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2019年10月22日 12:23:24
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嘉兴曙光整形美容医院黑脸娃娃好吗Does the idea of expressing your feelings to someone you care for make you feel nervous and tongue-tied? Writing a letter of love gives you the chance to take your time and use the right words to express your admiration and appreciation for your nearest and dearest. Whether you make the letter silly, funny, funky,or romantic, your words will come from the heart.对你关心的人的表达你的感受,一想到这个是否让你感到紧张,舌头打结?写一封情书可以让你花时间,使用正确的词语来对你最亲近和亲爱的人表达你的爱慕和赞赏。不管你把情书写得很傻很搞笑,还是很潮很浪漫,你的话语将发自内心。1. Use an intriguing opener. 使用吸引人的开场。Do you have a special name who you call your beloved? You might want to use it at the start to immediately catch his or her attention. If not, consider using words like “My Dear,” “My Darling,” or “My Love” or something that is meaningful to you.你对你爱的人有没有特别的称呼?你可能希望用它来吸引他/她的注意力。如果没有,考虑使用“我亲爱的”或者“我的爱”或者其他对你们来说有意义的称呼。2. Tell the person exactly why you’re taking the time to write.告诉那个人你为什么要写这份情书。A love letter is different from any other type of correspondence, so make sure you tell the object of your affection from the outset the reason for your letter.情书不同于其他任何形式的通信,因此确保在情书的开始你告诉对方你的感情。3. Discuss a happy memory the two of you shared.分享一两个你们的快乐记忆。During the time you have spent together, there have no doubt been many happy times. As you are writing your letter, relive one in detail and share your impressions of the event with your beloved. You’ll get bonus points if it’s something that he or she may have forgotten over time.在你们一起度过的时间中,无疑有很多快乐的时光。在你写情书时,与你爱的人重温一件事情的细节或者分享你的感受。如果这是他/她随时间推移已经忘记的事,这将给你的情书加分。4. Mention your beloved’s best qualities.提及你爱人的闪光点。What makes your special person stand out from anyone else you know? Write it down and put it in your letter. The things you appreciate most may not be the things your beloved considers to be his or her most obvious strengths, so just speak from your heart. If you need a writing prompt, start with a partial sentence like:是什么使得你的爱人从你认识的人中脱颖而出?写下来,写进情书中。你称赞的事情需要是你爱的人自己认为是长处的地方,因此发自内心的表达。如果你需要提示,请以下面的句子开始:“I appreciate you most when you…”“当你……时我特别欣赏你。”“Your greatest strength is…”“你最大的优势是……”“The thing I think of first when your name comes to mind is…”“当我想你的名字,我能想到的是……”Complete the sentence with the first impression that you get. It will more than likely be the right one for your letter.以你的第一反应来完成这些句子。这很有可能是最正确的。5. Talk about the difference he or she has made in your life.谈谈他对你人生带来的改变。Naturally, your life has changed for the better since you met the person to whom you are writing, and you’ll want to share this information in your love letter. This is not the place to mention any past loves, since that part of your life is over (and hopefully done with). You do want to share how much richer and fulfilling your life is now that your special someone is part of it.显然,在你遇见他/她时,你的人生已经变美好了,你会想在你的情书中与之分享这个信息。这里不能提及任何前男女友,因为那部分生活已经结束了(希望如此)。你确实需要与之分享的是:当某人出现在你生活中时,你的生活变得多么丰富和满意。6. Choose the right stationery for your letter.选择合适的信纸。Since a love letter is not a standard piece of correspondence, you don’t necessarily want to write it on plain paper. Pay a visit to a store and look for some special paper in a favorite color or style that will set it apart. Don’t forget to buy an envelope, too. You’ll have to decide whether you want to hand-deliver your letter, mail it, or leave it somewhere for your beloved to find. Another option is to arrange for your letter to be delivered by a courier company, which means you will be sure that it reaches your beloved on a particular day.由于情书不是标准意义的书信,你不需要在素色的纸上写它。去商店看看,买一点喜爱的颜色或样式的特别的纸。别忘了也要买个信封。你需要决定是否亲自送你的信,是寄出去或者留在你心爱的人能找到的地方。另一个选择是把你的信交给一个快递公司,这将确保它能在特定的一天抵达。7. Pen and paper is best for short notes.短情书最好使用笔和纸。If you are writing a short love letter, then do pick up a pen and paper. Not everyone has good penmanship skills, and if you are going to be writing a letter that is several pages in length, you can do your composing in a keyboard. The advantage of this option is that you can edit and move your text around if you don’t like the way you have written it in your first draft.