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富阳怀孕人流最佳时间富阳龙山医院富阳最好的男子医院 Books and Arts; Book Review;文艺;书评;A history of mapmaking;Views of the world;地图史;世界景象;There is no such thing as an objective map;准确地图谁见了;A History of the World in Twelve Maps. By Jerry Brotton.《12幅地图中的世界历史》,作者杰里·布洛顿。 Around 150AD an astronomer named Claudius Ptolemy wrote a book about how to make a proper map of the world. Penned in Greek on a papyrus scroll, the work, known as the “Geography”, is one of the most famous ancient texts on the science of mapmaking. It placed the job firmly in the domain of the geographer, who could use astronomy and mathematics to calculate from the stars what the world looked like below.公元150年前后,一位名叫克劳狄斯·托勒密的天文学家写了一本关于如何恰当绘制世界地图的书。该书用希腊文书写在一卷莎草上,这部被称为《地理学》的著作是地图制图学方面最著名的古文献之一。该书毫不含糊地将这项工作归于地理学家范畴,因为地理学家可以使用天文学和数学知识推测从星球上观测下面的地球是什么样子。Ptolemys “Geography” was an attempt to take myths out of maps. It recommended using geometric lines of latitude and longitude to convey a three-dimensional Earth on a two-dimensional surface, and it included the co-ordinates of over 8,000 locations in the ancient world. Whether Ptolemy drew his own maps is unclear. The “Geography” disappeared for a thousand years, only for an unoriginal copy to appear in the 13th century, replete with coloured maps drawn by Byzantine scribes. Regardless, these geographic drawings and all other maps based on scientific calculation are his legacy.托勒密的这部《地理学》试图揭开地图的神秘面纱。它告诉人们如何用经纬线这样的几何线条在二维的平面上表现出三维的地球来,书中还有古代世界8000多个地点的坐标。托勒密是否亲手绘制地图,目前尚不可知。《地理学》曾消失了一千年,直到13世纪才有一个副本出现,这个副本里倒是有很多拜占庭抄书官绘制的色地图。不管怎样,这些经过科学计算的地理绘图和其它地图都是他留给后人的宝贵财富。But as Jerry Brotton explains in “A History of the World in Twelve Maps”, Ptolemys scientific influence tells only part of the story. Mapmakers operate in environments of subjective knowledge. Their work is influenced by politics and patrons, regional assumptions and religious beliefs, all of which jostles with the science in determining what a map looks like and what it is used for. Mapmakers may be geographers and cartographers, but they can also be artists and imperialists, storytellers and propagandists.但正如杰里·布洛顿在《12幅地图中的世界史》中解释的那样,托勒密的科学影响力只是这个故事的部分。地图绘制者生存的环境主观色浓厚,他们的工作受到政治、赞助人、区域假设以及宗教信仰等因素的影响,在确定地图的面貌及用途时,这些因素与科学相互碰撞。地图绘制者可能是地理学家和制图专家,但他们同时也可能既是艺术家又是帝国主义者,既是故事讲述人又是宣传分子。Mr Brotton, a professor of Renaissance Studies at Queen Mary University of London, examines the complexity of mapmaking through the stories of 12 maps, which stretch across space and over time. The examples are impressively varied, from Ptolemys toils to Google Earth, and include some lesser-known Islamic and East Asian works. Despite their differences, these maps enjoy some intriguing similarities, largely for the way they illustrate the priorities of their authors.作为伦敦玛丽女王大学文艺复兴研究的教授,布洛顿先生通过12幅地图的讲述对绘图的复杂性进行了考察。这些地图跨度巨大,分属于不同时期、不同地区,既有托勒密艰苦劳作的产物,也有谷歌地球,还有一些更鲜为人知的伊斯兰作品和东亚作品。尽管它们之间各不相同,但也有一些有趣的相似之处,主要是由于这些地图反映了制图者在制图时所考虑的优先次序的方式。The medieval Mappa Mundi in Englands Hereford cathedral, for example, is little more than drawings on vellum, or stretched calfskin, and it lacks Ptolemys geometric method. Yet it is a beautifully detailed map of the Christian world, based on the topography of the Bible—bewildering to the geographer, but sensible to people of faith. Oriented east, Jerusalem sits at the centre. Britain clings insignificantly to the edge.比如,中世纪制作的英格兰赫里福德教堂世界地图不过是些绘在羔皮、或者说拉伸了的犊皮上的图案,没有使用托勒密的几何方法。