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2019年09月16日 04:06:01来源:58门户

To discover the secret to a longer life, the best people to ask must surely be those who have lived the longest. Some of the oldest people in the world were born before the turn of the 20th century, and have lived well past 100 without, well erm, dying. This certainly isn#39;t medically sound advice for the most part, more like an insight into what it is that the world#39;s super centenarians believe has kept them going all these years. So what is it that makes these people special? What#39;s their secret? As we#39;ll discover, its not always what you might imagine…如果要与人探讨长寿的秘诀,那么最佳人选当然是那些活得最久的人。最长寿的人当中,有些在20世纪来临之前就已出生,100年来都还好好地活着,至少没有死。这当然不是主要从医学上进行探究,更多的是观察到底是什么使得这些百岁老人相信并一直持他们活到现在。那么到底是什么使他们变得如此特殊呢?他们的秘密到底是什么?随着我们的发现,其中的秘密可能并不是你所想象的那样。10.Mind your own business10.少管闲事In 2011 the Guinness World Records handed the title of #39;world#39;s oldest living person#39; to Georgia resident, Besse Cooper who retained the record until she passed away in 2012 at the age of 116. Of the two pieces of advice that she offered, one is perhaps more likely to be in line with your doctor#39;s recommendations than the other. Her secret to longevity? ;I mind my own business, and I don#39;t eat junk food.;2011年世界吉尼斯纪录将;世上最长寿的人;这一头衔颁给一名叫Basse Cooper的佐治亚州居民,她一直保持着这个纪录直到2012年去世,享年116岁。她提出两条建议,其中一条是尽可能听从医生的建议。那另一个长寿的秘诀是什么?;我只关心自己的事,不多管闲事,并且我不吃垃圾食品。;So maybe cutting down on the unhealthy stuff would be a good start. Beyond that, maybe you should stop being such a busybody!因此,减少不健康食品应该是个好的开始。除此以外,也许你应该停止成为一个爱管闲事的人!9.Sushi and sleep9.寿司和睡眠Misao Okawa is a Japanese super centeniarian at 116 years old, and is currently the world#39;s oldest living person. Born on 5th of March 1898 in Tenma, Osaka, Misao says the key to a long life is eating sushi and getting at least eight hours sleep a night. She said in 2014 ;Eat and sleep and you will live a long time. You have to learn to relax.;.Misao Okawa是日本一名长寿老人,现年116岁,是目前世上最长寿并且还在世的人。Misao于1898年3月5日出生于大阪的天满,她坦言道长寿的关键是吃寿司和保晚上至少8小时的睡眠。2014年她还说道:;吃好、睡好,你就能长寿。你得学会放松。;Who would have thought that one of the secrets to a longer life could involve getting enough sleep? So next time we#39;re feeling guilty for sleeping in passed what others might call a #39;reasonable time,#39; we can be reassured that we#39;re simply investing in our longevity. Sushi for breakfast!谁会想到长寿的秘诀之一竟包括保充足的睡眠?所以啊,下次当我们为睡过头而感到愧疚时,不妨安慰自己;我们是仅仅是为了希望自己能活得久点;。再把寿司当做早餐!8.Never get bored8.永远不要感到无聊;I#39;ve only ever had one wrinkle, and I#39;m sitting on it;.;我全身只有一处皱纹,那就是我的下面。;Quoted on her 110th birthday, there was really no doubt that Jeanne Calment still had her sense of humor. Calment was born in France 14 years before the construction of the Eiffel Tower, and at 122 was the oldest person ever when she died in August 1997. Every birthday during her last decade was celebrated in France. She delighted in amusing reporters with her many secrets of longevity. The list was different every year and included (among others) laughter, activity and ;a stomach like an ostrich.; Calment also attributes her many years to her faith, stating ;(God) has forgotten me. He can#39;t be in such a hurry to see me. He aly knows me very well.; At her party a year before her death, Calment gave some insight into what it takes to stay interested and engaged during a life as long as hers. ;I dream, I think, I go over my life… I never get bored.;.