明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年10月19日 21:58:29
WeChat, the Chinese social media smartphone app, saw an increase in user numbers of 41 per cent year on year to 500m at the end of 2014, in a sign that parent company Tencent is extending its reach for the mobile internet.2014年底,微信(WeChat)用户数量同比增长41%,至5亿人,突显推出这款中国社交媒体智能手机应用的腾讯(Tencent)在移动互联网领域扩大地盘。Tencent made the announcement on Wednesday, as it reported results that missed analysts’ forecasts. Fourth-quarter net profits were up 51 per cent year on year and net income for the quarter ending December increased to Rmb5.95bn.腾讯是在周三发布财报时宣布上述消息的,财报中的业绩低于分析师此前的预期。2014年第四季度净利润同比增长51%,至59.5亿元人民币。Analysts had estimated net income would be Rmb6.26bn, according to a Reuters poll but performance was weighed down by the costs of content deals with the likes of HBO and the US National Basketball Association.路透社(Reuters)调查显示,分析师此前预计该季度净利润将为62.6亿元人民币,但腾讯与美国家庭电影频道(HBO)和美国全国篮球协会(US National Basketball Association)等机构达成内容协议的花费拉低了业绩。Revenue grew 24 per cent to Rmb20.98bn, slightly higher than forecasts, driven mainly by online gaming revenues.2014年末季营收同比增长24%,至209.8亿元人民币,略高于预期,主要推动因素是在线游戏收入。It is unclear how much WeChat contributed to Tencent’s revenues but the app’s growth is a strong indicator of the company’s long-term health as it tries to adjust its business to be more suitable for mobile devices.尚不清楚微信对腾讯的营收做出了多少贡献,但这款应用的增长是该公司长期前景良好的强有力指标。腾讯正努力使其业务更适合移动设备。“We extended our leadership in games and online media, and made breakthroughs in emerging platforms such as online security#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;and mobile payments,” Ma Huateng, Tencent chairman, said in a statement.腾讯董事长马化腾在一份声明中表示:“我们在游戏和在线媒体领域扩大了领先优势,在网络安全……和移动付等新兴平台上取得了突破。”WeChat is the second highest ranked app in China, behind QQ, Tencent’s other chatting app, which claimed to have 815m registered monthly users at the end of 2014. However, that figure is more than the total number of internet users in China, which the government puts at 649m.微信是中国排名第二的应用,仅次于腾讯的另一款聊天软件QQ,后者据称在2014年底有8.15亿月活跃账户。然而,这个数字比中国网民总数还要多,后者的官方数据是6.49亿人。Tencent has been reluctant to monetise WeChat by flooding it with advertising, which could impair efforts to increase the user base. But this is expected to change.腾讯迄今不愿在微信上大量投放广告赚钱,以免损害其扩大用户数量的努力。但这一点预计将会改变。Ricky Lai, at Guotai Junan International, a Hong Kong brokerage, said analysts anticipated that advertising would be introduced on a large scale later this year.香港券商国泰君安国际(Guotai Junan International)的分析师赖健邦(Ricky Lai)表示,分析师们预计微信将于今年晚些时候大量推出广告。Early attempts to test ads on the service have not always gone smoothly. After a BMW ad was introduced on some users’ feeds in January, many users who were not targeted by the luxury brand’s marketing complained of “discrimination” by Tencent’s data mining algorithm. They claimed it unfairly profiled them as not wealthy or successful enough to view the sought-after BMW ad.微信此前投放广告的尝试并不总是顺利。今年1月微信对一些用户试投放一宝马(BMW)广告之后,许多没有看到这个奢侈品牌广告的用户不满地表示,自己受到了腾讯数据挖掘算法的“歧视”。他们声称,这个算法不公平地认定他们为不够有钱或不够成功,不配看到这热门的宝马广告。 /201503/365314

Sometime in 2000, my colleague Verlyn Klinkenborg started bringing his Mac laptop to our New York Times editorial board meetings. The rest of us would hover around the sleek white machine with the cool lighting radiating from it, wondering if Verlyn could possibly be serious. Some of us had used Apple computers AAPL -0.84% in college, sure, but everyone does crazy things in college.2000年的某个时候,我的同事福林o克林肯伯格开始带着自己的苹果笔记本电脑参加《纽约时报》编委会。一看到这玩意,其他人立刻纷涌上前,围观这台散发酷炫背光、圆润光滑的白色电脑,吃不准福林到底是不是真的要用它工作。一些同事上大学时也用过苹果电脑,但谁没在大学时干过点疯狂的事儿呢?Was an Apple really fit for a workplace? Verlyn assured us that it was no toy, and that his Mac could do all the things ours could—the mix of surfing, emailing, and pontificating that the gig entailed—without crashing as frequently as our PCs. Verlyn claimed that his Apple was not susceptible to those nasty viruses that plagued our land of “WinTel,” and I wanted to believe him. I too bought a Mac and instantly felt cooler as a result.苹果电脑真能用来办公吗?福林向我们保,它可不是什么玩具,我们的电脑能干的这台Mac都能干——上网、发邮件之类的,并信誓旦旦地断言它很可靠,绝不会像PC那样经常死机。福林宣称,他的苹果电脑不会感染一直困扰“微软英特尔联盟”的各种讨厌病毒,我对此将信将疑。等我也买了一台Mac后,立刻觉得自己时尚多了。Fast forward to 2015, when the novelty would be for someone at a meeting to take out a laptop that isn’t an Apple. And, somehow, the caché remains. Apple has walked the tightrope between ubiquity and coolness, attaining one without sacrificing the other.时光飞逝,转眼就到了2015年,现在如果有人在会议上拿出一台不是苹果的笔记本电脑,那才是新鲜事儿呢。同时苹果也保留了其独特性。可以说它一直是在大众化和引领潮流之间走钢丝,在努力赢得前者的同时,不牺牲后者。The company recently announced the most profitable quarter in U.S. corporate history, a three-month period in which it sold almost 75 million iPhones and 5.5 million Macs. CEO Tim Cook, Steve Jobs’ down-to-earth successor, couldn’t help himself on the earnings call, describing the quarter as “historic” and his company’s performance—selling an average of 34,000 iPhones an hour, 24/7—as “hard to comprehend.” Apple is now the world’s most valuable company, with a stock market valuation of some 0 billion and nearly 0 billion in cash on hand. The company’s iTunes store counts a staggering 800 million active users.最近,苹果公司公布了美国公司史上盈利最丰厚的一个财季,在过去三个月中,它售出了约7500万台iPhone和550万台Mac。这使首席执行官蒂姆o库克,史蒂夫o乔布斯脚踏实地的继任者,在季报电话会议上情难自禁,称这个财季“具有历史意义”,公司的业绩——按一周七天,每天24小时算,相当于每小时卖出34,000台iPhone——“令人难以置信”。