楼主:安典范 时间:2017年10月24日 17:23:04 点击:0 回复:0
Science and technology科学技术Colony collapse disorder蜂群崩坏症候群Bee off蜂群崩坏A possible explanation of why beehives sometimes vanish有可能解释清楚为什么蜂群有时会突然死亡HONEYBEES are sensitive creatures.蜜蜂是一种敏感的生物,From time to time a hive simply gives up the ghost and vanishes.时不时就有蜂巢凭空消失。Colony collapse disorder, as this phenomenon is known, has been getting worse since 2006.这种现象被称为蜂群崩坏症候群,自2006年开始就愈发严重了。Some beekeepers worry that it may make their trade impossible, and could even have an effect on agriculture.有些养蜂人担心这会使得他们的生意难以维持下去,甚至会对农业造成影响。Since many crops rely on bees to pollinate them.因为很多庄稼依靠蜜蜂授粉。Climate change, habitat destruction, pesticides and disease have all been suggested as possible causes.气候变化、栖息地被破坏、杀虫剂的使用和疾病都是可能的原因。但Nothing, though, has been proved.是尚无一个得到实。But the latest idea, reported in Naturwissenschaften by Jeff Pettis of the Bee Research Laboratory in Beltsville, Maryland,最新的想法刊登在《自然科学》杂志上,作者是位于马里兰贝茨维尔的蜜蜂研究实验室的杰夫佩蒂斯,suggests that this may be because more than one factor is involved.他说可能的原因也许不止一个。Dr Pettis and his colleagues knew from previous reports that exposure to a pesticide,佩蒂斯士和他的同事们从之前的报告中得知接触到一种杀虫剂,called imidacloprid has a bad effect on honeybees ability to learn things,这种叫做吡虫啉的会影响蜜蜂的学习能力,and wondered whether it might be causing other, less noticeable, damage.他们怀疑这种杀虫剂还对蜜蜂造成其他不太明显的伤害。Since one thing common to colonies that go on to collapse seems to be a greater variety and higher load of parasites and pathogens than other colonies,要死亡的蜂群有一个共同点,就是蜂群里所含的寄生虫和病原体的种类和数量比一般蜂群的都多,they wondered in particular whether it might be weakening the insectsimmune systems,他们特别怀疑是吡虫啉削弱了蜜蜂的免疫系统,and thus allowing infections to sp through a hive.进而使得传染病在蜂巢里扩散开来。To find out, they gave 20 hives protein food in the other ten it was 20 ppb.为了实猜测,佩蒂斯士和同事们把加了吡虫啉的蛋白食物喂给20个蜂群。Previous experiments have shown that neither dose perceptibly harms bees.之前的实验显示这两种剂量对蜜蜂都没有明显的伤害。A further ten hives were given unspiked food as a control.还有10个蜂群作为控制组,喂给它们的食物未加杀虫剂。Then, when the young bees emerged a few weeks later,几周后,幼蜂出生,Dr Pettis collected them and fed them with spores of a fungal parasite called Nosema.佩蒂斯士把它们收集起来,喂给它们真菌寄生虫小孢子虫的孢子。Twelve days later, he killed them and estimated the extent of their infestation.12天后,他把这些幼蜂都杀了并测量它们体内感染程度。Both of the groups that had been exposed to imidacloprid harboured an average of 700,000 parasite spores in each bee.接触到吡虫啉的两组蜜蜂每只体内寄生孢子的平均数量是700000。Bees from the control colonies, by contrast, harboured fewer than 200,000 spores in their bodies.与之对比,控制组的蜜蜂体内则含不到200000个孢子。The insecticide, in other words, was exposing bees to infestation,换句话说,这种杀虫剂使蜜蜂更容易受到感染,and thus to a much greater chance of dying prematurely.因而早亡的几率更大。Whether this is actually the reason for colonies collapsing remains to be determined.至于这是不是就是蜂群崩坏症候症的真正原因还有待进一步实。But it is a plausible hypothesis, and is likely to get beekeepers buzzing with interest.但是它的确是一个说得通的假设,养蜂人也会对此很感兴趣。 /201403/281265In his book Cosmos, the late scientist Carl Sagan talks aboutthe way in which the earth is regularly struck by material fromouter space.已故科学家卡尔·萨根在著作《宇宙》中叙述了外太空物体如何有规律和地球发生碰撞。These collisions with space debris can beminor–as in a shooting star on a summer night–or amazinglydestructive, as in the collision that probably killed off thedinosaurs.太空垃圾和地球碰撞的机率很小,就像夏夜划过流星,破坏性却很大,这种碰撞可以令恐龙灭绝。Thankfully, the biggies are extremely rare.值得庆幸的是,这种机率太渺茫了。Sagan makes the point that the most dangerous collision facing us now, however, is one thatmight be mistaken for something else:a nuclear attack. 萨根阐述的观点是目前我们面临的最危险的是碰撞而非人们误解的核战。He warned that thinking an asteroid isactually an ICBM could result in the worst possible destruction–an unintended war.他提醒人们,事实上,行星就像洲际弹道导弹,可能产生意料外破坏性极大的战争后果。Was this just paranoid thinking? Unfortunately, no.这仅仅是偏执思维吗?不幸地是,无独有偶。Carl Sagan is no longer with us, but intestimony before congress just last year, a ed States Air Force brigadier general warned thatjust such a thing almost happened in June of two thousand and two.去年,一位美过空军准将在国会的一份词中称类似的事情发生在2002年6月。That’s when a meteoroid entered the earth’s atmosphere over the Mediterranean and was picked up by U.S. early-warning satellites on the lookout for high-altitude explosions and incoming missiles.美国预警卫星在监测高空爆炸物和来袭导弹时发现一颗流星穿破地球大气层,降落在地中海地区。The alarming object falling from the sky was recognized for what it was, this time.而这次人们确认从天而降令人惶恐的物体究竟是什么。The generals’point, though, was that we never know where space junk will fall.准将指出我们无法确定太空垃圾降落在什么地方。Turn the globe by just a fewhours earlier on that day in June and the meteoroid would have been over the border of Pakistanand India–exactly where everyone was fearing a nuclear attack.如果六月的这天,地球转动退回到几小时前,流星降落的地方就正好是巴基斯坦和印度的交界处,世人唯恐发生核战的交界地。We’ve been lucky so far.迄今为止,我们都还很幸运。But Carl Sagan’s warning came perilously close to becoming a prophecy and a harmless natural event in the sky, to triggering a terrible event here on earth.但是,卡尔·萨根的提醒很可能是可怕的预言,本来平常的天空自然事件很可能引发地球灾难。 201409/329471We humans pride ourselves on having large, supple brains. Butwhile our brains are larger than those of most other animals, itappears that over time our presence can result in smaller-brained animals having cerebral growthspurts.我们人类为拥有大的,灵活的大脑而自豪。然而,尽管我们的大脑比大多数动物大,但是,经过一段时间,我们的存在似乎会让大脑较小动物的大脑突然生长。Scientists have found that certain small mammals-including some species of shrew, vole, bat,gopher, mouse and squirrel-have larger brains when they live near or around people in bothurban and rural areas.科学家们发现某些小型哺乳动物─包括某些种类的鼩鼱、田鼠、蝙蝠、囊鼠、老鼠、松鼠─不论是生活在城市还是农村,当它们比邻人类而居时,大脑会变大。For example, one study found that the brains of urban-dwelling white-footed mice and meadowvoles are about six percent larger than their rural cousins.例如,一项研究发现居住在城市的白足鼠和草甸田鼠,他们的大脑比它们的乡下亲属大出6%。Meanwhile, as habitats have become developed, rural dwelling shrews and bats have also evolvedlarger brains over the past century.同时,随着栖息地的扩展,在过去的一个世纪里,居住在农村的鼩鼱和蝙蝠的大脑也变大了。