这句话来自Jeanne Calment的110岁生日,毫无疑问,她还是很有幽默感的。Calment出生于埃菲尔铁塔修建前14年的法国,1997年8月去世,那时她122岁,是当时最长寿的人。她人生最后十年里的每个生日都是在法国庆祝的。她喜欢用她许多的长寿秘诀来记者,每年的秘诀清单都不一样,但都包括大笑、活跃和;有一个像鸵鸟一样的胃;。Calment同样也为自己信仰付出许多年,她称道:;(上帝)已经忘了我,他并不急着见我,他已经很了解我了。;在她去世前一年的一次聚会上,Calment对她如何在一生中保持有趣和保持忙碌有了更深入的见解:;我梦想,我思考,我认真过着我的生活……我从未感到无聊。;7.Hard work and a glass of wine7.努力工作加一杯小酒Well, it was inevitable that #39;hard work#39; would come up eventually, but the wine is a silver lining.当然,;努力工作;这一项必然会逐渐被提到,但酒也有一线希望。Marie-Louise Meilleur lived in Corbeil, Ontario and was 117 years old when she died in 1998. She cited hard work as the major factor in contributing to her impressive age, but she likely extended her life by some years when she stopped smoking at 90 years old. As well as hard work, Meilleur was known to enjoy a glass of wine, which she also cited as a contirbuing factor in her longevity. At least after all that hard work you#39;ll feel like you#39;ve earned your glass of wine, right?生活在安大略省科尔贝的Marie-Louise Meilleur去世于1998年,那时她已117岁了。她将努力工作视为助她拥有傲人年龄的主要因素,但她90岁时的那次戒烟似乎也对延长寿命起到作用。Meilleur不仅仅工作努力,她同样也喜欢来点小酒,这也是她所认为的助她长寿的因素之一。毕竟,你真心努力工作后所体会到的感觉恰恰就像浅尝过一杯小酒,不是吗?6.Be nice, worship God and eat pigs#39; feet6.为人和善崇拜上帝多吃猪蹄Jeralean Talley is an American super centenarian who is, at the age of 115 years, the oldest living person in the ed States and third verified oldest living person in the world. Talley still lives very much as she always has done, often staying up until midnight feasting on some of her favorite foods: potato salad, honey buns, McDonald#39;s chicken nuggets and Wendy#39;s chili.Jeralean Talley是一名美国百岁老人,她115岁了,是美国年龄最大且还在世的人,还是世界上有据可查的第三长寿的人。Talley仍然过着往常的生活,经常熬夜,半夜还大吃大喝她最爱的食物:土豆沙拉、蜂蜜面包、麦当劳鸡肉块和辣椒。Staying active at her age isn#39;t a problem either. Talley sews dresses, makes quilts and enjoys playing the slot machines at casinos. At 104 years old she had to give up bowling though, as she no longer had the strength in her legs. Staying active isn#39;t Jeralean#39;s secret to a long life though. ;Do unto others as you desire them to do unto you,; is her mantra, and she insists that#39;s the secret to living a long life. It should also be said though, that eating plenty of pork is on her list too. Every Christmas, she bakes pigs#39; ears and feet in a jelly stock for herself and her family.在她那个年纪保持活跃依然不是问题。Talley自己做裙子,缝被子,还喜欢在里的上来几把。但在她104岁时,她不得不停止打保龄了,因为她的腿不再那么有力了。保持活跃并不是Jeralean的长寿秘诀。;己所不欲,勿施于人;是她的信条,她坚信这才是保持长寿的秘诀。同样,据说多吃猪肉也在她的长寿秘诀清单里。每个圣诞节,她都会为自己和家人烤猪耳和猪蹄。翻译:张洋 前十网 /201511/412422。