但这幅基督教界的地图,取材于圣经上的记录,细节做得非常漂亮。这张地图让地理学家困惑不解,但对于基督徒来说则是顺理成章。它以东方为重心,把耶路撒冷放在地图的正中,英国则偏居一隅。Time would change this view of the world in the eyes of British mapmakers. By the 19th century maps often placed the British Isles at the core. One such map in the book features a view of the globe with Britain and the North Atlantic in the centre to better portray the empires sea power; Australia and half of South America are left off. Many of these maps, like those of the Spanish and Portuguese imperialists of the 16th century, did more to illustrate dominance and ambition than to improve cartographical practice.在英国制图者看来,人们对于世界的看法会随着时间的改变而改变。到了19世纪,不列颠群岛常被放在地图的中心。这本书中就有一幅这样的全球地图,将英国和北大西洋放在中心位置,以更好地彰显大英帝国的海洋实力。澳大利亚以及半个南美竟被忽落。这其中的很多地图,比如16世纪西班牙和葡萄牙的地图,更多地是为了显示帝国的统治和野心,而不是为了提高制图技术。Even now, when mapmakers have access to tools such as satellite images, there is still no objective and universally accepted map, argues Mr Brotton. “The idea of the world may be common to all societies; but different societies have very distinct ideas of the world and how it should be represented.” The author reckons that Google Earth and other digital mapping applications are just as vulnerable as their predecessors to national priorities and cultural norms. These maps can be cluttered with links to commercial enterprises and are subject to censorship. At their most penetrating, they raise questions of privacy.布洛顿先生认为,即便是现在,虽然绘图者有卫星影像这样的工具可用,准确的、可被普遍接受的地图依然难觅。“世界的概念对所有的社会来说是可能是共同的,但不同的社会中的世界概念及其表现形式千差万别”。作者认为,谷歌地球以及其他的数字制图程序与其前身一样,在国家利益和文化传统面前都显得脆弱不堪。这些地图与商业有着千丝万缕的联系,并且要遵守各种各样的审查制度。最严重的还会牵扯到隐私问题。Though he sets out to examine a mere 12 maps, Mr Brotton cannot help but give dozens more at least a passing mention. Ironically, this can be disorienting. Still, there is much to gain from this rich if overly detailed book. As the products of both art and science, maps are often fascinating interpretations of the perceived world. They are about data and spatial awareness, but also about money, empire and discovery. They tend to reveal more about the mapmakers than the lands they chronicle. Mr Brotton may fall short of providing the promised “history of the world”, but he offers plenty of good reasons to see old maps as windows to lost times.尽管最初着手研究的地图只有区区12幅,但布洛顿先生在书中提及的地图却有很多,令人啼笑皆非地是,这可能让读者有些找不到方向。但不管怎样,只要你仔细阅读定会受益良多。地图既是艺术品,又是科学产品,常常是对这个被感知世界的美妙诠释。这些地图呈现给读者的是数据和空间感,但它也涉及到金钱、帝国和发现,向人们提供更多的是地图背后那些地图制作者的故事。布洛顿先生可能没有提供给读者所谓的“世界历史”,但是,他提供了大量理由来解释,为什么可将看老地图作为了解已逝时代的窗口。 /201209/198385We usually think of play as something thats done only in ones free time, separate from the serious business of life. For an infant or a toddler, however,learning to play is a crucial part of social development. The ages between eight months and three years are a very busy time for children. This is when they first learn to use language, starting with single words and moving gradually into word groups and finally sentences.我们通常认为玩耍是在闲暇时光做的事情,应该与正规的生活活动区分开来。然而,对于婴儿或者学步的小孩而言,学会玩耍则是社交能力发展的至关重要的部分。孩子从8个月大至3岁这段时期是最忙的。在这段时期他们第一次学着使用语言,从单个的词语开始,逐渐学会组词造句。This is also when they learn what psychologists call symbolic play; that is, using gestures or objects to symbolize other events and objects. Just as the abstract words of a language can symbolize real things, the word “house” for a real house, a childs play doll might come to symbolize a real baby. Whats more, just as language starts with words, then moves gradually to sentences, symbolic play starts with discrete episodes pretending to change the baby, pretending to answer the phone then moves to more elaborate games.