苹果现在是全球价值最高的公司,市值约7000亿美元,手握1800亿美元现金。iTunes商店拥有8亿活跃用户,着实令人惊叹。What’s most astonishing, given those numbers, is that Apple is far less ubiquitous than you might think. It has plenty of room to grow. Indeed, it may only be getting started.尽管这些数字如此巨大,但最让人目瞪口呆的是,苹果产品远不如一般人所想象的那么普及。它还有很大的成长空间,实际上,它可能才刚起步。If you look at its existing product lines, Apple only dominates the tablet market. The competing Android operating system runs more than two-thirds of the world’s smartphones. Apple ranks fifth worldwide in the number of computers sold, and third in the U.S. There is plenty of market share left for Apple to steal from others.看看现有产品线就会发现,苹果只不过统治了平板电脑市场。全球有三分之二的智能手机搭载的是安卓操作系统。在全球电脑销量排行中,苹果仅位列第五,在美国市场上也仅位列第三。苹果还能从对手那里抢到很大的市场份额。Apple’s growth strategy is disciplined. The company doesn’t slash prices or create subpar products to meet less affluent consumers in emerging markets halfway. Apple instead holds out its meticulously designed, pricier products as coveted trophies for new middle-class consumers.苹果的增长战略是极具原则的。它不会大幅降价或推出性能平平的产品来迎合新兴市场中那些囊中羞涩的消费者。它只会拿出精心设计、价格高昂的产品,将其打造为新兴中产消费者渴望的、彰显身份的象征。Apple is only starting to wade into an array of markets that it will likely revolutionize, and dominate, in short order. Apple Pay, its bid to become your all-encompassing cashless wallet, is off to a strong start. Fledgling Apple ventures like HomeKit, CarPlay, iBeacon, and the Apple Watch provide clues to Apple’s unstated, ultimate goal: providing you with one portal, or operating system, that links your Apple devices to your car and your home.苹果进军一系列新兴市场的脚步才刚刚启动,它很可能将在很短时间内彻底改变或统治这些市场。号称要成为无所不能的电子钱包的Apple Pay,就是一个强劲的开端。而那些羽翼未丰的项目,如HomeKit,CarPlay,iBeacon以及Apple Watch,则让我们看清了苹果未曾明说的终极目标:提供一个端口或一套操作系统,将你的苹果设备与你的汽车和住宅连接在一起。No other company is anywhere near being able to match Apple in providing us with such seamless curation of our lives. The Italian novelist Umberto Eco famously said in the 1990s that Apple was like Catholicism in that its followers had to adhere to one way of doing things, while Microsoft (you could say Google nowadays) was more akin to Protestantism, which gave followers more latitude to reach their own conclusions and organize themselves accordingly.没有哪家公司能像苹果这样,让我们的生活实现无缝连接。意大利小说家安伯托o艾柯1990年代曾说过一句名言,苹果就像天主教,信徒们只能遵循一种行为方式,而微软(如今你也可以说谷歌)则更像是新教,信徒们可以有更多方式得出自己的结论并自行组织起来。And so Apple’s prospects appear brighter than ever. Its own success would seem to be the only threat to a company that has billed itself as the scrappy underdog that promised to help us “think different.” Therein lies the company’s existential challenge: Can Apple remain cool if its products become the one indispensable means of controlling your life and communicating with others?有鉴于此,苹果的前景看上去比以往任何时候都更加光明。这家公司曾经自称为斗志昂扬的失败者,声称要帮我们“不同凡想”(think different),而如今,过于成功才是它面临的唯一威胁。苹果现在面临的挑战在于:如果苹果的产品成为控制我们生活并与他人联络的不可或缺的手段时,它还能那么酷吗?I reached out to Verlyn, who now teaches at Yale, to ask whether he’s still inhabiting the Apple ecosystem. He is, and his disgust at his pre-2000 Windows experience sounds as raw as it did when he first started proselytizing for the Mac. But he draws a line at the coming Apple Watch: “I’ve never worn a watch, and I can’t imagine starting now.”为此我特地去请教目前在耶鲁大学任教的福林,看他是否还固守着苹果的生态系统。确实还这样,而且他现在依然还清楚地记得在2000年开始膜拜Mac电脑之前使用Windows系统的糟糕体验。但他跟即将上市的Apple Watch划清了界线:“我从来就不戴手表,也不能想象现在要开始戴。” /201502/360374

  HONG KONG — Liu Xuelong, a television and documentary producer in Beijing, hasn’t used his television in years. He gets all of his entertainment on his iPhone 6 Plus, where he also taps a plethora of apps to buy plane tickets, pay bills, talk with clients.香港——在北京从事电视和纪录片制作工作的刘雪龙(音)多年没打开过自家的电视机了。他的一切都是在自己的iPhone 6 Plus上进行的。轻轻点击那上面的大量应用,他便可以买机票、结账,或者与客户沟通。Weixin, a text and messaging app, is among his favorites. “Every morning the first thing I do when I wake up is log onto Weixin to see what new things my friends have shared online overnight,” said Mr. Liu, 25.即时通讯应用微信是他最喜欢的应用之一。“每天早上醒来第一件事,就是登陆微信,看看前一天夜里朋友们在上面分享了些什么,”25岁的刘雪龙说。Advertisers increasingly want to be part of Mr. Liu’s digital world — and of the other 527 million people in China with smartphones. Next year companies are expected to spend more money on digital advertising than on television campaigns in China.广告商越来越想进入刘雪龙——以及中国另外5.27亿智能手机用户——所在的那个数字世界。在中国,企业明年在数字广告上的资金投入,预计会超过电视广告。It is a stark shift from three years ago when nearly half of the advertising dollars went to television and just 14 percent went to digital, according to ZenithOptimedia, an advertising agency. China is also diverging from the ed States, where television continues to dominate.广告公司实力传播集团(ZenithOptimedia)称,同三年前相比,这是一个重大转变。那时候,近一半的广告投入流向了电视,而用于数字领域的广告投入仅占14%。中国也正在与电视依然占据主导地位的美国渐行渐远。“It’s the first time we’ve had an enormous middle class emerge while being digitally connected,” said Jeff Walters, a partner at the Boston Consulting Group in Beijing. “It sets the stage for why digital advertising is so important.”“这是我们首次看到,一个庞大的中产阶级的崛起伴随着他们与数字领域的密切联系,”波士顿咨询集团(Boston Consulting Group)驻北京的合伙人魏杰鸿(Jeff Walters)说。“这为数字广告的极端重要性奠定了基础。”With the largest pool of smartphone users in the world, China has become a petri dish for marketers and technology companies alike to test ways to get consumers to buy both online and off.