  • Rosy-cheeked and curvy, Madame de St.-Maurice smiles complacently on visitors to the 80WSE Gallery at New York University. The subject of a late-18th-century portrait by Joseph Siffred Duplessis, she flaunts multiple chins, her fleshy arms and bosom becomingly veiled in a demi-sheer frock.面色红润、体态丰满的圣-莫里斯夫人(Madame de St.-Maurice)对着纽约大学(New York University)80WSE画廊(80WSE Gallery)的观众们得意地微笑。她是18世纪末约瑟夫·西弗尔·迪普莱西(Joseph Siffred Duplessis)描绘的对象,她炫耀着自己的双下巴以及巧妙隐藏在半透明连衣裙下的丰腴胳膊和胸部。When the original canvas was exhibited, “it was praised for its truthfulness,” said Tracy Jenkins, the curatorial director of “Beyond Measure: Fashion and the Plus-Size Woman,” the new student exhibition showcasing the work. Sure the sitter was chubby. So what?这幅原版油画在最近学生策划的展览“超越尺寸:时尚与特大号女人”(Beyond Measure: Fashion and the Plus-Size Woman)上展出。策展负责人特蕾西·詹金斯(Tracy Jenkins)说,“它的真实性得到了赞扬”。没错,画中的这个女人很胖。那又如何?Flash-forward a couple of centuries, and Madame would as likely have been skewered, her frame regarded as an aesthetic, and perhaps even a moral, affront to polite society.要是放到几个世纪之后,圣-莫里斯夫人很可能会遭到讥讽,她的体型会被认为是对上流社会审美观念乃至道德层面的冒犯。That assumption is at the heart of this small but affecting exhibition, one that encompasses photographs, mannequins, and advertising imagery. Organized by graduate students in the costume studies program at N.Y.U.’s Steinhardt School, the show, which runs though Feb. 3, goes some way toward demonstrating that fat shaming, with roots burrowing deep into the 19th century, was, and remains, a freighted issue.这一假想是这场颇有感染力的小型展览的核心,它包括照片、人体模型、视频和广告图片。它是纽约大学斯坦哈特学院(Steinhardt School)装研究专业的研究生们组织的,将持续到2月3日。这场展览在很大程度上表明,肥胖羞耻感曾是——如今依然是——一个沉重的话题,它的根源可以追溯到19世纪。Portrayed in the popular postcards and ads of the late 19th and early 20th century as grotesque, unseemly and out of control, women of size are represented in the gallery by Nettie the Fat Girl, a sideshow attraction shown in an early-20th-century photograph as a bulbous, childlike creature, her tutu and inflated thighs all but bearing her aloft.在19世纪末、20世纪初的热门明信片和广告中,胖女人被描绘成怪异、不得体、失控的女人。在这场展览中,那一时期胖女人的代表是马戏团的演员“胖姑娘妮蒂”(Nettie the Fat Girl)。在20世纪初的一张照片中,我们看到她像婴儿一样肥胖臃肿,她的芭蕾舞短裙和膨胀的大腿几乎能让她飘起来。Today that image wouldn’t fly, supplanted, in the popular media at least, by “full figured” role models, among them the defiantly outsize performers Beth Ditto and Melissa McCarthy, Adele and the aggressively curvy Tess Holliday, touted on the cover of People last spring as the first size-22 supermodel.如今,那样的形象飞不起来,而是至少在大众媒体上,被“丰满的”楷模所取代。比如体形庞大的艺人贝丝·迪托(Beth Ditto)、梅莉莎·麦卡锡(Melissa McCarthy)和阿黛尔(Adele),以及非常丰满的特丝·霍利迪(Tess Holliday)。去年春天,霍利迪作为第一位衣尺码为22号的超级模特招摇地登上《人物》杂志(People)的封面。A tentative acceptance of full-figured models that dates from the early 1990s is highlighted in the exhibition by the emergence of Stella Ellis, known as the first large-size model, a divalike figure who strode Jean Paul Gaultier’s runway in 1992 and was featured in his ad campaign, billowy bosom exposed, hair piled high like an opera star’s.这场展览还重点展示了20世纪90年代初人们对丰满模特的短暂接受。那一时期的代表人物是斯特拉·埃利斯(Stella Ellis),她被称为首位大号模特。她是一个天后般的人物。1992年,她在让·保罗·高缇耶(Jean Paul Gaultier)的秀台上款款而行,并成为他的广告代言人——她显露出汹涌的胸部,头发像歌剧明星那样高高盘起。There is, as well, the flowery frock worn in the 1930s by the actress Marie Dressler, and a recent clip of the lavender-coiffed, unabashedly round Ashley Nell Tipton, the first “Project Runway” designer to win with a plus-size collection.还有20世纪30年代穿着华丽长袍的女演员玛丽·德雷斯勒(Marie Dressler),以及染着紫发、非常丰满的阿什莉·内尔·蒂普顿(Ashley Nell Tipton)前不久的视频片段。她是第一位凭借大号系列在“天桥骄子”节目(Project Runway)中获胜的设计师。Still, progress has been halting.不过,进步出现了停滞。“Fat today is much less stigmatized, especially among younger people,” Ms. Jenkins allowed.