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大理妇幼保健人民中心中医院挂号预约云龙县妇幼保健医院四维彩超价格大理州妇幼保健人民中心中医院治疗不孕不育好吗 The two children slept on the bed, 两个孩子睡在床上,and Michael and I slept on the floor.而迈克尔和我睡在地板上。My heart just bled for him all the time.我的心一直只为他而跳动。I love the fact that everything he sang, he sang from his heart.我深爱着他唱歌的一切事实,他从自己的心中而唱。Joe was a tyrant to them.乔对他们而言是一位暴君。This anesthetic that ultimately killed Michael Jackson was something he had been doing for a number of years.多年来迈克尔?杰克逊一直沉迷的这种麻醉剂最终杀死了他。They were willing to almost throw anything at the jury, hoping something would stick. 他们几乎愿意将所有事情抛给陪审团,希望会坚持下去。He was my favorite singer, my favorite entertainer. 他是我最喜欢的歌手,我最喜欢的艺人。There will never be another Michael Jackson. 永远都不会有另一个迈克尔?杰克逊。I grew up in East Chicago, Indiana. 我在印第安纳州东芝加哥长大。My mother and father divorced when I was at a young age about six years old. 当我大约6岁的时候我的母亲和父亲离婚。My mother was Baptist and my sister and I sang in the Baptist choir. 我的母亲是浸礼会教友,而我和在唱诗班唱歌。It made us have a love for music. 这段经历使我们对音乐产生了热爱。My father used to listen.我的父亲过去也经常听。201306/244801Science and technology科学技术HIV and AIDS人体免疫缺陷病毒和获得性免疫缺陷综合征Till death do us part直到死神将我们分开Putting numbers on infidelity细数出轨之罪ONE of the problems of dealing with a sexually transmitted disease, such as AIDS, is that people routinely lie about their indulgence in the sorts of behaviours which pass it on.谈到性病,比如艾滋病,难题之一便是人们通常会隐瞒自己的纵欲史,而这恰恰是导致染病的原因。That makes knowing where to put your effort harder than it need be.我们此刻恍然大悟,夫妻之间想要保忠诚应该花更大力气。And in no area do people lie more than on the question of infidelity.而且,在对婚姻不忠这个问题上,人们撒的谎比其它地方撒的谎都多。The naive outsider might be forgiven for thinking that infidelity was likely to be an important way that HIV, the virus which causes AIDS, is sp. Until now, however, that was mere supposition.如果围城之外的人们天真的认为艾滋病毒扩散的主要传播途径可能与婚外偷腥有关,那么我们可以原谅他们。当然,现在看来那也仅仅是猜测罢了。Steven Bellan of the University of Texas at Austin has changed this, with a paper in the Lancet.德州大学奥斯丁分校的史蒂夫·贝兰士发表在《柳叶刀》上一篇论文,研究成果代替了猜测。Using data likely to be more reliable than answers to the question:数据示人可能会比结论对问题的方式更容易取信于人:have you been cheating on your wife/husband?你对自己的妻子或丈夫撒过谎吗?he and his colleagues have worked out how much HIV infection is caused by adultery.他与同事的研究成果显示了究竟多少例艾滋感染是由婚外偷腥造成的。The answer, as might be expected, is a lot.猜也能猜得到:非常多。Dr Bellan and his colleagues reached this conclusion from a survey of 27,000 married or cohabiting couples in 18 African countries.面对来自非洲18个国家2.7万接受调查的配偶,The survey looked at who in these couples was infected, how long the couple had lived together, and the age at which each member of each couple first became sexually active.或者是同居男女,贝兰士和同事们将调查范围缩小在三个问题上:两个人中谁是感染者、同居或者已婚多久以及每一对之中首先成为性欲亢进的一方的年龄。Most people do not routinely lie about these things, except for age of first sexual encounter.如果不是第一次性行为,一般情况下大多数人不会对这三个问题有所隐瞒。The researchers took account of that by showing that claims as much as a year at variance with the truth would make little difference to the outcome.研究者们考虑到了这一点,指出对事实的陈述的差异如果在一年之内对结果无太大影响。Dr Bellan plugged the results into a mathematical model that also takes account of HIVs prevalence in a country and how long people there live once they have been infected.依据艾滋病在一个国家的传播程度和染病后人们的寿命时长,贝兰士利用数学模型将其展现出来。