这段时期也是孩子们学习心理学家称为象征性游戏的时期,即用手势或者物体来象征其它事件或者物体。正如抽象的单词可以象征真实的事物,例如:单词“house” 象征着一间真正的房子,孩子的玩具娃娃可能用来象征一个真正的孩子。更重要的是语言学习是从单词开始,逐渐发展到句子,象征性游戏也是这样,从不连续的情景开始,例如假装给小孩换尿布,假装在回电话,然后换成更为复杂的游戏。A number of psychologists have studied the connection between play and language mastery. One group found that they could predict how quickly children would learn to speak by carefully watching how they played. Another study seems to indicate that you can actually improve a childs mastery of language by training him or her in the basics of symbolic play, although more research is needed to confirm this.许多心理学家研究过玩耍和语言能力的联系。其中一组发现可以通过观察孩子们玩游戏来估计他们能多快地学会说话。另一项研究似乎表明通过象征性游戏训练可以提高孩子的语言能力,不过还需要更多的实验来明这一点。原文译文属!201301/223371里山镇中心医院打胎一般要花多少钱

富阳泌尿男科医院CHEERS greeted Barack Obamarsquo;s hiring of Cass Sunstein away from the University of Chicago. Mr Sunstein, a lawyer, now head of the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, is in charge of lifting the heavy hand of regulation from Americarsquo;s economy. Known for his clever economics, Mr Sunstein favours a ;libertarian paternalism;; policies that nudge, but do not force, people to do the right things. For example, making people opt out instead of opting in to pension plans makes many more sign up, to their benefit. And Mr Sunstein has been involved in redesigning dietary recommendations and fuel-efficiency stickers for cars, making formerly confusing information more useful.奥巴马从芝加哥大学挖来了凯斯bull;桑斯坦,此举让人欢欣鼓舞。桑斯坦律师现在是白宫信息和监管事务办公室主任,负责降低监管对美国经济的干预力度。桑斯坦因其睿智的经济学思想而名满天下,并且信奉对经济应持;家长式的自由管理;态度;他认为政策应该引导,而不是强制人民去做正确的事情。比如说,让人民选择是否放弃而不是选择是否加入退休金计划使得更多人参与该计划,并最终让他们自身受益。桑斯坦还参与了饮食建议与汽车燃油效能标签的重新设计,使得之前混乱的信息更易于理解。Mr Sunstein is now in charge of overseeing a year-old executive order from Mr Obama telling every agency to slimits rule book. Mr Sunstein says every one has complied, with 580 proposals received from the departments under his purview. (Independent agencies like the Securities and Exchange Commission are not among them.) And he says real savings are on the way. Lifting a requirement for states to require pollution vapour-recovery systems will save 0m in five years. Making it easier for doctors and hospitals to participate in the Medicare programme for the elderly will save billion. He adds that agencies have responded not grudgingly (the old stereotype of bureaucrats loth to surrender cash or power), but eagerly.桑斯坦现在负责监督一年前奥巴马总统颁布的行政命令(的执行情况),该命令要求各有关部门精简其规章制度。桑斯坦表示所有部门都执行了该法令,并且他管辖的部门已经上交了580份提案(不包括券交易委员会等独立机构)。他表示更切实有效的节省计划即将展开。要求各州配备污染蒸汽回收系统的措施可以在未来五年内节约4亿美元。让医生和医院更方便参与老年人的美国联邦医疗计划的举措可以节约约50亿美元。桑斯坦补充说,各级部门并不是勉强应付该行政令(旧官僚体制往往不愿意交出资金和权力),而是予以积极配合。But the Obama administration has added to the rulebook at the same time as it is trimming. And many of the rules are big: 194 of them, each with an economic impact (not necessarily a net cost) of 0m or more, have been published in the Federal Register. In George Bushrsquo;s first three years, 141 hit the books. Even if most have more benefits than costs, as the agenciesrsquo; economists calculate, the scope of regulation is not shrinking. The overall cost of regulation is unknown, and measurement controversial. One study for the Small Business Administration found that regulation cost .75 trillion a year in 2008, though many object to the analysis. It relies on a methodology, invented at the World Bank, which one of the bankrsquo;s researchers says was misused, and Mr Sunstein dismisses it as ;an urban myth;.