如果你在写一个短情书,请用笔和纸。并不是所有人都有很好的书法,如果你打算写好几页很长的情书,你可以用电脑打稿。这种选择的好处是,如果你不满意你的初稿,你可以编辑或删除你的文字。8. Choose a romantic font.选择浪漫的字体。If you decide to use your keyboard to compose your love letter, be sure to change your font. Now is not the time to stick to a standard business font like Times New Roman 12 or Helvetica Regular 12. Experiment with the fonts in your word processing program to find one that you like and that fits the occasion.如果你想用电脑来写情书,记得更改你的字体。现在不是使用标准商务字体例如12号Times New Roman或者12号Helvetica Regular的时候。在你处理文字的过程中可以尝试使用不同的字体,来找到你最喜欢的最应景的字体。9. Write your letter and let it sit for a day or two before sending.写完信后过一两天再寄出去。Love letters are, by definition, highly emotional exercises. Read what you have written before sending it to your beloved after you have had some time to digest it. If you are happy with the results, send it.按照定义我们就能看出,情书是情感的高度体现。在寄给你爱的人前,读几遍你写的东西,这样你有时间消化它。如果你对结果很满意,就把情书寄出去吧。10. Your letter doesn’t have to be perfect to be meaningful.并不是完美的才有意义。No one is looking for perfection in a love letter. Just write what is in your heart, and you’ll be using exactly the right language.没有人会渴望完美的情书。仅仅写一下你心里的想法,你就会找到最合适的语言。 /201306/243351浙江嘉兴激光脱毛医院Monica Brooks and her daughter Morgan, age 8, rifled through the racks at a Zara store in Dallas Thursday night, looking at bejeweled T-shirts and ruffled tops.周四晚上,布鲁克斯(Monica Brooks)和她八岁的女儿根(Morgan)在达拉斯一家Zara店的货架间扫荡,浏览标价16美元的珠缀T恤衫和10美元的褶饰上装。Labels inside the clothing at the fast-fashion chain showed that it came from around the globe, including from Bangladesh, the site of a spate of deadly textile-factory fires and a recent building collapse that has killed more than 1,100 garment workers.从这家快时尚连锁店的装标签显示,这些装来自世界各地,包括孟加拉国。孟加拉国的装厂曾发生一系列致命的火灾,最近,一栋大楼的倒塌导致超过1,100名装工人死亡。That surprised Ms. Brooks, a 41-year-old software saleswoman who shops at Zara ;more than I should,; she said. ;It just goes to show you that we are not paying attention to that.;这让布鲁克斯感到惊讶。布鲁克斯是一名41岁的软件销售人员。她说,我在Zara购物的次数简直太多了。布鲁克斯说,这只能说明我们以前没注意到衣的产地。Americans; appetite for cheap clothes is one of the strongest of the economic forces that led to a boom in Bangladesh, with the resulting race to add manufacturing capacity setting the stage for the series of horrific accidents.美国人对廉价装的欲望是引发孟加拉装业繁荣的最强大的经济力量之一,随之而来的加紧提高产能的趋势成了上述一系列可怕事故的导火索。U.S. consumers have become accustomed to spending relatively little on clothing compared with other items─and getting a lot for their money. Americans last year devoted just 3% of their annual spending to clothing and footwear, compared with around 7% in 1970 and about 13% in 1945, according to Commerce Department data.相比其他方面的开,美国的消费者已经习惯了在装上少花钱,但要物超所值。根据商务部(Commerce Department)的数据,美国人去年花在装和鞋类上的出仅占他们年度开的3%,相比之下,1970年的这一比例为大约7%,1945年为13%左右。One reason Americans now spend so little is that U.S. clothing prices have fallen significantly over the past two decades, after rising in the 1950s, 1960s and especially in the 1970s.美国人在装上的出这么少的一个原因是,美国的装价格过去20年大幅下降,而此前,在上世纪50、60年代,尤其是70年代,装的价格一直在不断上升。Chains like Inditex SA;s ITX.MC +0.98% Zara and Hennes amp; Mauritz AB;s HM-B.SK +0.77% Hamp;M have set the tone for ;fast fashion.;Inditex SA旗下的Zara和海恩斯莫里斯(Hennes amp; Mauritz AB)旗下Hamp;M等装连锁为“快时尚”定下了基调。;Apparel prices are lower in absolute terms now than they were in the 1990s,; says Dean Maki, an economist at Barclays BARC.LN +1.42% .巴克莱集团(Barclays PLC, BARC.LN)的经济学家马奇(Dean Maki)说,目前的装价格绝对低于上世纪90年代的价格。Since 1990, clothing prices in the U.S. have risen just 10% compared with an 82% jump in food prices during the same period, according to Jessica Tenvose, an economist with the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, which compiles the Consumer Price Index.美国劳工统计局(U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics)的经济学家Jessica Tenvose说,上世纪90年代以来,美国的装价格仅上涨了10%,相比之下,食品价格在同一时期上涨了82%。美国劳工统计局负责编制消费者价格指数(Consumer Price Index)。If adjusted for inflation, clothing prices would show a decline.如果经过通胀调整,装的价格则呈下降趋势。That may be changing a bit. Apparel prices rose about 2% in December 2012 from a year earlier, following a jump of almost 5% in the previous year when cotton prices spiked.这种情况正在发生微小的变化。