biomedical Research Center in Baton Rouge, La., and an expert on sedentary behavior, turned to a large database of self-reported information about physical activity among Canadian adults. He noted the amount of time that the men and women had reported standing on most days over the course of a decade or more and crosschecked that data with death records, to see whether people who stood more died younger.为了弄清那种情况是否属实,路易斯安那州巴吞鲁日彭宁顿生物医学研究中心的公共健康教授、静坐行为研究专家彼得·卡兹马兹克(Peter Katzmarzyk)开始研究一个巨大的数据库,里面是加拿大成年人自我陈述的身体活动信息。他记下那些人在十年或更长时间内大部分日子里站立的时间,与死亡档案里的数据交叉检查,看看那些站得更多的人是否死得更早。The results, published in May in Medicine amp; Science in Sports amp; Exercise, are soothing if predictable. Dr. Katzmarzyk found no link between standing and premature death. Rather, as he writes in the study, “mortality rates declined at higher levels of standing,” suggesting that standing is not sedentary or hazardous, a conclusion with which our telomeres would likely concur.今年5月,他的研究结果在《运动锻炼医学科学》(Medicine amp; Science in Sports amp; Exercise)上发表。结果不出意料,令人安慰。卡兹马兹克发现站立和早逝之间没有关系。相反,他在研究报告中写道,“站立时间越长,死亡率越低”,称站立不同于久坐,没有危害——我们的端粒很可能会赞同这一结论。 /201410/333797

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