This let him estimate what proportion of HIV infections had come about by one or other member of a couple having been unfaithful, as opposed to having been infected before the couple got together, or having caught the virus from a partner so infected.这样他就可以在相较于二人结婚之前一方染病或者结婚之后携带病毒的一方传染另一方的情况下,估算出由于无论是由于男方还是女方对婚姻不忠而导致感染艾滋病的比例。The answer was between 27% and 61% for men and between 21% and 51% for women.男性出轨染病几率为27%-61%,女性则相对较低21%-51%。What can be done about that is a different question.面对这样的结果,我们能做些什么?Early in the AIDS epidemic, the virus was sp by what might be termed long-distance infidelity.这又是一个难题。艾滋病流行早期,病毒传播途径被称为长距离婚姻不忠行为:Lorry drivers and migrant miners, lonely and far from home, were the vectors.离乡寂寞的货车司机和矿井农民是携带病毒的主要人群。Those groups, however, could be made the target of campaigns designed to ask them to think about what they were up to, and to be more careful about it.针对这些人群,我们应当策划出一些活动项目来提醒他们:你们这样做意义何在?即使寂寞难忍,也要注意防护措施。What Dr Bellan has uncovered looks more idian—and thus much harder to deal with.贝兰士研究没有涉及的地方更为人司空见惯,因此处理起来也就更加棘手。 /201310/260170大理哪里治疗宫颈糜烂好

云南省大理妇幼保健人民中心中医院在线咨询Finance and Economics;Canadas pension funds财经;加拿大的养老基金;Canadas public pension funds are changing the deal-making landscape;加拿大养老基金变更投资布局;They own assets all over the world, including property in Manhattan, utilities in Chile, international airports and the high-speed railway connecting London to the Channel tunnel. They have taken part in six of the top 100 leveraged buy-outs in history. They have won the attention both of Wall Street firms, which consider them rivals, and institutional investors, which aspire to be like them.他们所拥有的财产遍布全球,这包括在曼哈顿的房产,智利的公共设施,国际机场以及将伦敦与外界连通的高铁海底隧道。历史上最有影响的100宗负债收购他们就占了6宗.无论是华尔街的竞争对手还是渴望像他们一样的公共机构的投资者,都对他们青睐有加。These giants are Canadas largest public pension-fund groups. They manage around C640 billion dollar(643 billion dollar) between them. Of the 40 largest public pension funds in the world, four are Canadian, according to Preqin, a research firm (see table). America aside, no other country has more on the list. But size is not what marks them out. Their approach to investment is intriguing.这些巨头就是加拿大最大的几家公共养老基金集团。他们管理着大约6400亿加元(约合6430亿美元)。据一家名为Preqin的研究机构的调查表明,在全球最大的40家公共养老基金中,加拿大就占了4家。除了美国之外,没有其它哪个国家有如此之多的机构榜上有名。但引人注目的不是他们的规模,而是他们的投资手法。Unlike those in charge of public pension funds elsewhere, the Canadians prefer to run their portfolios internally and invest directly. They put more of their money into buy-outs, infrastructure and property, believing that these produce higher returns than publicly traded stocks and bonds. They are in some ways like depoliticised sovereign-wealth funds. Jim Leech, the boss of Ontario Teachers Pension Plan, calls them a “new brand of financial institution”. And as public pensions around the world cope with painfully low yields on their assets, many see them as a template. Michael Bloomberg, New York Citys mayor, is among the models admirers.和其它掌管公共养老基金的机构不同的是,加拿大人更喜欢在内部经营他们的投资组合以及直接投资。他们把资金大量投在并购,基础设施和房地产领域。因为他们坚信这些领域方面的投资回报大于公共股票与债券方面的投资回报。他们有点类似于去政治化的主权财富基金。安大略省教师养老金计划负责人Jim Leech把它称为“金融机构的新品牌”。世界上其它为之收益甚少而头疼的养老基金把加拿大养老基金视为榜样。纽约市长Michael Bloomberg正是这种模式的推崇者之一。