Scientists speculate that the larger brains of some city living animals are due to those crittershaving to adapt to and survive in places populated by lots of people.科学家们猜测, 一些生活在城市的动物大脑变大,是因为他们不得不在人气旺的地方适应并生存下来。After all, it stands to reasonthat raising baby mice and voles in busy urban and suburban places requires as much brain poweras possible.毕竟,可以理解老鼠和田鼠要在繁华的城市和郊区生儿育女是挺费脑子的。As for the rural animals whose brains have grown, it could be that human development in ruralareas has forced animals such as bats and shrews to forage farther afield, and that patrolling largerhunting grounds requires more brain power.至于生活在农村的动物大脑变大,这可能是因为人类在农村的发展已经迫使像蝙蝠和鼩鼱这样的动物到更远的野外觅食。在更大的狩猎区巡查,更费脑力。An important underlying point of this research is that even an organ as complex as the brain iscapable of significant evolution over relatively short periods of time.这项研究的潜在关键是,即使像大脑这样复杂的器官,也能在相对短的时间里发生重大进化。 201402/277475

DON:Time once again for What You Didnt Know.唐:又到了《你并不清楚的事情》节目环节。This is where we a well-known science fact and then surprise you with the follow-up. Ready?我们这里有一条非常著名的科学事实而稍后的节目可能会让你大吃一惊。准备好了吗?YAEL:Yep.雅艾尔:没错。DON:Heart disease is a leading cause of death.唐:心脏病是造成人们死亡的主要原因。YAEL:Hey, it turns out the sky is blue.雅艾尔:嘿,原来你刚知道天空是蓝色的。Everybody knows heart disease is bad news for all those overweight guys in suits.对于那些穿西装的超重人群来说每个人都知道心脏病是晴天霹雳般的消息。DON:. . . for women.唐:这是对于女性而言。YAEL:Whoops! Did you say heart disease is a leading cause of death for women?雅艾尔:哎呦!你说心脏病是导致女性死亡的主要原因?DON:More than that:its not only a leading cause of death, its the leading cause of death.唐:不只如此,不只是死亡的主要原因,而就是死亡的主要原因。Women over fifty are more likely to die of heart attacks than anything else.50岁以上的女性更有可能死于心脏病发作。YAEL:But I thought heart attacks were a guy thing.雅艾尔:但我认为心脏病是男人的事情。DON:You and almost everyone else.唐:你和几乎其他所有人一样。A recent American Heart Association poll asked what the leading cause of death in women over fifty was.美国心脏协会最近的一项民意调查问及50岁以上妇女死亡的主要原因。Guess how many American women got the answer correct?猜一猜有多少美国妇女的回答正确?YAEL:Not a lot?雅艾尔:不是很多?DON:Only eight percent.唐:只有8%。Even more alarming, a Gallup poll asked doctors the same question. Only fifty-five percent knew it.更令人担忧的是盖洛普民意测验问及医生的也是同样的问题。只有55%的人知晓。Thats almost one out of two getting it wrong!几乎是一半人都会犯的错误!YAEL:So heart attacks arent a guy thing?雅艾尔:所以心脏病不是男人的事情?DON:Heart disease happens to women just as much as to men--maybe even more.唐:女性的心脏病发病与男性一样,甚至更多。The number of men dying of heart attacks is dropping, studies show, while the number of women dying of them is on the rise.死于心脏病的男性正在数量下降,但研究显示死于此种疾病女性的数量正在上升。Some researchers speculate that it has to do with just this lack of understanding that heart disease isnt just a male problem.一些研究人员推测这与缺乏心脏病不只是男性的问题的理解有关。Men may be getting better prevention and better treatment, while womens warning signs are being missed. 男性可能会得到更好的预防及更好的治疗,然而对于女性而言可能错过警告迹象。 201311/266010

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