詹金斯承认,“如今,肥胖不再是那么耻辱的事,尤其在年轻人中。”Outside, that is, the world of style.不过,那说的是时尚界之外的世界。“Fashion’s job is to exclude,” Ms. Jenkins said, adding pointedly, “Fashion is not accepting fat.”詹金斯说,“时尚的职责是排外。”她尖锐地补充道:“时尚不接受肥胖。”The show’s omissions make the case: Apart from the dress form draped in Dressler’s effusively feminine garment, and a pair of others showcasing items made from children’s Chubbies Patterns in the 1950s, there are no mannequins of heft — and no fashion to clothe them.这场展览所没有展示的东西恰恰说明了这一点:除了展示德雷斯勒热情奔放、有女人味的裙子,以及20世纪50年代胖乎乎的儿童款式的东西之外,几乎没有肥胖的人体模型,也没有给它们穿的衣。Those are simply too hard to come by, as Ya’ara Keydar, a graduate student and an organizer of the show, explained. Ms. Keydar recalled that during a recent visit to an exhibition of historic evening dresses at the Sigal Museum in Easton, Pa., there was only one plus-size dress on display.研究生雅拉·基达(Ya’ara Keydar)是这场展览的组织者之一。她解释道,那是因为很难弄到肥胖的人体模型。基达回忆说,前不久,她去宾夕法尼亚州伊斯顿的西加尔物馆(Sigal Museum)观看一场关于历史上著名的晚礼的展览,发现只有一件特大号晚装在展出。“Those garments don’t get shown unless you’re someone famous, like Queen Victoria,” Ms. Jenkins said. Even in museums with dedicated costume wings, there is a bias, she said.詹金斯说,“特大号装除非被某个名人穿过,比如维多利亚女王,否则,没有展示的机会。”她说,就连那些有专门用于展示装的侧馆的物馆,也存在偏见。On conventional runways and in print, a show of fat can still raise eyebrows, the show’s organizers argue, as a tacit breach of etiquette and, less commonly, as a transgressive gesture. It remains more of a taboo than race, age or class, Ms. Jenkins maintained. That is because, regardless of race, age or social standing, “a fashionable outline is still achievable,” Ms. Keydar said. “With a larger body, it is not.”这场展览的组织者们说,在传统秀台和出版物上,展示肥胖仍会令人惊讶,被默认为是对礼仪的违背,甚至是某些情况下的侵犯行为。詹金斯认为,与种族、年龄或阶层相比,肥胖更是禁忌。基达说,那是因为,不同种族、年龄或社会地位的人,“都可能拥有时尚的外形”,但一个人“要是体形硕大,就不可能时尚了”。There are notably few references to the F-word, “fat,” replaced in the show, as it is in the industry, by the euphemistic “plus size.”很明显,展览中极少用到“胖”这个词,而是被委婉的说法“特大号”所替代,这也是时尚业的常规做法。“‘Fat’ remains too charged a word,” Ms. Jenkins said. “Fashion has yet to come to terms with it” — or for that matter, with nonstandard sizing.詹金斯说:“‘肥胖’这个词依然容易引起激烈反应。时尚界还没有接受它”——要做到这一点,就不能设定标准尺寸。Images of plus-size runway models, in a slideshow first seen on the website Refinery29, reinforce her point: Models parade in their underwear, their random bumps and curves strategically covered and smoothed by padding.一组特大号秀台模特的照片佐了她的观点。那些照片首次出现是在Refinery29网站的一组幻灯里。照片中的模特们穿着内衣走秀,她们随意隆起的赘肉被巧妙地用衬料遮盖或掩饰。The message? Ideal beauties they may be, “but even these women need improvements,” Ms. Keydar said.这样做是要传达什么意思?基达说,意思就是,她们可能是完美的美女,“但是就算这些女人也需要改进“。Among plus-size models, too, stringent standards apply. Smaller heads are preferred. “You don’t want to see a double chin,” Ms. Jenkins said. Banished as well: stretch marks, bat wings or what the British like to call those wobbly bits.严格的标准也适用于特大号模特。头偏小的特大号模特更受欢迎。詹金斯说:“你不想看见双下巴。”同样遭到排斥的包括妊娠纹、蝴蝶肉或英国人所说的晃动的肉。“There is just as much smoke and mirrors in plus-size fashion as in anything else,” Ms. Jenkins said.詹金斯说:“特大号时尚也同样需要雾里看花。” /201601/424021。