Ontario Teachers pioneered this style of investing in the 1990s when it brought more of its investments in-house. Other large funds soon followed suit, building up teams to handle deals on their own. The Ontario Municipal Employees Retirement System (OMERS) wants to have 90% of its assets managed internally by the end of 2012,leaving some room for allocations to external managers in specific areas.安大略教师养老基金于上世纪九十年代开创了这种投资模式,那时它便开始采用多元化的内部化投资方式了。其它大的投资基金很快纷纷效仿,并建立起自己的团队来管理。到2012年底,安大略省市政雇员退休体系计划把90%的资产用于内部经营,仅留少部分供外聘经理人投资到其它地方。The funds will do smaller deals alone but often act as “co-sponsors” with leading private-equity firms on bigger transactions. This allows them to have more control over the investment and to save on fees. CPP Investment Board and PSP Investments, for example, worked with Apax, a buy-out firm, to acquire Kinetic Concepts, an American medical-devices company, for 6.1 billion dollar. It was one of the biggest buy-out deals in 2011.基金会将会单独处理小笔交易,但更多的时候它是扮演着“共同赞助者”的角色,与大的私募股权公司一起处理大宗交易。这使得基金会能更好地控制投资并节省交易费用。例如CPP投资委员会和PSP投资,和一家名叫Apax的并购公司合作,以61亿美元的价格收购了美国的Kinetic Concepts医疗器械公司。这是2011年大宗并购交易之一。The main draw of the Canadian model is cost savings. Running operations directly helps plug “the incredible leakage that goes out through fees” to pricey external managers, says Gordon Fyfe, the boss of PSP Investments, a large fund. In private equity, for example, many managers charge a fee equal to 2% of assets and 20% of profits. Hiring staff and building up internal capabilities costs far less. Keith Ambachtsheer of KPA Advisory Services, a pensions consultancy, says running assets internally costs a tenth of what it would if they were outsourced.加拿大模式最引人注目的地方是成本低廉。一家名为PSP的大型投资基金的老板Gordon Fyfe指出,直接管理业务能够节省本该付给外聘经理的高昂费用。例如,对私募股权来说,多数经理人的佣金相当于资产的2%和利润的20%。雇用员工和打造内部能力的成本远远低于经理人的费用。KPA咨询公司的养老金顾问Keith Ambachtsheer认为,与外购相比,资产的内部化运营成本仅为外购成本的十分之一.There are other advantages. Public pension funds have a longer investment horizon than private-equity firms, so the Canadian behemoths can choose to sell when the time is right, mitigating some of the risks of investing in illiquid assets. In December, for example, Ontario Teachers announced it would sell its majority stake in Maple Leaf Sports and Entertainment, a large Canadian sports business, for around C1.3 billion dollar. They had been invested in Maple Leaf since 1994, far longer than a private-equity firms typical five-year horizon, and are expected to get a return of five times their money.此外其它的有利因素是公共养老基金的投资期限和范围比私募股权公司大得多,因此加拿大这个庞大的公共养老基金集团可以在时机合适时将其出售,从而减小投资非现金资产的风险。例如,在十二月安大略省教师养老基金就宣布出售其在加拿大最大的体育产业之一的枫叶体育和的大部分股份,约13亿加元。这个养老基金自从1994年起就一直投资枫叶体育,远比私募股权通常五年的投资期限长得多。而且预期可得到初始投资五倍的回报。Because they are saving so much on fees and only need to meet the liabilities of scheme-members pensions, moreover, the Canadian funds feel less pressure to chase the high returns that leading buy-out firms do. They can pursue investments with less risk and leverage. “Because returns dont have to be as good, they can bid more for companies,” says one buy-out boss. It sounds like a losers lament.因为节省了大笔费用,而且仅须满足付养老金计划所覆盖的人群,此外,加拿大养老基金不像并购公司那样面临追求高额回报的压力。他们能够通过低风险和杠杆作用来经营投资。“因为收益不必太高,所以他们比其它公司更有竞争力”,一位并购公司的老板如此评价。这听起来就像是失败者的悲鸣。