在智能手机用户人数居世界之最的背景下,中国已经同时成为了营销和科技公司的试验田,被它们用来测试那些旨在吸引消费者在线上和线下消费的广告方式。Homegrown social media platforms in China are at the center of the push. Facebook, YouTube and Twitter are all blocked in China, giving platforms like Tencent’s Weixin — known as WeChat outside the country — and Sina Weibo an advantage.中国本土的社交媒体平台是这番努力的中心。Facebook、YouTube和Twitter均在中国大陆遭到屏蔽,让腾讯旗下的微信及新浪旗下的微占得先机。Coca-Cola tapped into Weixin’s built-in er for QR codes, two-dimensional bar codes, to start its Lyric Coke campaign in China. Coke bottles there featured famous Chinese lyrics like “Baby, I’m sorry,” and “I love summer.”可口可乐(Coca-Cola)利用微信内置的二维码扫描器,在中国发起了歌词瓶活动。可乐瓶外面印上了“宝贝对不起”或“我爱夏天”等著名的中文歌词。Coca-Cola then encouraged consumers to share a 10-second clip of a song with friends through social media by scanning the QR code on the bottle. Since its start in May, the Coke campaign has generated over three billion views, according to Isobar, the company responsible for the campaign.然后,可口可乐鼓励消费者通过扫描瓶身上的二维码在社交媒体上与朋友分享一段时长10秒的歌曲片段。负责这次营销活动的公司安索帕(Isobar)称,自5月开始以来,可口可乐歌词瓶已经带来了超过30亿的点击量。Five years ago, marketers could get away with simply using the same ads they used globally and just translating the message, said Shaun Rein, the founder and managing director of the China Market Research Group. Today, they have to speak to the Chinese dream.中国市场研究集团(China Market Research Group)创始人和董事总经理雷小山(Shaun Rein)表示,五年前,营销机构可以使用和全球市场一样的广告,只要翻译一下核心信息就行了。但现在,它们必须要切合中国人的梦想。“What is happening is that Western brands have to create new aspirations that the Chinese consumer wants,” Mr. Rein added.“目前的情况是,西方品牌一定要创造出中国消费者接受的那种新的渴望,”雷小山还说。In its campaign, Coke used contemporary Chinese pop songs. Ads for North Face, the outdoor wear company, featured images of animals from an African safari, in an effort to appeal to the growing legions of Chinese travelers.可口可乐在自己的营销活动中利用了中国当代流行歌曲。户外饰公司北面(North Face)的广告则主打非洲之旅中的动物图片,以吸引规模日渐壮大的中国游客消费群。As in the ed States and Europe, advertisers have to learn to adapt to changes in digital landscape, which in China can unfold at breakneck speed.与在美国和欧洲一样,广告商必须学会适应数字领域的变化。在中国,这种变化的速度的可谓一日千里。For several years, the microblogging site Weibo was the most popular forum in China. Much like Twitter, the platform allowed users to broadcast information to any user.在早前的几年时间里,新浪微一直是中国最受欢迎的平台。和Twitter很像,它允许用户向任何其他用户发布信息。But last year in an attempt to quiet public debate, the government cracked down on some of the forum’s most prominent verified commentators, nicknamed the Big Vs, accusing microbloggers of sping false statements and detaining them.然而去年,为了压制公众辩论,政府对新浪微上部分经过认的最著名的人士采取了严厉措施。这些俗称“大V”的微用户被指传播虚假消息,并遭到拘捕。This prompted some Weibo users to leave the site. At the same time, Weixin was quickly gaining popularity as free alternative to text messaging.这促使一些用户离开了新浪微。与此同时,作为一种可以代替短信的免费工具,微信的人气飙升。Weixin is now the most popular forum in China. Weixin and its international version WeChat together have 468 million active users. Weibo has 167 million active users today.微信是中国目前最受欢迎的平台,国内版和国际版共有4.68亿活跃用户。新浪微则是眼下拥有1.67亿活跃用户。“I’ve been here four years. In that time I’m now on the third dominant social network — first it was Renren, then Weibo and now it’s WeChat,” said Chris Jones, the executive creative director at the ad agency Wunderman in China.“我来了中国四年,先后使用过三种主要的社交网络——先是人人,然后是新浪微,现在是微信,”伟门广告公司(Wunderman)中国区执行创意总监钟志勤(Chris Jones)说。Weixin’s particular quirk — that users communicate only with friends and contacts within their circle — has allowed companies to develop direct relationships with consumers. But it also poses a challenge since users have to first choose to include a brand within their Weixin network.微信的特殊之处在于,用户只能跟圈子内部的朋友和熟人交流。这让企业可以与消费者建立直接的联系。不过,它也构成了一个挑战,因为用户有权决定是否把某个品牌加入自己的微信平台。The fashion house Burberry worked its way into consumers’ circles by giving users a chance to watch its Autumn-Winter 2014 runway show in real time, along with commentary from designers and celebrities watching the show. To get access to the show, users just had to add Burberry’s public account to their Weixin network.时尚品牌柏利(Burberry)进入消费者圈子的方法,是让用户有机会实时观看2014年的秋冬时装秀,以及设计师和名人对它的。为了观看这场活动,用户必须把柏利的公众号加入微信。Once Burberry is in their network, the fashion house can target users directly in the future. One interactive feature prompts users to click on “My Burberry” and type out their initials. An image of a monogrammed bottle of perfume then appears, along with details of how to buy it.一旦进入了消费者的朋友圈,柏利从此之后就可以直接对准目标用户群。柏利还提供了一个互动功能:用户可以点击“My Burberry”,输入自己名字的首字母。然后,屏幕上就会出现一瓶印有首字母花押字的香氛,以及如何购买它的具体信息。Not all digital ad campaigns in China have gone smoothly. One Chinese company called Tidy Laundry recently tried to stir up some attention online with a posted to Youku Tudou, a Chinese streaming site. In the , two young women strip down to their underwear on the Shanghai metro. A man wearing a blue uniform then enters the subway car and hands them a clean set of clothes, which they change into. The Shanghai police fined the company, according to state media.并非所有中国市场上的网络营销都进展顺利。中国公司泰笛洗涤最近曾试图通过在流媒体视频公司优酷土豆的网站上发布一则视频来吸引关注。在视频中,两名年轻女子在上海的地铁里脱掉了层层衣物,最后只剩内衣。一名穿着蓝色制的男子随后进入地铁车厢,递给她们一套干净的衣,让她们换上。据官方媒体报道,上海警方对这家公司处以了罚款。Televisions and other more traditional advertising venues also play a complementary role in the digital world.电视和其他一些更加传统的广告手段也对互联网广告营销起到了补充作用。