2012年12月,装价格同比上涨了2%,之前一年,棉花价格飙升时,装价格上涨了将近5%。But with consumers so used to paying so little, retailers and apparel manufacturers are reluctant to raise prices and have become even more eager to find low-cost countries to produce their goods in, economists say.但是经济学家们说,鉴于消费者已经习惯花很少的钱购买装,零售商和装制造商不愿意涨价,他们更加迫切地寻找低成本的装产地。The sluggish U.S. economy and stagnant wage growth add to the pressure on retailers by capping consumers; disposable income, but the desire to shop for trendy new outfits remains strong.美国经济的低迷和工资增长的停滞让消费者的可配收入十分有限,这增加了零售商的压力,但人们购买新的潮流装的欲望仍然强烈。Meanwhile, labor costs in China─long the world;s low-cost factory floor─have been rising rapidly.与此同时,在长期充当世界工厂的中国,劳动力成本一直在迅速上升。So retailers and apparel producers are switching to lower-cost alternatives like India, Vietnam, Cambodia, and Bangladesh, where the entry-level wage for garment workers is shy of a month.因此,零售商和装制造商正在转向成本更低的其他国家,如印度、越南、柬埔寨和孟加拉国,在这些国家,初级装工人的工资还不到每月40美元。On Sunday, Bangladesh;s textile minister said he will soon start talks with labor groups and factory owners to agree on a new minimum wage for the industry.上周日,孟加拉纺织部长说,他将很快开始与劳工组织和工厂厂主对话,就一个新的工厂最低工资标准达成一致。Depending on the size of the wage increase, Western retailers might pull business away from Bangladesh, though wages there would have to quadruple to top those in China.如果工资上涨幅度过大,西方零售商可能会将订单从孟加拉国转往别的国家,不过孟加拉国工人的工资要涨上三倍才能超过中国工人的工资。In the short run, brands might absorb the rise, as many did in 2011, when cotton prices spiked.短期而言,在孟加拉国生产装的外国品牌可能需要自行消化这一工资上涨因素,就像他们中的许多2011年在棉花价格上涨时所做的那样。The rush to Bangladesh began in earnest in 2005, when an international trade a system called the Multi Fiber Arrangement expired, lifting the strict limit on the amount of textiles and garments developing countries could export to developed countries.2005年,西方企业开始纷纷前往孟加拉国生产装,那一年被称作《多种纤维协定》(Multi Fiber Arrangement)的国际贸易配额体制正式到期,发展中国家向发达国家出口纺织品和装此后不再面临严格的数量限制。;Manufacturers saw that it was cheaper to manufacture in Bangladesh and places like Cambodia than China, especially to those manufacturers in Europe, where transportation was cheaper than from China,; says Katie Quan, associate chair of the University of California, Berkeley, Center for Labor Research and Education.美国加州大学伯克利分校劳工研究与教育中心副主任关少兰(Katie Quan)说,制造商们发现,孟加拉国和柬埔寨等地的生产成本比中国低,对欧洲的制造商来说尤其如此,孟加拉国和柬埔寨至欧洲的运输成本比中欧间的运输成本低。Inexpensive clothing allows consumers to buy more. ;When I was a little kid in 1950, clothes weren;t so cheap, and I remember we only had three or four dresses and that was plenty for a middle-class girl,; Ms. Quan said. ;Now I have three closets full, and it;s not enough.;消费者由于装价格低廉得以购买更多衣。关少兰说,当我上世纪50年代还是个小孩子时,装可没有现在这么便宜,我记得我们只有三套或四套衣,对于一个中产阶级家庭的女孩来说这已经很多了。她说,我现在的三个衣柜全都装得满满的,而这还不够。Yet when shifts in global labor costs and production occur abruptly, they can put enormous pressure on economies.但当全球劳动力成本和生产格局突然发生变化时,将会给经济带来巨大压力。In Bangladesh;s case, major factories became overbooked and so subcontracted more work to smaller outfits. Such subcontracting, and the increasing role of middlemen, have made it easier for retailers to lose track of which factories are producing their goods─and, many critics say, to avoid taking responsibility for poor factory conditions.就孟加拉国的情况而言,大型企业接获的订单都超出了它们的生产能力,因此这些企业纷纷将更多工作分包给中小企业去做。这种分包行为以及中间人在这一过程中所起的作用日益增大,使得零售商更加难以追踪到究竟是哪些工厂在生产其定制的装,而在许多批评人士看来,这也使得零售商们更加容易免于为工厂恶劣的工作条件承担责任。The upshot: Bangladesh has quickly become among the world;s largest exporters of clothing, and has suffered one of the worst industrial accidents ever.其结果是:孟加拉国迅速跻身于世界最大装出口国之列,但世界有史以来最严重的工业事故之一也随之在这个国家发生。;If wages rise quickly elsewhere, and producers all flee to the same place, you obviously can overwhelm an economy, and there seems to be a bit of that; in Bangladesh, says Robert Frank, an economics professor at Cornell University. ;The influx of manufacturing there was so quick that there was very little time to adjust to it.;美国康奈尔大学(Cornell University)经济学教授弗兰克(Robert Frank)说,如果世界其他地方的工资水平出现迅速上涨,制造商们全都涌向一个地方从事生产,这个地方的经济显然会不堪承受重负,孟加拉国似乎就有点是这种情况。他说,制造业汇聚到这里的速度是如此之快,当地几乎没有时间就此做出调整。Zara;s clothes were found in the latest factory fire last week. Inditex SA, Zara;s parent company, didn;t immediately respond to a request for comment.