So far the funds strategy has paid off. Over the past ten years Ontario Teachers has had the highest total returns of the biggest 330 public and private pension funds in the world. Some of this outperformance stems from the relative strength of Canadian stockmarkets and property, to which Canadian pension funds have higher allocations than others. But not all of it. In 2010 OMERS returned 25 dollar on every dollar spent on internal management, for instance, compared to only 10 dollar for every dollar spent on external managers fees.迄今为止,养老基金的战略已初见成效。在过去的十多年时间里,安大略省教师养老基金在全球330家最大的公共及私人养老金中它的收益回报是最高的。这个骄人业绩部分是得益于加拿大股票及房地产市场的繁荣,这使得加拿大养老基金在房地产方面的投资高于在其它行业的投资。但这不是全部原因。例如,2010年安大略省市政雇员退休体系在内部管理上的花费中,每一美元得到25美元的回报。相比之下,在外聘经理的花销中,每一美元的花销得到的收益仅有10美元。Those seeking to understand how Canadians have pulled it off are given two answers: governance and pay. There is little political interference in the funds operations. They attract people with backgrounds in business and finance to sit on their boards, unlike American public pension funds, which are stuffed with politicians, cronies and union hacks.那些试图理解加拿大人如何完成这一经营的人得到两个,一是监管,二是付。在基金运营过程中仅有一点点政治方面的干涉。与美国公共养老基金充斥着政客、亲信和工会黑客不同的是,加拿大养老基金则能够吸引拥有商业和金融背景的人们加入董事会。Just as important is their approach to compensation. In order to recruit the best executives, Canadian pension funds have ensured their pay is competitive with Bay Street, Torontos version of Wall Street. They pay a base salary, annual bonus and long-term performance award (which many pension funds elsewhere do not) to make their employees take a long-term view of investments. Mr Leech of Ontario Teachers made over C3.9m dollar in 2010; 51% of that was a long-term performance award, 36% his annual bonus and only 13% of his base salary. He would doubtless earn more on Wall Street, but this is a huge pay packet by public-pension standards. Anne Stausboll, the boss of CalPERS, the largest American public pension fund, made around 380,000 dollar in the year to June 30th 2011, including a 96,638 dollar bonus.同样重要的是他们的薪酬体系。为了招募到最优秀的高管,加拿大养老基金保他们付的薪酬在Bay Street(加拿大的华尔街)是最具竞争力的。他们付的薪酬包括基本工资,年终红利以及长期绩效奖金(这是其它养老基金没有的薪酬制度)来让它的雇员从长远来考虑它们的投资。安大略省教师养老基金的Leech先生2010年拿到了390万加元。其中长期绩效奖金为51%,年终红利占了36%,基本工资仅占了13%。在华尔街他无疑会赚的更多,但是按照公共养老金标准来看,这已经是巨额薪酬了。。最大的美国公共养老基金CalPERS的老板Anne Stausboll在2011年上半年拿到了38万美元,其中包括96,638美元的红利。Such disparity may hinder the Canadian models sp. Joe Dear, the chief investment officer of CalPERS, has said it is “not politically feasible” to set up this sort of compensation structure. For politicians, not to mention voters, multi-million-dollar salaries are not going to be popular.薪酬体系上的差距阻碍了加拿大模式的推广。CalPERS的首席投资官Joe Dear认为建立这种薪酬体系没有政治上的可行性。对政客来讲,更不用说选民,拿百万年薪的人毕竟是少数。Many officials at American public pension funds would not want to copy the model anyway. If a big deal were to go south, they might be sued. But Mr Ambachtsheer says board members also have a fiduciary duty to consider how fees are eroding assets. If they have an option to pay 90% less, they should try to take it.不管怎样,多数美国公共养老基金的官员并不想照搬加拿大模式。如果大宗交易失败的话,他们可能会被起诉。但Ambachtsheer先生认为董事会的成员基于信用责任,应该仔细考虑这些费用是如何侵蚀资产的。如果他们可以选择少花90%的钱,那他们应该试着去接受。Another obstacle to the adoption of Canadian ways is scale. A fund needs to be a certain size to buy companies and invest in infrastructure projects, and to swallow the upfront costs of building internal teams. Smaller Canadian funds have been unable to follow suit, for example. Sometimes the large funds will syndicate their deals and give the minnows a chance to take part. In OMERS won approval to manage assets of smaller pension funds in Canada.