This year, Oreo began Play Together, a campaign that riffed on the idea that children don’t spend enough time with their parents, a subject of debate in China. Collaborating with Weixin, Oreo created an app that allowed parents and their children to take photos and turn them into playful emoticons to send to friends.今年,奥利奥(Oreo)启动了“亲子一刻玩起来”的营销活动,灵感来自于父母和子女相处时间不足的问题——这是中国当下的热门话题。奥利奥与微信合作推出了一款应用,使得家长和孩子可以用它来拍摄照片,然后把它们变成有趣的表情符号发送给朋友们。The campaign also featured a television ad for the Weixin campaign in which a mother and her daughter play together and share a bag of Oreos. As part of the media blitz, it used celebrity dads from the popular reality television show called “Father, Where Are You Going?” to promote the campaign through their own microblogs.本轮营销中还推出了一则宣传微信活动的电视广告。广告中,妈妈和女儿一边玩耍,一边分享着一包奥利奥饼干。作为媒体攻势的一部分,公司找来了人气颇高的真人秀节目《爸爸去哪儿》中的明星爸爸,邀请他们在微上进行宣传。Television, too, helps bridge the generational gap. Even though Chinese consumers are highly connected, not everybody is getting the messages that brands are sending.而且,电视也有助于弥合代沟。虽然中国的消费者上网程度高,但品牌试图传递的讯息也并非能够接触到所有人。Mr. Liu’s father is one of them. Mr. Liu bought a Samsung smartphone for his father, who lives in Weifang, a city in Shandong Province, and taught him how to use Weixin so that they could -chat.刘雪龙的父亲就是其中之一。刘雪龙给住在山东潍坊的父亲买了一部三星手机,并教他如何使用微信,希望可以和他视频聊天。But it could be a while before his father gets the hang of Weixin, Mr. Liu said. “I am the only friend in his Weixin contact list, actually.”不过,刘雪龙说,要让父亲真正学会使用微信,可能还需要一段时间。“其实,我是他微信上唯一的联系人。” /201412/350215

  SYDNEY (Reuters) - Scientists say they have discovered a black hole so big that it challenges the theory about how they grow.悉尼(路透社)——科学家们说,他们发现了一个非常巨大的黑洞,以至于挑战了旧的增长理论。But with measurements indicating it is 12 billion times the size of the Sun, the black hole challenges a widely accepted hypothesis of growth rates.但是,测量数据表明,它的体积相当于120亿个太阳,这个黑洞挑战了已被接受的黑洞增长假说。;Based on previous research, this is the largest black hole found for that period of time,; Dr Fuyan Bian, Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University (ANU), told Reuters on Wednesday.澳大利亚国家大学天文学与天体物理学研究员边富阳士说,;基于先前的研究,这是在那个时间点发现的最大的黑洞,;;Current theory is for a limit to how fast a black hole can grow, but this black hole is too large for that theory.;;依据当前的理论,黑洞的增长速度是有极限的,但是,这个黑洞太大了,以致超越了这个极限。;The creation of supermassive black holes remains an open topic of research. However, many scientists have long believed the growth rate of black holes was limited.这个特大黑洞的发现在科研界得到持续的关注。然而,很多科学家依然相信黑洞增长速度存在极限。Black holes grow, scientific theory suggests, as they absorb mass. However, as mass is absorbed, it will be heated creating radiation pressure, which pushes the mass away from the black hole.黑洞会增长,科学理论认为,是来自于他吸引物质的能力。然而,物质被吸收,会导致高温,产生辐射压强,反而导致物质远离黑洞。;Basically, you have two forces balanced together which sets up a limit for growth, which is much smaller than what we found,; said Bian.;基本上,由于引力斥力最终平衡,从而使体积增长存在上限,这个上限比我们发现的这个黑洞要小得多。;The black hole was discovered a team of global scientists led by Xue-Bing Wu at Peking University, China, as part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, which provided imagery data of 35 percent of the northern hemisphere sky.这个黑洞是被北京大学吴学兵所领导的国际科研团队发现的,这个团队是史隆数位巡天计划的一部分,这个计划提供了整个北星空35%的影像数据。The ANU is leading a comparable project, known as SkyMapper, to carry out observations of the Southern Hemisphere sky.澳大利亚国立大学也在主导一个类似的工程,叫做SkyMapper,制作整个南星空的影像数据。Bian expects more black holes to be observed as the project advances.边士希望在这个工程中会发现更多黑洞。 /201502/360919。

  The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine won by pharmacist Tu Youyou will help boost the development of traditional Chinese medicines, according to a senior health official.卫生部一位高级官员表示,药剂师屠呦呦获得诺贝尔生理或医学奖有助于推动中医药进一步发展。Tu, from the China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, was due to receive the award on Thursday in Stockholm, Sweden, for her discovery of artemisinin, a TCM that can cure malaria.来自中国医药科学院的屠呦呦, 因其发现青蒿素,一种可以治疗疟疾的中药,周四在瑞典的斯德哥尔,被授予诺贝尔奖。Her success has led to a promising approach to the modernization and development of TCM through science and technology, said Cao Hongxin, the science and technology chief of the State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine.曹洪欣,传统中医药国家科学技术主管,她的成功使通过科学和技术发展中医药及使其现代化变得前景一片光明。Cao used to be head of the academy.曹过去曾是学院主任。Using a pioneering low-temperature method, Tu and her team-first extracted artemisinin from a sweet wormwood plant more than 40 years ago. Their efforts have saved tens of thousands of lives each year.屠和她的团队使用一个开创性的低温方法,首先从已有40多年的青蒿植物中提取出青蒿素。他们的努力使得每年成千上万人的生命得以拯救。Cao said Tu was inspired by many ancient classic works on TCM touting sweet wormwood as a candidate for the development of an antimalarial drug.曹说屠的灵感来自古老的经典中医学,其吹捧将青蒿作为抗疟药发展的备选药材。Her success demonstrates that ;TCM... has to embrace modern technologies and laboratory tools and, more important, stick to the essence of the time-honored medical science;, he said.她的成功明了“中医药…包含了现代技术和实验室设备,更重要的是,保留了了历史悠久的医药科学的精髓”他说。A simple application of Western medical standards to TCM won’t work, he said, calling for more research and standards for TCM.他说,“对中医药而言,西方医学标准的简单应用将不起作用,”他呼吁对中医药更多的研究和标准。He cited as an example that the international standards for acupuncture needles and the use of ginseng have been set by China.