但是奥巴马政府在精简法规的同时又在对法规进行增补,增补的许多法规都规模甚大:其中有194项经济影响(不一定是净成本)超过1亿美元的法规都已在联邦公报上公布。在乔治布什政府上台的前三年,类似的法规有141项。甚至即使大多数法规带来的利益都高于其成本(根据各级部门的经济学家计算),监管的范围仍然没有缩减。监管的总成本仍是个未知数,计算方法也饱受争议。一项对于小型企业的研究表明2008年仅不完全统计分析的监管成本就高达1.75万亿美元,该统计基于世界研究出的分析方法,但该的研究人员表示该方法其实并不适用于此,桑斯坦也反对该结果,认为这是个;都市传说;(意即认为此事并不可信)。Meanwhile, the executive agencies are accused of minimizing costs by counting only hours spent on paperwork or money spent on kit to comply with regulation. The real costs may be found in the hard-to-calculate perversion of behaviour that over-regulation causes. At the same time, the benefits tallied up by regulators may be overvalued (see article). The agencies calculate their own numbers, using their own methodologies. But what no one doubts is that compliance with the ever-expanding rule book is wearisome and hard.与此同时,行政部门被指控通过仅计算文案工作时间和设备成本来最小化成本以迎合监管要求。真实成本可能体现在由于监管过度导致人们为了应付政策而表现出来的反常行为中,而这些成本是难以量化的。同时,各部门可能过高估计了监管所带来的收益(参考此文),因为各部门都使用自己的数据和计算方法来计算收益。但是唯一可以确定的是,想要符合日渐繁杂的规章制度已经是难上加难了。Furthermore, the politics of removing regulations is harrowing. Each removal must go through the same cumbersome process it took to put the regulation in place: comment periods, internal reviews and constant behind-the-scenes lobbying. Ironically, regulated industries may actually not want regulations removed. They have sunk costs into compliance, and do not want those costs taken away to the benefit of upstart competitors.而且,降低监管力度的政策同样难以实施。法规的精简需要和增加法规走同样复杂冗长的流程:评估阶段,内部评审,不停的幕后游说。讽刺的是,饱受法规监管折磨的工业企业实际上反而可能希望保留这些法规监管,因为他们不希望他们由于遵守法规所带来的沉没成本因为法规的消失而变成新兴竞争对手的利益。Many proposals are floated to deal with this last problem. One, supported by the Republican candidate Mitt Romney, is to remove one regulation for each new one that is proposed. A second idea is to create a truly independent scorer for regulatory costs and benefits, modelled on the widely respected Congressional Budget Office. A third is to create a board of outside grandees to help break political deadlocks, like the Base Realignment and Closure commission, which was able to prod Congress to shut down military bases. And yet another is creating a full-time advocate for regulatory rollback: one state, Kansas, has created an ;Office of the Repealer;, which aggregates complaints and suggests repeals to the governor and legislature. Lastly, automatic ;sunsets; of laws have their fans, though Congress could mindlessly reauthorise laws gathered up in omnibus bills (and a bitterly divided Congress might allow good laws to lapse).为了应对上述最后一个问题,许多提案纷纷浮出水面。其中一个是由共和党候选人Mitt Romney所持的提案,内容为每当有一项新提案提出时,就废除一项对应的旧法规。第二个办法是以广受尊崇的国会预算办公室为蓝本,成立一个真正独立的评判机构来裁定法规的成本与利益。第三个办法是成立一个由外界知名人士组成的;董事会;,以帮助打破政治僵局,比如说就像之前的军事基地重组与关闭委员会一样,可以督促国会关闭军事基地。但是还有一个办法是成立一个全职机构负责回审监管法规:堪萨斯州率先成立了;废止议案办公室;,功能是汇总对于议案的反对意见并向政府和立法机关提交议案的废止建议。除此之外,还有人持法律的定期自动;终结;,当然国会还是可能会无脑地重新为各项议案中提及的即将到期的法律延期的(而且加入自动;终结;条文后,国会内部的分歧也可能会让一些好法律在到期后无法被延期而流产)。