在孟加拉国上周最新一起工厂火灾的现场发现了Zara品牌的装,Zara的母公司Inditex SA未立即对记者寻求置评的要求做出回应。Clothes for J.C. Penney Co., JCP +2.07% Benetton, Wal-Mart Stores Inc. WMT +0.63% and Loblaw Cos.; Joe Fresh brand were found at recent factory accidents in Bangladesh.而在孟加拉国近期一系列工厂事故的事发现场,人们发现了J.C. Penney Co.、贝纳通(Benetton)、沃尔玛(Wal-Mart Stores Inc.)和Loblaw Cos.旗下Joe Fresh等零售商下单生产的装。Many of the retailers, such as Penney and Wal-Mart, have said they are phasing out use of factories within multiuse buildings. Loblaw said it plans to expand the scope of its factory audits.J.C. Penney和沃尔玛等许多这些零售商说,它们正在逐步放弃让在多用户建筑里从事生产的工厂为其加工装。Loblaw说,它计划扩大其工厂审计的规模。Benetton said a one-time order from the collapsed factory was completed weeks ago, and that none of the companies there is a supplier now.贝纳通说,它交给孟加拉国那座垮塌建筑中一家工厂的一笔一次性订单已于数周前完成,在那座建筑里从事生产的企业目前没有一家是贝纳通的供应商。Another shopper at Zara, Mary Park, said she isn;t bothered by where the clothes are made.另一位在Zara门店购物的顾客帕克(Mary Park)说,她并不在意所买的装是哪里生产的。;I am from China,; said Ms. Park, a 27-year-old cosmetics saleswoman. ;Manufacturing has been good to the country.;这名27岁的化妆品推销员说,我来自中国,制造业一直对中国起着积极作用。 /201305/239595平湖市红十字会医院激光脱毛多少钱

嘉善县中医院激光去烫伤的疤多少钱海盐二三门诊脱毛手术多少钱Despite safety warnings not to give sick toddlers cough and cold medications, almost half of parents in a recent survey are using the over-the-counter products anyway.尽管专家警告称给幼儿用止咳和感冒药不安全,但近期一项调查显示,仍有近半数的美国家长在使用这些非处方产品。A poll released last month by researchers at the University of Michigan found that 42% of parents with children under the age of 4 gave them cough medicine, and 44% said they used multi-symptom cough and cold medications. A quarter of the parents said they used decongestants. The survey, which echoed some earlier studies#39; findings, arrives five years after the drugs#39; packages started including directions warning against their use in very young children.密歇根大学(University of Michigan)的研究人员上月发布的一项调查结果显示,42%的家长给四岁以下的孩子用止咳药,44%的家长称,他们使用止咳和抗感冒的多疗效药,四分之一的家长称他们使用解充血药。此项调查(与早些时候一些研究的结果一致)是在这类药品的包装上开始标注低龄儿童慎用说明的五年之后展开的。Matthew Davis, a University of Michigan pediatrician who directed the survey, said he was surprised and concerned by the findings, which may show that parents aren#39;t aware of the labeling and the history of worries about the drugs#39; use in young children. #39;If you#39;re a parent who doesn#39;t know the story, you#39;re going to think this [medicine] is for your kids,#39; he says.主持此项调查的密歇根大学儿科医生戴维斯(Matthew Davis)说,他对调查结果感到惊讶和忧虑。这一结果可能显示出,家长并不了解药品标签信息以及以往幼儿用药中出现的问题。他说:“作为家长,如果你不了解情况,你就会认为这种(药物)适合给你的孩子用。”The medications came under close scrutiny in 2008, when the Food and Drug Administration advised that they shouldn#39;t be given to children under 2. That came after an agency advisory committee the previous year said children younger than 6 shouldn#39;t take the medications. The panel concluded there wasn#39;t evidence that the drugs helped young children, while FDA safety officials had suggested some of the drugs were associated with side effects and some deaths, mostly in very young patients and often involving overdoses.这些药品2008年开始受到严格审视,当时美国食品和药物(Food and Drug Administration, 简称FDA)建议,两岁以下儿童不应该用这些药物。在此之前一年,该机构一个顾问委员会称,六岁以下儿童不应该用这些药物。该委员会认为,没有据显示这些药对幼儿有效,而FDA药品安全官员曾表示,其中一些药物可能有副作用,并与部分死亡事故存在关联,这些情况主要发生在年纪很小的患者身上,而且通常是过量用。Manufacturers agreed to put warnings on the products#39; boxes that they shouldn#39;t be given to children under 4 years old. These appear today on medications that include dextromethorphan, a cough suppressant, the expectorant guaifenesin and the decongestants phenylephrine and pseudoephedrine. Medications with antihistamines warn against use in kids younger than 6. The children#39;s cough and cold products are sold under brand names including Novartis #39;s Triaminic and Pfizer Inc.#39;s Dimetapp and Robitussin.制药公司同意在药品包装盒上标注四岁以下儿童禁用的警告。如今,镇咳药右美沙芬、祛痰药愈创甘油醚以及解充血药苯福林和伪麻黄硷的包装盒上就标注了警告。含有抗组织胺的药物对六岁以下儿童禁用。针对儿童的止咳和感冒药包括诺华制药公司(Novartis )的Triaminic以及辉瑞制药有限公司(Pfizer Inc.)的Dimetapp和Robitussi。