他引用了一个例子,即中国针灸针和人参的使用的国际标准。Cao said Tu’s Nobel Prize will prompt more basic scientific research into ancient TCM texts and ways to explore research findings.曹教授说,诺贝尔奖将推动更多的基础科学研究走进古代中医文献以及探索研究发现的方法之中。China spends more than 1 billion yuan (6 million) annually on TCM-related research, and ;that investment will be further strengthened;, Cao said.曹说,中国每年在中医药相关的研究上花费超过10亿元(1.56亿美元),“这一投资将进一步加强”。Deepened research with the help of modern technology will lead to the modernization of TCM, he said.“在现代技术的帮助下深化研究,将导致中医药现代化。”他说。But he added that much remains to be done, particularly practicing innovation when using TCM theories, studying old TCM texts and transforming or commercializing research findings.但他补充说,仍有许多工作要做,特别是使用中医理论时的实践创新,学习老中医文献以及研究成果的转型或商业化。He said this work will be listed in China’s 13th Five-Year Plan (2016-20) for TCM, and his administration is working on it.他说,这项工作被列在中国中医第十三个五年计划清单上(2016-20),他的职责便是致力于这件事。In five years, the use of TCM will be further explored in the rehabilitation, prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS, chronic liver infections and diabetes, he said.他说,在五年内,中医药的应用将进一步探讨艾滋病毒/艾滋病、慢性肝病和糖尿病的康复、预防和治疗问题。 /201512/415319

  I hate the new Apple Watch. Hate what it will do to conversation, to the pace of the day, to my friends, to myself. I hate that it will enable the things that aly make life so incremental, now-based and hyper-connected. That, and make things far worse.我讨厌新上市的苹果手表。讨厌它将会对交谈、生活的节奏、我的朋友以及我自己产生的影响。我讨厌它会提升那些已经让生活变得如此繁琐、急功近利和超级互联的东西的效用。除此之外,除了以上这些,它还会让情况变得糟糕许多。This has nothing to do with Apple. We can still be friends. I’m writing on a MacBook Air, my constant companion since I kissed off my hometown Microsoft-programmed clunker for the sleek and far less needy Mac some time ago. I’m closer to my iPhone 6 than to some of my siblings — you never call, you never text, you never share, not a selfie in six months.这与苹果公司无关。我们还是可以做朋友的。我正在一台MacBook Air上写下这些文字。自从一段时间以前我淘汰了家乡生产的那台微软系统的旧电脑,换成这台漂亮且远不会那么需要照顾的Mac之后,它一直是我的好伙伴。我与iPhone 6的关系比我与一些兄弟的关系还亲密——从来不给他们打电话、发短信,或是分享东西,六个月里连张自拍都没有。No, my animus for Apple’s smartwatch — excuse me, wearable technology — is for what it will do to us. Things are too complicated as it is. At dinner with friends, or in a meeting that I’m supposed to care about, when can I look at my phone? Who’s phone-ignore worthy, and who’s not? At what point is looking down rude? And how long into a conversation till all sides get to call a truce and take a screen dive?不,我对苹果智能手表的厌恶——不好意思,应该是可穿戴设备——在于它会对我们产生何种影响。生活已经够复杂的了。在与朋友吃饭时,或是在我应该重视的一个会议上,我什么时候可以看手机?谁重要到让我不看手机,谁没那么重要?什么时候看手机是不礼貌的?交谈进行了多长时间之后,各方才可以休息一下,看一眼手机屏幕?I say this as an information obsessive. I wish I could say recovering information obsessive. Like most of us, I’m in need of digital detox, not a fresh hit. Those restroom breaks at restaurants were not about bladder relief. God knows how many times I’ve sneaked away from the table just to peek at a football score, a “Daily Show” clip, a text, a photo or email, my Amazon book number. What a miserable wretch. But it could be worse: I have a friend who texts while skiing.我认为这是一种信息强迫症。我希望我能说这种信息强迫症可以恢复。就像我们中多数人一样,我需要戒除网瘾,不是来一剂让我更上瘾的东西。我们在吃饭时去洗手间根本不是因为人有三急。天知道我有多少次从餐桌上偷偷溜出来只是去为了看一眼球赛的比分、《每日秀》(Daily Show)的片段、一条短信、一张照片或电子邮件,还有我的亚马逊图书订单。多可悲啊。但情况还可以更糟:我有一个朋友一边滑雪一边发短信。Apple says its smartwatch, which it rolled out at one of its Dear Leader-like events in San Francisco this week, will make interactions between human and screen less complicated, and less rude. Instead of reaching into pocket or purse in front of someone, the user will just glance at the wrist. In fact, Apple calls the new feature in which the watch is touched to access the Internet a “glance.”苹果本周在旧金山一场致敬伟大领袖似的活动中发布了这款手表。苹果说,它的智能手表将让人与屏幕的互动不那么复杂,不那么不礼貌。用户不需要在他人面前把手伸进口袋或包包,只需扫一眼手腕就行了。实际上,苹果把碰一下手表就接入互联网的新功能就叫做“Glance”(瞥一眼)。Just a glance, nothing rude there. Oh, really? Remember how off-putting it was when George Bush the elder checked his watch during a question period from the audience in a presidential debate? It may have cost him the election in 1992.只是扫一眼,这可没有什么不礼貌的。噢,是吗?还记得乔治·布什(George Bush)在总统辩论中接受观众提问时看手表的动作是多么让人恼火吗?这可能就是他输掉1992年大选的原因。People check their phones about 150 times a day. Now, imagine how many glances they’ll take with all the information in the world on their wrists. Imagine how many people will attempt to drive while glancing, to walk while glancing, to talk while glancing, to make love while glancing.人们一天看手机约150次。现在,想象一下,当全世界的信息都在手腕上展示的时候,人们会扫上多少眼。想象有多少人会试图在开车时扫一眼,在走路时扫一眼,在聊天时扫一眼,在做爱时扫一眼。To the complaints that our smartphone addiction has produced a world where nobody talks much anymore, nobody listens and nobody s, you can add a new one with the smartwatch: nobody makes eye contact.一些人抱怨,手机引发的上瘾让这个世界变成了没人长时间讲话、没人倾听,没人阅读的地方。有了智能手表之后,这些抱怨中可以加上一条:没人进行目光接触。Tim Cook, the Apple C.E.O., seems like a decent and likable guy — no tech overlord in a Darth Vader suit. But his presentation of the new watch on Monday creeped me out, and offered a road map to a world I’m not sure I want to join.苹果CEO蒂姆·库克(Tim Cook)似乎是一个讨人喜欢的正派人——不是一个穿着达斯·维达(Darth Vader)式装的科技魔头。但他周一展示的新手表把我吓坏了,而它给世界提供的方向,我也不确定是否想要加入。