采用加拿大模式的另一个障碍是规模问题。基金要有一定的规模,以便用来收购公司和投资基础设施工程,而且要为团队建设付出先期成本。小规模的加拿大养老基金根本不可能依样画瓢。例如,有时大型基金将它们的交易联合组成辛迪加,让小规模的基金也加入进来。在年,安大略省市政雇员退休体系被批准经营加拿大小规模养老基金资产。The giants face problems of their own. One, paradoxically, is the growth of assets: CPP, for example, expects to manage C275 billion dollar by 2020 and C1 trillion dollar by 2050. Getting bigger makes it harder for each investment to make a difference to overall returns. “How we can scale our direct investing so it continues to be meaningful in a fund thats doubled its size is a challenge,” says David Denison, CPPs boss.这个基金巨人自身也面临不少问题。第一个,也是自相矛盾的就是其资产的增长:例如CPP期望到2020年能管理2750亿加元,到2050年其管理的资产能达到1万亿加元。资产的增加使得每一项投资回报对总体收益的影响越来越小。“我们如何才能扩大我们的直接投资,使它在增加了一倍的基金里仍然举足轻重,这是一个挑战。”CPP的老板David Denison说道。Another challenge is handling expansion into more volatile emerging markets. To find good deals, funds need people on the ground. But as they become global, they may sp themselves too thinly. The Canadian model assumes that diversification is not as important as deep knowledge: the funds are likely to be better at doing deals in Montreal than Moscow. Some funds have opened foreign offices, but Mr Fyfe of PSP Investments is wary: “These people are going to be sitting there telling you to do a deal, so theyre not irrelevant.”另一项挑战就是在变化多端的新兴市场中不断扩大市场份额。为了拓展业务,基金会需要员工辛勤工作。但是随着他们的业务扩展到全球,他们有点疲于应付(应付不过来)。加拿大模式认为多样化不及专业化重要:蒙特利尔的业务比莫斯科开展得好。一些基金开设了海外办事处,但Fyfe先生对此持谨慎态度:“一些业务员乐于坐在那里来告诉你如何做业务,因此他们也不是事不关己。”Even so, Canadian pensions are primed to do well in these dismal times. Some are planning to do more in credit, since banks are lending less. Cash-strapped governments are also lining up a huge number of infrastructure-asset sales. Politicians find the Canadians cuddlier partners than many others. According to Michael Sabia, the boss of Caisse de depot et placement du Quebec, another pension-fund group: “If theyre faced with the consortium of ‘Bonfire of the Vanities from New York versus a consortium of large public institutions who are long-term investors… I think I know who theyre going to pick.”即便如此,加拿大养老基金在大萧条时期仍有望蒸蒸日上。他们计划在贷款方面拓展业务,因为贷款在不断减少。政府也面临现金短缺的问题,因此他们正在计划出售一大批基础设施资产。政客们认为加拿大人是最佳人选。另一家名为Caisse de depot et placement du Quebec养老基金老板Michael Sabia认为,“如果他们面临在虚荣的篝火式的财团与长期投资者组成的公共慈善机构式的财团之间作出抉择的话,我想我应该知道哪种方案能胜出。” /201307/247518大理州第二人民医院剖腹产需多少钱 大理市不孕不育医院哪家好

大理大学附属医院能做人流吗 The economics of behavior行为经济学Time and punishment时间与处罚Impatient children are more likely to become lawbreakers心急的孩子更容易成为不法分子IN HIS “Odyssey”, Homer immortalized the idea of resisting temptation by having the protagonist tied to the mast of his ship, to hear yet not succumb to the beautiful, dangerous songs of the Sirens. Researchers have long been intrigued as to whether this ability to avoid, or defer, gratification is related to outcomes in life. The best-known test is the “marshmallow” experiment, in which children who could refrain from eating the confection for 15 minutes were given a second one. Children who could not wait tended to have lower incomes and poorer health as adults. New research suggests that kids who are unable to delay rewards are also more likely to become criminals later.