The Consumer Healthcare Products Association, which represents makers of the over-the-counter medications, says research it sponsors shows the rate of safety issues with the drugs has been dropping. Most cases involve children taking them without parental supervision, it says. The #39;drug facts#39; summary panel, often found on the back of a medication box, which includes dosing and other information, is the best place for the age warnings, rather than breaking them out on the front of the package, said David Spangler, a senior vice president with the association.代表非处方药生产商的美国消费者保健用品协会(Consumer Healthcare Products Association)称,该协会赞助的研究显示,这些药品安全问题的发生率已经有所下降。该行业协会称,多数问题都与儿童在无父母监督时药有关。该协会高级副总裁斯潘格勒(David Spangler)表示,年龄警告最好写在“药品说明”总结栏内(通常在药盒背面,其中有剂量和其他信息),而不要单独写在包装盒正面。The association has sponsored a campaign to alert parents on how best to use the medications, including public-service announcements, social-media efforts and brochures for family physicians to distribute to parents. Representatives of the industry group also said it can be challenging to design, and enroll participants for, studies testing medicines for children#39;s colds.该协会赞助了一项通过公益广告、社交媒体和发放宣传册(让家庭医生将宣传册发放给家长)等方式提醒家长如何更好地用药的活动。该协会代表还表示,检验儿童感冒药安全性的研究设计起来有难度,招募实验对象也有难度。Pfizer said it #39;encourages all parents to and follow the label of any children#39;s medication to determine appropriate use and dose.#39; A spokeswoman for Novartis said it declined to comment.辉瑞公司称,该公司“鼓励所有家长阅读每一种儿童药品的标签,并遵照标签说明确定合适的用法和剂量”。诺华公司一名发言人称,该公司就此不予置评。An FDA spokeswoman said the agency #39;supports efforts. . .to better inform consumers about the safe and effective use of these products#39; and has worked with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on the issue.FDA一名发言人称,该机构“持相关方面为此做出的努力……以使消费者更好地了解如何安全有效地使用这些产品”,并与美国疾病控制与预防中心(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)就此进行了合作。Still, a study published in 2010 in the journal Child: Care, Health and Development, found that about a third of parents hadn#39;t heard of the FDA recommendations, and of those who had, a third intended to keep using the medications. An earlier University of Michigan poll from 2011 found 61% of parents with children 2 and younger had given them cough and cold medications.不过,学术期刊《儿童:护理、保健及发育》(Child: Care, Health and Development) 2010年刊登的一篇研究论文指出,有三分之一左右的家长未听说过FDA的建议,而在听说过FDA建议的家长中,又有三分之一的人想继续使用这些药品。密歇根大学2011年展开的一项调查发现,61%的家长曾给两岁及以下的孩子用止咳和感冒药。Another study, published recently in Clinical Pediatrics showed even higher numbers: 82% of 65 parents of children younger than 6 said they would use the medications, and nearly three-quarters of those indicated they would administer the wrong dose.近期在《临床儿科学》(Clinical Pediatrics)上刊登的另一项研究结果所显示的比例更高:接受调查的65名六岁以下儿童家长中,有82%的人表示会使用这些药品,其中近四分之三的人表示,他们的给药剂量会有错误。Some parents in that study would the instruction not to give the medications to children younger than 4 and simply make up their own dose. They often extrapolated from doses recommended for older children, said Sarah G. Lazarus, a pediatrician at Children#39;s Healthcare of Atlanta who was the lead author. She suggests the medications#39; age warnings, often found only in small print, may not be prominent enough on the packaging.在该研究中,一些受访家长看过四岁以下儿童不宜用的说明后会自行判断给药剂量。研究论文的第一作者、亚特兰大儿童医院(Children#39;s Healthcare of Atlanta)的儿科医生拉扎勒斯(Sarah G. Lazarus)称,家长通常会根据针对年长一些的儿童的推荐剂量来进行推断。她指出,药品包装上的年龄警告(通常只用小字标注)可能不够醒目。Doctors say they sometimes struggle to convince parents.医生们表示,有时候他们很难说家长。#39;They#39;re using them because their children are sick, and they want to do something,#39; says Daniel Frattarelli, who chairs the American Academy of Pediatrics#39; committee on drugs. He advises against the drugs. But if a mom hears from a friend who has used them and believes they work, he said he expects sometimes to be ignored.美国儿科学会(American Academy of Pediatrics)药品委员会主席弗拉塔雷利(Daniel Frattarelli)称:“家长用这些药是因为他们的孩子病了,他们想做点什么。”他建议不要用药。但他说,如果一个妈妈听说有朋友用过这些药,并且相信这些药有效的话,他估计他的建议有时会被置之脑后。Parents who avoid the over-the-counter medications are instead branching out with other treatments. Margaret Willis of Dearborn, Mich., whose 16-month-old daughter is a patient of Dr. Frattarelli#39;s, says she is #39;frustrated#39; that there aren#39;t any medicines for her toddler#39;s frequent colds and coughs.