“The Apple Watch is the most personal device we have ever created,” he said. “It’s not just with you, it’s on you.” Ewwww. It sounds like a digital dog collar, complete with an anti-flea component. From here on out, there is no down time, and no excuses for reality escapes. You are connected, 24/7.“苹果手表是我们推出的最私密的设备,”他说。“你不只是带着它,而且是戴着它。”咦哟。这听起来就像是一个数码项圈,加上一个防跳蚤的零部件。从此以后,再没有放松的时间,再没有逃离现实的借口。你永远都在线,一周七天,一天24小时。Cook tried to humanize Apple’s latest culture-disrupter. You can talk to your wrist — it’s a phone! You can check your heartbeat — it’s a doctor! And if you don’t adequately exercise during the week, your watch will remind you of your failure — it’s a nag!库克试图让苹果颠覆文化的最新产品人性化。你可以对着手腕说话——它是电话!你可以检查心跳——它是医生!而且如果你在一周当中没有进行足够的锻炼,你的表会提醒你——它还唠唠叨叨的。He seemed most rapt in describing how much closer together the Apple Watch will bring us all. “You can tap your watch and get your friends’ attention,” he said. Ah, there’s a rich relationship. I can think of a number of places once considered off-limits for cellphone intrusions — the classroom, the dinner table, the bathtub — where the watch can interrupt. And who’s to know: it’s only a glance.他似乎尤其注重描述Apple Watch能在多大程度上让我们所有人变得更亲密。“轻轻敲一下手表,就能引起朋友的注意,”他说。啊,这联系可真密切。我能想到很多曾经被认为不受手机干扰的地方:教室、餐桌和浴缸。但现在,在这些地方进行的活动手表都可以打断。毕竟谁知道呢:只用瞥一眼。There is some evidence that heavy smartphone use makes you dumber. The theory is that a having the world at the other end of a mobile search makes for lazy minds, while people who depend less on their devices develop more analytical skills.一些据表明,大量使用智能手机会让人变得更笨。相关理论认为,用移动搜索了解世界会使大脑变得懒惰,而不那么依赖设备的人,会形成更多分析技能。Add to this concerns about privacy: that the watch is a tracking device, which sends all your personal information to a central database — a corporate control center that aly knows far too much about the preferences and habits of smartphone users.除此之外,还有对隐私的担忧:这款手表是一台追踪设备,会将你所有的个人信息发送给一个中央数据库。那是一个商用控制中心,已经掌握了太多有关智能手机用户的偏好和习惯的信息。It’s encouraging that smartwatches, thus far, have not sold very well. This could be because many of them look like those fluorescent wrist bands that people have to wear at all-inclusive resorts in order to line up at the buffet table. Or perhaps people are repulsed, as I am, by this most intimate of invasions.鼓舞人心的是,迄今为止智能手表卖得并不是非常好。这可能是因为,许多智能手表看上去像那种发亮的腕带。在全包式度假胜地,人们为了等自助餐的位子,不得不戴那些腕带。也或许人们和我一样,厌恶这种最亲密的入侵。Backlash is inevitable. A few days ago, Patrick Pichette, Google’s chief financial officer, announced that he was retiring because he wanted to spend more time offline. He had this epiphany, he wrote, while watching the sunrise from Mount Kilimanjaro with his wife — an experience Apple has yet to be able to meld to a wristwatch.遭到强烈反对是不可避免的。几年前,谷歌(Google)首席财务官帕特里克·皮切特(Patrick Pichette)宣布他将退休,因为他希望有更多的线下时间。他写道,他是和妻子在乞力马扎罗山看日出时产生这一顿悟的。目前,苹果还无法把这种经历融入手表中。 /201503/364787Search-engine giant Google launched a new service Wednesday that it hopes will reverse the trend of people gravitating away from the World Wide Web in favor of Facebook and other apps on their mobile phones.搜索引擎巨头谷歌在周三发布了一项新的务,谷歌希望通过这项务扭转人们迷恋用万维网的Facebook 和在手机上使用各种APP的趋势。The new service, called Amp, works by partnering with news publishers and other content providers to help them create Web content that downloads to mobile phones and tablets up to 85 times faster.这项新的务被称为Amp, 和新闻发布者及其他内容提供者一起来帮助创造万维网内容,以此将下载到手机和平板上的速度提高了85倍。It#39;s a seemingly simple concept and one that consumers may not even notice. But the stakes are high for Google, which competes with apps such as Facebook for eyeballs and ad dollars.这似乎看起来是个简单的想法,但是却没有被消费者注意到。这个尝试对谷歌来说也是风险很高,因为这个和像Facebook 这样的APP 竞争吸引力和广告收入。That battle has gotten tougher on smartphones and tablets, where apps generate three times as much attention as the Web, according to research firm eMarketer. The trend toward in-app browsing is only expected to worsen over time. By 2017, the gap is expected to widen to three hours and 23 minutes on mobile apps vs. just 52 minutes on the mobile Web, eMarketer predicts.这项务在智能手机和平板电脑 方面将愈发艰难,因为其吸引力将是万维网的三倍,搜索引擎公司eMarketer 说道。在应用程序浏览的趋势是随着时间的推移,预计将会恶化。2017年,差距将扩大,在移动应用程序需要三小时23分钟,而在移动网络上只需要52分 钟,eMarketer预测。;We love the World Wide Web. To some degree, on mobile, it has not fully satisfied users#39; expectations,; said Google#39;s head of news, Richard Gingras. ;We are hoping to change that,; Gingras said at a launch event Wednesday in Manhattan.“我们爱万维网。在某种程度上,移动,它已经不能完全满足用户的期望,”谷歌的新闻领导,李察金格拉斯说。“我们希望改变,”金格拉斯星期三在曼哈顿的活动启动仪式上说。One reason for the gap is speed. When users click on a news link and it#39;s slow to respond, they will exit and go elsewhere. ;That#39;s not good for us,; Gingras said.这个差距的一个原因就是速度。当用户点击新闻链接时,她反应很慢,用户就会退出然后浏览其他地方。“这对我们来说是不好的” 金格拉斯说。Early results show download speeds up to 85 times faster when content is created using Amp, said David Besbris, vice president of engineering at Google.老用户说,当内容由Amp 创造时,其下载速度就提高85倍,谷歌搜索引擎的副董事长说道。Google launched the new Amp service, which is being co-sponsored by Twitter, to a room full of news publishers at a cafe in downtown Manhattan on Wednesday. Twitter is a stand-alone app but it also relies on Web-generated links to drive traffic.谷歌推出了新的务,这是星期三,新闻出版商在曼哈顿市中心的一家咖啡馆和推特共同发起的。推特是一个独立的应用程序,但它也依赖于网络生成的链接,以推动流量。The Amp service is free for content providers, Google#39;s executives said. They expect to eventually expand the service beyond news content to other mobile content providers.Amp 务对内容提供者是完全免费的,谷歌的领导说。他们希望能超越新闻内容最终扩展其业务到其他移动内容提供者那里。;This is about making sure the World Wide Web is not the World Wide Wait. And to make sure that platform evolves,; Gingras said.“这就是在让万维网不在是万等网转变。并在确保这项平台在扩展演变,” 金格拉斯说道。 /201510/402557