荷马笔下的《奥德赛》里,那抵制诱惑的故事经久不衰。主角将自己绑在船的桅杆上,听得到塞壬美妙却又危险的歌声,但不屈从于诱惑。长期以来,研究人员一直好奇人们是否有能力抵制或推迟与生活相关的满足感。在最知名的“棉花糖”实验里,15分钟内能忍住不吃糖的孩子就可以吃到两块棉花糖。无法等待的孩子成年后往往收入较低,健康状况较差。新的研究表明,不能耽搁而必须立即享受奖赏的孩子们之后也更可能成为罪犯。David Akerlund, Hans Gronqvist and Lena Lindahl of Stockholm University and Bart Golsteyn of Maastricht University used data from a Swedish survey in which more than 13,000 children aged 13 were asked whether they would prefer to receive 0 now or ,400 in five yearstime. About four-fifths of them said they were prepared to wait.斯德哥尔大学的大卫·阿克隆德,汉斯·格伦维斯特,莉娜·林达尔,以及马斯特里赫特大学的巴特·哥斯蒂恩使用了一项取自瑞典的调查数据,调查中,超过13,000名13岁的孩子被问及是希望现在获得140美元还是五年后获得1,400美元,约五分之四的孩子说他们愿意等待。Unlike previous researchers, the authors were able to track all the children and account for their parental background and cognitive ability. They found that the 13-year-olds who wanted the smaller sum of money at once were 32% more likely to be convicted of a crime during the next 18 years than those children who said they would rather wait for the bigger reward. Individuals who are impatient, they believe, prefer instant benefits and are therefore less likely to be deterred by potential punishments.不同于以往的研究者,此次调查中,研究人员追踪所有的孩子,并对其父母的背景和认知能力进行评估。他们发现,比起那些宁愿等待更大奖赏的13岁孩子,想要一次性取得较小金额的孩子有32%的可能在今后18年内犯下罪行。因此,研究人员相信,缺乏耐心的个体喜欢即时的好处,而且不太可能因潜在的惩罚而却步。But those who fret that a person’s criminal path is set aly as a teenager should not despair. The four researchers offer a remedy. When the respondentseducation was included in the analysis, they found that higher educational attainment was linked to a preference for delayed gratification. “We therefore suspect that schooling can deter people from crime by making them value the future more,” explains Mr Gronqvist.但是,那些为一个人的犯罪轨迹在十几岁时就已定型发愁的人也不用绝望。四位研究人员提供了一项补救措施。当受访者的教育程度被纳入分析时,研究人员发现,较高的教育程度与推迟满足感的偏好是有联系的。“因此,我们猜想,学校教育可以使他们更多的看重未来,从而压下犯罪的念头,”格伦维斯特先生解释道。Educational attainment and patience are related either because patience helps students to do better or because schooling makes people more likely to postpone rewards. Fortunately, there is evidence in support of the latter theory. Francisco Perez-Arce of the RAND Corporation, a think-tank, interviewed around 2,000 applicants for Mexican universities. The students had similar credentials but some obtained admission through a lottery to a university that did not charge tuition fees, whereas the rest had to apply elsewhere. As a result, a higher proportion of lottery-winners than losers went to college. After a year, Mr Perez-Arce found, the lottery-winners were more patient than the losers. Since the process was random, he concluded that higher education can make people place more weight on the future.教育程度和耐心的相关性可能是因为耐心能帮助学生们做的更好,或者是因为教育增加了人们推迟奖赏的可能性。幸运的是,后一种理论有着论据撑。咨询研究机构兰德的弗朗西斯科·佩雷斯-阿尔塞采访了大约2,000位墨西哥大学的申请者。学生们手中有相似的凭据,但一些人能凭借抽奖被大学录取且不收学费,其他人则需另谋他处。结果,抽奖赢家们上大学的比例高于未被抽中者。一年后,佩雷斯-阿尔塞发现,抽奖中的赢家比输家更有耐心。由于这个过程是随机的,他得出结论称高等教育可以使人们更多的关注于未来。Victor Hugo supposedly said, “He who opens a school door closes a prison.” Homer is not the only great writer with lessons for economic research.维克多·雨果曾说,“谁若是开办了一所学校,他便是关闭了一座监狱。”看起来,写下与经济研究相关的经验教训的伟大作家可不止荷马一人。 /201407/311503大理意外少女怀孕三个月做人流手术注意哪些大理市妇幼保健院做产检价格



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