不使用非处方药的家长会转向其他疗法。密歇根州迪尔伯恩(Dearborn)的威利斯(Margaret Willis)说,她女儿经常感冒咳嗽,却没有任何药可以用,让她颇为“失望”。她女儿16个月大,在弗拉塔雷利医生那儿看病。#39;There#39;s nothing out there for a baby,#39; she says. After trying a number of alternatives, Ms. Willis, a preschool teacher, finally settled on a treatment available on drugstore shelves that includes honey but no drugs, as well as a saline wash for the girl#39;s nose. She believes the treatments helped somewhat, she says.她说:“根本没有给婴儿用的药。”身为幼儿园老师的威利斯说,她尝试了许多替代方法,最终选定了一种在药店里卖的制剂,这种制剂含有蜂蜜,但不含药物成分,她还选择了一种洗鼻盐。她说,她觉得这些疗法有一定效果。Doctors say they tell parents to try elevating their children#39;s heads at night -- with babies, who aren#39;t supposed to have objects in their cribs, parents can put towels under one end of the mattress or even use the car seat. Steam from a hot shower can also help, though some doctors warn that parents need to be careful with humidifiers, since they can develop mold.医生们称,他们让家长试试夜间把孩子的头垫高──如果是婴儿的话(婴儿床里不应该放任何东西),家长可以在床垫的一头塞入毛巾,甚至可以使用汽车安全座椅。热水淋浴喷头的蒸汽也管用,但一些医生警告称,家长应该慎用加湿器,因为会产生霉菌。Suctioning the nose is another option, as well as acetaminophen for fever, and another old standby: #39;Lots of fluids,#39; says Alanna Levine, a pediatrician in Tappan, N.Y. For children older than 1 suffering from a cough, she also recommends a spoonful of honey, she says. Honey isn#39;t recommended for babies because of the possibility it carries spores that could lead to botulism. One key goal in trying to soothe coughs is to help toddlers get adequate sleep, doctors said.纽约州塔潘(Tappan)的儿科医生莱文(Alanna Levine)说,另一种选择方案是吸鼻涕,还可以用对乙口胺基酚来退烧,另外还有老话所说的“多喝水”。她说,一岁以上儿童咳嗽时,她建议可以喝一勺蜂蜜。但不建议婴儿喝蜂蜜,因为蜂蜜里可能会含有孢子,会导致肉毒杆菌中毒。医生说,镇咳的主要目的是帮助幼儿获得充足的睡眠。Jennifer Chang, the mother of a 9-month-old and a 3-year-old who see Dr. Levine, has tried a honey-based preparation, as well as steamy showers and hydration.住在纽约州奈阿克(Nyack)的Jennifer Chang有两个孩子,一个九个月大,一个三岁,他们在莱文医生那里看病。Jennifer Chang试过蜂蜜配方制剂,还试过淋浴蒸汽和让孩子多喝水。#39;It seems like there#39;s not a whole lot you can do,#39; says Ms. Chang, of Nyack, N.Y. #39;I want to make it feel better.#39;Jennifer Chang说:“你似乎没有太多可做的。但我很想让孩子舒一点。” /201305/242248桐乡市第三人民医院激光去红血丝多少钱When you combine a cellphone#39;s proximity to your ears, nose and mouth with its bacteria-loving warmth, the result can be harmful to your health. This hazard, says Jeffrey Cain, the president of the American Academy of Family Physicians and chief of family medicine at Children#39;s Hospital Colorado, often goes unnoticed. #39;Some things we think are personal are actually more public than we imagine.#39; Viruses from a phone can cause flu, pinkeye or diarrhea, says Dr. Cain.打电话时,手机需要与你的耳朵、鼻子和嘴亲密接触,这时手机的温度也恰好是细菌所喜欢的。这两个因素合在一起,其结果足以伤害你的健康。据美国家庭医生学会(American Academy of Family Physicians)会长、美国科罗拉多州儿童医院(Children#39;s Hospital Colorado)家庭医学科主任杰弗里?凯恩(Jeffrey Cain)称,这一危害往往会被忽视。凯恩士表示,“一些我们以为很私人化的东西实际上对公众所造成影响比我们想象中要大。”一部手机上的病菌有可能引发流感、传染性结膜炎或者腹泻。 For people who want to keep a clean touch screen, there is a disconnect between what doctors and medical researchers advise and what device makers suggest for phone sanitizing.那些希望保持自己手机触屏清洁的人会发现,在这一点上,医生和医学研究人员与手机设备制造商所给出的建议并不一致。 While products are marketed specifically for mobile-phone cleaning, they can sometimes damage the phone#39;s screen coating or fail to remove 100% of the germs.虽然市场上有些商品在广告中自称是专门用来清洁手机的,但这些产品有时候可能会破坏手机屏幕上的涂层,或是无法百分之百地杀除细菌。 Even though computers, keys, pens and landline phones can harbor germs, many people#39;s cellphones have become extra appendages─never far from the pillow, health club tmill or restaurant table.尽管电脑、钥匙、笔和固定电话也可能成为细菌的栖息地,但对于许多人来说,手机俨然已经成了身体的一部分:枕边、健身房的跑步机上或是餐桌旁,手机与他们总是寸步不离。 #39;We#39;re feeding the little creatures,#39; says Michael Schmidt, a professor and vice chairman of microbiology and immunology at the Medical University of South Carolina. #39;We#39;ve all seen that greasy smear [on the touch screen]. Where there is grease, there are bugs.#39;南卡罗来纳州医科大学(Medical University of South Carolina)微生物学和免疫学系副主任迈克尔·施密特(Michael Schmidt)教授说,“我们是在喂养这些小生物,我们都见过(手机屏幕上的)油污。