  Huawei, the Chinese telecoms company, has been given the all-clear over fears it may compromise UK national security.针对华为(Huawei)是否可能损害英国国家安全的担忧,这家中国电信设备制造商如今已经获得了“完全健康通知”。Risks from using equipment provided by the company have been “sufficiently mitigated”, according to the first report into the operation that vets its technology in the UK.针对华为在英国供应的技术,首份审查评估报告称,使用该公司所提供的设备的风险已被“充分缓解”。Huawei is one of the UK’s largest providers of telecoms equipment, with deals in place to provide critical national infrastructure as well as the technology behind services from companies such as BT, EE, Virgin Media, O2 and Sky.华为是英国最大的电信设备供应商之一,按照已经签署的协议提供关键的国家基础设施,也向英国电信运营商,如英国电信(BT)、EE、维珍媒体(Virgin Media)、O2和Sky,提供技术设备。However, concerns have been raised in countries such as the US and Australia about potential links to the Chinese government and the People’s Liberation Army in spite of strong denials from the group.不过,在美国和澳大利亚等国家,有人对于华为与中国政府和解放军的潜在联系提出了关切,尽管该集团强烈否认存在这种联系。A cyber security evaluation centre in Banbury was established in 2010 by Huawei to take apart the physical equipment and software used in the UK to mitigate risks to national security.2010年,华为在英国班伯里(Banbury)建立了一个网络安全评估中心,负责分解并剖析在英国使用的硬件设备和软件,以缓解对国家安全构成的风险。In the report for the national security adviser, the centre’s oversight board said the “technical assurance” provided by Banbury was of “sufficient scope and quality to meet its obligations”.该中心的监督委员会在提交国家安全顾问的报告中表示,班伯里提供的“技术保”具有“足够的涵盖范围和质量,足以履行其义务”。Huawei has also pledged further funds to expand the centre.华为还承诺提供更多资金以扩大这个中心。A management audit by Ernst amp; Young showed the centre was sufficiently independent from Huawei, which will address concerns about the centre and its staff being fully funded by the Chinese group.安永会计师事务所(Ernst amp; Young)的一项管理审计显示,该中心已经足够独立于华为公司,这将化解有关该中心及其工作人员完全由这家中资集团资助的担忧。Three concerns were identified by the report, although these were rated as “low risk”. They included difficulties in recruiting staff owing to a lack of cyber security skills as well as the reluctance of potential new recruits to complete security clearance.报告提出了三项关注,尽管它们都被评为“低风险”。它们包括:缺乏网络安全技能所导致的招聘困难,以及潜在的新聘人员不愿接受安全审查。Ernst amp; Young found some staff working at the centre without developed vetting clearance — the most comprehensive type of security vetting — although this has now been reduced to just two.安永发现,在该中心工作的一些工作人员尚未通过“高度审查”(developed vetting,简称DV),即最全面的安全审查,尽管其人数已减至两人。The report also found “tensions” between teams working in the centre and the Huawei response team in Shenzhen, but decided they did not have a “detrimental effect on the security of the UK networks”.报告还发现,在班伯里中心工作的团队和华为在深圳的响应小组之间关系“紧张”,但得出结论认为,这并未“对英国网络安全造成不利影响”。Senior government representatives visited Huawei in Shenzhen in January 2015, according to the report, when the company provided further reassurances.报告称,英国政府高级代表2015年1月在深圳走访了华为,当时该公司提供了进一步的保。David Pollington, former Microsoft cyber security expert, has been lined up to replace retiring chief Andy Hopkins at the Banbury centre.微软(Microsoft)前网络安全专家戴维#8226;波林顿(David Pollington)已被任命为班伯里中心的下一任负责人,接替即将退休的首席安迪#8226;霍普金斯(Andy Hopkins)。Huawei has also sought to alleviate concerns over corporate governance with the appointment of former BP chief executive Lord Browne to head a UK board of directors to oversee British operations.华为还任命英国石油(BP)前首席执行官布朗勋爵(Lord Browne)执掌一个英国董事会,由其监督在英业务,以求减轻有关公司治理的担忧。In a statement, Huawei said it was “pleased to be playing its part in providing reassurance to its UK customers of the quality of our products and solutions”.华为在一份声明中表示,该公司“很高兴能够发挥自己的作用,就本公司产品和解决方案的质量向英国客户提供保”。 /201503/366743


  The rich are set to become God-like cyborgs in what could be the #39;biggest evolution in biology#39; since life emerged.富人们将变成会成为上帝般的电子人,这将可能是人类有史以来“在生物方面最大的进化”。This is according to Yuval Noah Harari, a professor at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, who believes the radical shift will take place in the next 200 years.这是来自耶路撒冷希伯来大学(Hebrew University of Jerusalem)的教授尤尔瓦#8226;诺亚#8226;哈拉里(Yuval Noah Harari)的预言,他相信这种巨变会在未来200年内发生。Using biotechnology and genetic engineering, Professor Harari claims the wealthy will transform into a new type of divine, immortal human with complete power over life and death.哈拉里说,富人们使用生物技术和基因工程技术,能够转化成新人类——神圣,永恒,对生与死有完全的掌控权。He argues that humans are unable to resist the temptation to #39;upgrade#39; themselves, according to a report by Sarah Knapton in the Telegraph.萨拉#8226;卡普顿(Sarah Knapton)在《电讯报》(Telegraph)的报道称,哈拉里提出,人类无法拒绝“升级”自身的诱惑。#39;We are programmed to be dissatisfied,#39; said Professor Harari, during a recent speech at the Hay literary festival in Wales.哈拉里教授最近在威尔士干草文学节发表演说,称,“我们已被设定为不满足现状。”#39;Even when humans gain pleasure and achievements it is not enough. They want more and more.“即使人类获得了快乐和成就,仍然感到不满足。他们想要更多。”#39;I think it is likely in the next 200 years or so homo sapiens will upgrade themselves into some idea of a divine being, either through biological manipulation or genetic engineering or by the creation of cyborgs, part organic part non-organic.“我认为在接下来的约200年里,现代人很可能会通过使用生物操控或基因工程,或通过创造半有机半无机的电子人,使自身升级为神人。”