Finally, one bad idea is the REINS bill. Passed by the House, it would involve Congress more heavily in rule-making. If there is a body worse than the executive agencies at this kind of thing, it is Congress. A 1999 study by the OECD found that poorly written laws, not subsequent rule-writing, were at the heart of Americarsquo;s regulatory woes. (No one has been foolish enough to suggest that Congress has become wiser since then.) Jim Cooper, a Democratic House member from Tennessee, says of his colleagues: ;People vote on things they have not , do not have the time to , and cannot .; He further despairs of the power of special interests to bend Congressrsquo;s will: ;There is a pimento lobby,; he says of those who fight for the interests of those who grow the small red peppers served inside olives. ;You do not want to cross the pimento people.; In such an environment, getting things undone is at least as hard as getting them done, and perhaps harder still.最后不得不说,REINS法案(详细审查法案)是个糟糕的决定。众议院通过了该法案,国会可以越俎代庖地更多地参与规章制定环节。还有什么比行政部门更烂的类似机构吗?舍国会其谁!经济合作与发展组织(OECD)在1999年的研究表明,美国监管困境的核心问题是那些写的很烂的法律,而不是随后的规则制定。(没有人会天真到认为国会会吸取这份研究的经验而变得更加明智)来自田纳西州的民主党下议院议员Jim Cooper对他的同事表示:;国会那些家伙根本不去看他投了什么一票,也没时间看,更看不懂那些玩意儿。;他更对国会的意愿屈于特殊利益集团之事表示失望:;有一个关于辣椒的游说,;他指的是那些为了争取那些种小红辣椒(餐馆里放在橄榄里的那种辣椒)的人的利益的人,;你们(国会)都不敢得罪那些;辣角色;。;在这样的环境里,要把现有法规取消不比建立新法规更简单,甚至有可能更难。201202/172552渌渚镇妇幼保健院彩超检查好吗 Two years after a tainted milk scandal that left six children dead and 300,000 sick, Chinese researchers have discovered natural ;biomarkers; in cows milk which they intend to use as a new standard for testing the quality of milk.曾经导致6名儿童死亡,300,000名儿童生病的毒奶粉事件已经过去两年了,日前,中国科研人员研发了检测牛奶的新标准,他们发明了“生物标记法”。Weve found that there is a new group of molecules in milk called microRNAs. There are special characteristics related to these microRANs in the milk, so in the end we selected seven microRNAs as boimarkers to test its quality in raw milk and for using quality control.我们在牛奶中发现了一种名为microRNAs的分子。在牛奶中,microRNAs具有的独特特性使它成为了生物标记法的重要载体。科学家们选择了7种microRANs作为原料乳的生物标记和对比标记。In the paper published in Cell Research on Tuesday June 15th, Chinese scientist discribed how they analyzed raw milk taken from a farm in eastern China and found that they contain naturally occurring molecules called microRNAs.在6月15日周二发表的关于细胞研究的论文中,中国科学家们描述了他们是如何从华东地区的农场中选取原料乳,加以分析研究,并最终发现天然牛奶中携带的microRNAs分子。They can be used to test the quality of milk made in different places, but these seven microRNAs are relatively stable as we examine milk from different origins in stages of production. Since it is stable throughout, we can use it as a measure in testing raw milk.被标示的7种核糖核酸microRNAs将被用来检验不同地区牛奶的质量,而在检验过程中,这7种核糖核酸相对稳定。正是因为核糖核酸自始至终都很稳定的这一特质,它们才被用来检测原料乳。At least 50,000 babies across China were hospitalized in 2008. Many of them with kidney stones after drinking poor quality milk tainted with melamine. The scandal sparked intense public fury, and as a result many Chinese families who can afford to now rely on imported formula for their children.在2008年的毒奶粉事件中,有至少50,000名儿童住院接受治疗。喝了三聚氰胺超标的牛奶后,许多儿童都患上了肾结石。该事件引起了社会一片哗然。中国的家长们纷纷选择进口奶粉。Theoretically, if the milk is deluded or other things are added to the milk, theres no way to restore the microRNAs to its original level, so as long as we test and confirm the level of microRNAs, well be able to tell original raw milk from milk that has other additives.理论上说,假牛奶或含有添加剂牛奶中的核糖核酸是不能再恢复到原本形态的,所以只要我们能检测出牛奶中的核糖核酸,我们就能判断这些原料乳是否含有添加剂。Zhang said the seven molecules or biomarkers can be used to design test kits for sampling milk.张先生表示,这7中核糖核酸,或者说是生物标记,是用来检测牛奶的生物试剂。Jill Kitchener reports,Reuters.Jill Kitchener,路透社消息。注:本篇文章英文来自普特论坛,译文属原创,,。201206/188663杭州市富阳区妇幼保健院有四维彩超吗

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