有油渍的地方,就有那些小虫子。” A lab tested eight randomly selected phones from a Chicago office for this article. The phones showed no signs of E. coli or staphylococci bacteria. But all phones showed abnormally high numbers of coliforms, a bacteria indicating fecal contamination. Of the eight phones tested by HML Labs of Muncie, Ind., there were between about 2,700 and 4,200 units of coliform bacteria. In drinking water, the limit is less than 1 unit per 100 ml of water.手机会损害你的健康。位于印地安那州曼西市(Muncie)的实验室HML Labs为本文作者进行了一次测试,八部从芝加哥某办公室里随机抽选出来的手机参与了这次测试。这些手机均未显示出携带有大肠杆菌或是葡萄球菌的迹象。不过所有的手机都显示带有大量大肠菌群,其数量之多已超过正常范畴。带有大肠菌群意味着受到了排泄物污染。在这次测试所检验的八部手机上,大肠菌群的数量约在2,700个到4,200个单位之间。而根据饮用水标准,每100毫升饮用水的大肠菌群数量不能超过一个单位。 #39;The results are pretty bad,#39; said Dr. Donald Hendrickson, president of HML Labs and professor emeritus of medical microbiology at Ball State University. He says the results suggest a lack of hand-washing and proper hygiene.HML Labs总裁、波尔州立大学(Ball State University)医学微生物学荣誉退休教授唐纳德·亨德里克森(Donald Hendrickson)说,“这个结果相当糟糕。”他指出,这样的结果意味着手洗得不够勤,以及缺少适当的卫生措施。 HML then tested four different cleaning methods, including water, alcohol, Windex Original glass cleaner and Nice #39;N Clean electronic cleaning wipes. Alcohol performed best, cleaning nearly 100% of the bacteria. Plain water proved to be the least effective method of the four.之后,HML对四种不同的清洁方法进行了测试,包括用水擦、用酒精擦、使用Windex Original玻璃清洁剂以及用Nice #39;N Clean的电子设备清洁湿巾擦拭。结果显示,酒精的效果最好,几乎消灭了100%的细菌。四种方法中,单用水擦的效果最差。 Emily Evitt, 29, who lives in Culver City, Calif., and works as an intellectual property attorney, says she wipes down her computer keyboard and work phone each morning, but she hasn#39;t found a solution for her iPhone that both cleans well and won#39;t harm the screen.现年29岁、家住加州卡尔弗城(Culver City)的知识产权律师艾米莉·埃维特(Emily Evitt)表示,她每天早上都会擦拭一遍自己的电脑键盘和办公电话,不过她还没有找到合适的方法来清洁她的iPhone手机,能够在不伤害屏幕的前提下,让手机变干净。 #39;I see people at the gym with their iPhones and think, #39;Ugh,#39; #39; says Ms. Evitt, who avoids taking her phone to the gym but brings it with her to work lunches. Ms. Evitt#39;s husband, Mark, who founded a website called The Manly Housekeeper, wipes down the couples#39; phones with alcohol on the back cover and with water on the front.埃维特说,“我看到人们在健身房还随身带着自己的iPhone,我就想‘天呐’。”埃维特不会把手机带进健身房,但在吃工作午餐时,手机却是随身携带的。埃维特的丈夫马克(Mark)会用酒精擦拭俩人手机的背面,用水清洁手机的正面。马克创建了一个名为“男管家”(The Manly Housekeeper)的网站。 #39;People are just as likely to get sick from their phones as from handles of the bathroom,#39; says Dr. Cain of the American Academy of Family Physicians.美国家庭医生学会的凯恩士说,“手机让人们患病的概率不亚于洗手间的门把手。” #39;These are the unintended consequences of new technology that we haven#39;t seen before so we don#39;t know all the risks yet,#39; he says.他说,“这是新科技所带来的人们意想之外的后果,这种情况我们以前并未碰到过,因此对其全部风险,我们尚不十分了解。” Phone companies caution against using most household cleaners─which can leave phone owners like Ms. Evitt in a bind.手机设备制造商们提醒人们不要使用多数的家用清洁剂,这让像埃维特这样的机主对于手机清洁问题束手无措。 #39;It#39;s really problematic because a lot of manufacturers don#39;t tell you what coating is on the phone,#39; says Dr. Schmidt. #39;It#39;s hard to tell if an alcohol wipe will strip the oil-repellant coating and damage the phone screen.#39; Screenmaker Gorilla Glass, a provider to more than a dozen smartphone brands, says one of its screens has an easy-to-clean coating that will #39;survive repeated wiping.#39;施密特士说,“这的确是个问题,因为许多制造商并不告诉你手机上的涂层用的是什么材料。我们很难判断,用酒精擦拭是否会破坏防油涂层,并损害手机屏幕。”为十几家智能手机品牌生产手机屏幕的Gorilla Glass表示,他们生产的手机屏幕中,有一款所使用的涂层便于清洁,能够“经得住反复擦拭”。 An Apple spokeswoman directed a reporter to the customer manual, which explicitly forbids the use of #39;window cleaners, household cleaners, aerosol sprays, solvents, alcohol, ammonia or abrasives.#39; BlackBerry#39;s advice is similar. Its manual states: #39;Do not use liquid, aerosol cleaners, or solvents on or near your BlackBerry device.#39; A spokesman for Google Inc.#39;s GOOG -0.46% Android says the various manufacturers for its phone platform don#39;t carry an official policy on cleaning methods. Company representatives for the Android, BlackBerry and iPhone smartphones all said that they don#39;t have particular brands to recommend for cleaning.当记者问到苹果公司(Apple)时,该公司一位女发言人要记者参考用户手册,而用户手册中明确写着“请勿使用窗户清洁剂、家用清洁剂、喷雾剂、溶剂、酒精、氨水或腐蚀性溶剂来清洁iPhone。”黑莓(BlackBerry)手机的建议也是类似。