#39;It will be the greatest evolution in biology since the appearance of life. Nothing really has changed in four billion years biologically speaking.“这将是自人类生命诞生以来,在生物方面最大的进化。从生物学上来讲,400亿年来,人类的身体构造并没有真正发生变化。#39;But we will be as different from today#39;s humans as chimps are now from us.#39;“就像猩猩已经离我们很遥远了,我们也将会与今天的人类截然不同。”The technology to do this, however, will be restricted to the very wealthy, claims Professor Harari.然而,哈拉里教授称,改造人类这一技术将只属于富人。Up until now, he says society has been held together by inventing #39;fictions#39;, such as religion, money and the idea of fundamental human rights.他说,在目前为止,社会被创造的“虚幻”团结在一起,如宗教,金钱,人权思想等。As long as humans believed they relied more and more on these gods they were controllable, he said.他说,只要人类相信这些,越来越依靠这些“神”,他们就是可控的。#39;But what we see in the last few centuries is humans becoming more powerful and they no longer need the crutches of the Gods.#39;但是我们在过去几个世纪里所看到的是,人类变得越来越强大,不再需要上帝的拐杖。He added that the most interesting place in the world from a religious perspective is not the Middle East but Silicon Valley.他补充道,从宗教的观点来看,世界上最有趣的地方不是中东,而是硅谷。Here, people are developing what he describes as a #39;techno-religion#39; in which they believe death is just a technological problem.这里的人们发展出这样一种他称之为“技术宗教”的观念:他们相信死亡只是一个技术问题。#39;Now we are saying we do not need God just technology,#39; he added.他补充道,“现在我们不需要上帝了,只需要技术。” /201505/377621


  Once upon a time, science fiction was just a genre among other genres. There were crime stories, there were horror stories, there was literary fiction–and there was science fiction.曾几何时,科幻小说不过是诸多小说类别中的一种:犯罪小说、恐怖小说、文学小说……还有,科幻小说。But today science themes dominate these other genres. It’s difficult to think of much modern crime, horror or “serious” fiction that doesn’t involve science.但现在,科幻主题却占领了其他类型的小说。我们已经很难想象现代犯罪小说、恐怖小说或者其它“严肃”的文学作品中有哪些是不涉及科幻元素的。And it’s not just books. With every second movie and computer game having a sci-fi element, science fiction seems to have colonized our entire entertainment culture.不仅仅是书籍,电影和电脑游戏也不例外,每一秒似乎都离不开科幻元素。科幻似乎已经占领了整个文化。It’s clear that if we want to define science fiction we should relate it to the role that science plays in our lives. Perhaps the place to start is by noting when it began.我们都清楚,要想给科幻小说下个定义,就不得不考虑到科学在我们生活中所扮演的角色。也许,我们应该从科幻小说的缘起谈起。Although some experts have claimed to be able to trace sci-fi back to ancient times, it is more plausible to find it in fledgling form in the 19th century, when industrial societies emerged.尽管一些专家声称科幻小说的诞生可以追溯到遥远的古代,但科幻小说于19世纪初具雏形的说法似乎更为可信,因为当时正值工业社会出现。One of the features that set industrial societies apart from other kinds was the increasing part that science played in everyday life. Factories with vast machines churned out huge quantities of goods, which were transported by trains, motor vehicles and ships all over the world. Cities were built on the back of technology, with electricity in homes and hospitals helping everyone to lead healthier, more convenient lives. All of these changes had profound effects not only on people’s real lives, but on their imaginative ones.工业社会区别于其它社会类型的特征之一就是科学在人们生活中扮演了日益重要的角色:工厂林立,巨大的机器批量生产出各种产品,经火车、汽车和轮船运往世界各地。城市建设也离不开科技,家庭和医院都通上了电,人们的生活因此变得更健康、更便利。所有这些变化不仅对人们的实际生活产生了深远影响,也同样影响了他们想象中的生活。Writers began to articulate these changing physical and mental landscapes, eventually giving science fiction a large and devoted fanbase of especially young ers, who found that it spoke to their curiosity about the future that science would create.作家们开始将这些变化中的现实世界和想象中的世界联系起来,科幻小说因此逐渐吸引了一大批忠实读者。特别是年轻读者,他们对科学创造的未来充满好奇,而这些小说正满足了他们的好奇心。But sci-fi reflected fears about science more than it did hopes. These early novels were dystopian rather than utopian.不过,科幻小说反映更多的并不是对科学的希望,而是恐惧。早期的科幻小说大多是反乌托邦式的。The typical early science fiction novel might be a UK novel like H.G. Wells’ The War of the Worlds (1897). With great skill, Wells played upon the fears of technology by imagining Earth under threat by a civilization –that of men from Mars.比如早期科幻小说的代表作品——英国小说家赫伯特#8226;乔治#8226;威尔斯的《星际战争》(1897)。小说中,威尔斯想象了地球遭受火星文明威胁的情景,并用精湛的写作技巧展现出人们对科技的恐惧。The science fiction of today expresses the impact of the computing revolution, robotics and our environmental challenges, while it is less concerned with “little green men from Mars” and other themes of past sci-fi.现在的科幻小说则更多地着墨于计算机革命、机器人还有环境问题对人类的影响,而类似 “来自火星的小绿人”和过去的科幻主题已经很少有作家涉及。Given that science, technology and politics are always intertwined, contemporary science fiction often has a great deal to say about power. Many recent novels – like American Cory Doctorow’s Little Brother (2008)– are concerned with government and security service “conspiracies” against the people, particularly as the revelations of whistleblowers like Edward Snowden sink in. This can give sci-fi writing a “paranoid” feel.由于科学、技术与政治的话题总是彼此交错,权力在当代科幻小说中成了重头戏。近年来,随着揭发真相的“告密者”们(比如爱德华#8226;斯诺登)走入人们的视线,很多科幻小说都围绕政府与安全机构密谋侵犯人民权利而展开,美国科幻小说家科里#8226;多克托罗的《小兄弟》(2008)就是一例。科幻小说也因此平添了一分“多疑偏执”的感觉。This underlines one of the features that remains constant between the beginnings of the empire of science fiction and its state today.这也成为科幻小说“帝国”从建立之初至今都存在的一个特点。As then, so now: We want to about how fearful the future will be, not how it will be a paradise.鉴于此,我们想读到的不再是未来如何变成美好的天堂,而是未来到底有多可怕。 /201503/364794

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