黑莓的用户手册上写道:在黑莓设备本身及设备附近,请勿使用液体或气体清洁剂及溶剂。谷歌公司(Google)旗下安卓(Android)品牌的一位发言人表示,在如何清洁手机方面,使用其安卓平台的各家手机制造商并没有一个官方的政策。安卓手机、黑莓手机和iPhone这三类智能手机企业的发言人都表示,他们没有哪个牌子的清洁产品可以推荐。 Boh Ruffin, a senior applications engineer at Corning Gorilla Glass, says standard off-the-shelf cleaning products, such as alcohol wipes, won#39;t degrade the performance of the glass, though he wouldn#39;t speak to smartphones#39; performance directly.康宁公司(Corning)旗下Gorilla Glass的高级应用工程师·拉芬(Boh Ruffin)表示,标准的现成清洁产品,比如说酒精湿巾,不会降低该公司所生产这种玻璃的性能,不过他不愿意直接就其将如何影响智能手机性能做出评判。 #39;The only thing that#39;s going to affect the glass is some type of hydrochloric acid,#39; says Mr. Ruffin. #39;Microfiber cloths work great to remove oil and dirt.#39;拉芬表示,“唯一会对这种玻璃造成影响的是某些种类的盐酸。超细纤维的布能够很好地清除上面的油渍和灰尘。” Such phone-cleaning cloths usually boast about a 99% success rate, which Dr. Schmidt says isn#39;t good enough. #39;For some of the bacteria, you only need to ingest as few as 10 organisms to get sick.#39;这类手机清洁布通常自称能够99%的清除污物,但施密特士表示,这还不够。“有一些细菌,只要有区区10个进入人体内,就足以致病。” There is scant research on cellphone germs and their effect on the body, according to Dr. Cain. One 2011 study sampled the cellphones of 100 college students and discovered them to be #39;veritable reservoirs of pathogens#39; that can make you sick. The study authors, from the University of Cape Coast in Ghana, noted the high concentration and diversity of bacteria on the phones. A study published in the Journal of Applied Microbiology the same year warned that some 20 to 30% of viruses can be ily transferred from a fingertip to a glass surface, like that on a touch screen.据凯恩士称,目前有关手机上的病菌以及这些病菌对人体影响方面的研究还很欠缺。在2011年进行的一项研究中,100名大学生的手机接受了检测,结果发现,这些手机是“不折不扣的病原体仓库,”足以让人生病。此项研究由加纳海岸角大学(University of Cape Coast)的研究人员实施,他们在研究报告中指出,手机上的细菌密度很高,所带病菌种类也很丰富。同一年发表在《应用微生物学期刊》(Journal of Applied Microbiology)上的一项研究报告警告称,大约20%到30%的病菌能够轻易地从指尖传到玻璃表面,比如手机触屏之上。 Standing outside the Apple Store on Michigan Avenue, Marci Hollandsworth, a mother of four and self-described Purell hand sanitizer devotee from the suburbs of Chicago, says her family passed around a series of infections all summer, including several colds and pinkeye.在芝加哥密歇根大街(Michigan Avenue)苹果店的外头,四个孩子的母亲、来自芝加哥城郊的玛莎·霍兰斯沃斯(Marci Hollandsworth)说,整个夏天,她们一家人接连几次因交叉传染而生病,包括患了几次感冒和结膜炎。霍兰斯沃斯说自己是Purell洗手液的忠实用户。 She believes the culprit was the family#39;s four cellphones. #39;It#39;s really disgusting,#39; she says. #39;We are big Windex people for our iPhones and iPads. Anything that will sanitize our gadgets but not smell like a janitor#39;s closet, we use.#39;她认为罪魁祸首是他们家里的四部手机。她说,“真是可怕。我们经常在我们的iPhone和iPad上使用Windex品牌的清洁产品。任何清洁剂,只要能够帮这些设备消毒,而且不会闻起来好像清洁工的橱柜,我们都会用。” A spokeswoman for S.C. Johnson, which makes Windex, notes that its glass cleaner isn#39;t recommended for electronics, though they do offer a line of cleaners intended specifically for electronic devices.Windex产品制造商S.C. Johnson的一位女发言人指出,不建议消费者将该公司的玻璃清洁产品用于电子设备,不过他们确实生产了一个产品系列,可以专门用于电子设备。Derek Meister, a tech support agent from retailer Best Buy#39;s Geek Squad, suggests a UV disinfectant wand as the best cleaning solution because its light rays kill germs without touching the phone. Creators of a new product called PhoneSoap say it uses UV-C light to clean the phone while charging it, and that the device will begin shipping to consumers in January 2013.零售商百思买(Best Buy)的极务平台(Geek Squad)的技术持人员德里克·迈斯特(Derek Meister)推荐使用一种紫外线消毒棒,他认为这是最佳的清洁方案,因为这种消毒棒所发射出来的射线可以在不接触手机的情况下杀死细菌。一种名为PhoneSoap的新产品的发明者表示,这种设备可以在手机充电时,使用C波紫外线来对其进行清洁,此设备将于2013年1月开始投入市场。 New industry solutions may also be in the works. A start-up in Aurora, Colo. is using microscopic patterns that mimic shark skin─known for its unique design that is more resistant to bacteria than other animals#39; skin. The company, Sharklet Technologies, is working on products for medical devices, furniture and countertops, but aims to release phone products by the second half of 2013.新的行业解决方案或许也在酝酿之中。位于科罗拉多州奥罗拉(Aurora)的一家初创企业正在对鲨鱼皮的微观组成模式加以利用──鲨鱼皮的独特组成方式,使其比其他动物皮肤具备更强的防菌能力。这家名为Sharklet Technologies的公司目前开发的产品用于医疗设备、家具和厨房台面等。不过,该公司计划在2013年下半年推出应用于手机的产品。 /201211/209427海盐县妇幼保健院减肥瘦身多少钱

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