  • What is obesity? We all know it when we see it but do we know what causes it? Many people think that obesity is down to laziness and greed. Obesity is, however, more serious than someone carrying a few extra pounds. It is a medical, life limiting condition and people who suffer from it deserve help and support. Obesity is an issue for one in three Americans and the AMA took the decision in order to impact on the way doctors and other medical professionals approach those suffering from the disease. Many other health issues (Type II Diabetes and Heart Disease) are linked to or made worse by obesity so treating and preventing obesity should have a positive effect on instances of many other conditions. In Sweden it has been accepted that obesity is increasingly prevalent, particularly amongst young people and as such policy makers need to look at targeting the problem and its associated social, personal and economic costs. The American Medical Association (AMA) took the decision, on June 18, 2013, to classify obesity as a disease. This was a controversial decision that is still being debated today. The debate gives rise to strong feelings on both sides. Here are our 10 reasons why obesity is a disease.大家都很清楚什么是肥胖,但是对于产生肥胖的原因,却鲜有人了解。很多人把肥胖的原因归结于懒惰、贪婪。事实上,肥胖远不是身上多长了几磅肉那么简单。严格说来,肥胖是一种医疗疾病,肥胖者的日常生活非常因肥胖变得很不方便,他们应该得到大家的帮助与持。每三个美国人当中就会有一个患有肥胖症,美国医疗学会(AMA)决定要协助医生以及其他医疗工作人员帮助肥胖症患者脱离这种疾病的困扰。肥胖会引发许多其他健康问题,还会使病情恶化(如:2型糖尿病和心脏病),因此在身体患有其他健康问题的情况下预防和治疗肥胖百利而无一害。在瑞典,肥胖症非常普遍,尤其是在青年人中,因此,政府需要着手寻找解决问题的方法,并查明其会牵涉到的社会、个人、以及经济上的代价。2013年6月18日,美国医疗学会将肥胖症列入疾病范畴。一直以来,社会各界对该决定争论不休,引起正反两方强烈反响。以下即为肥胖属于疾病范畴的10个原因。10.Obesity Has Always Been Treated As a Disease10.肥胖始终被社会各界视为一种病As far back as the Ancient Greeks Hippocrates defined obesity as a disease noting that it could case impotence and sexual problems. Plutarch exhorted people to avoid indulging in delicacies and Galen invented the #39;fat camp#39; when he #39;reduced a huge fat fellow to moderates size…by making him run every morning until he fell into a profuse sweat#39;.早在古希腊时期,希波克拉底就已把肥胖列入疾病范畴,且发现其会造成性无能等问题。希腊的历史学家普鲁塔克告诫人们不要纵情于美味佳肴。希腊名医伽林也成立了一个“减肥营”,通过让那些过度肥胖的人每天晨跑至汗流浃背来使他们“从大胖子转变为体格正常之人”。By the 17th Century English Doctors were calling obesity a disease. They thought it was caused by a malfunction of the internal organs. Obesity has always been identified as a problem; however, historically it has been a problem that is the preserve of the rich. As Oliver Twist says in the song #39;Rich gentlemen have it boys…indigestion!#39; Today many parts of the world are, by historic standards, incredibly rich and have a food security that is unparalleled. With this improved food security come related food problems.到了17世纪,英国医生把肥胖症归为一种疾病。他们认为肥胖是由人体内部器官功能“失灵”引起。肥胖一直以来都被视为一种病,但人们一直都认为它是富人专属。就如《雾都孤儿》里的一句歌谣所云:“有钱的老爷都是吃到消化不良呀……” 跟以前相比,现今有钱人太多了,而且食品安全问题也比以前好太多。然而在这种情况下,还是会有饮食问题——肥胖饮食。9.Doctors Say It Is9.医生认为肥胖属于疾病Doctors are experts in disease and how to cure it. If they say something is a disease we should listen to them! The AMA decided it was a disease in 2013 and the FDA, American College of Gastroenterology and the American Heart Association, amongst others, all agree. Nor is the US the only country where doctors make this claim. In Malaysia Dr Tee E Siong o the Nutrition Society of Malaysia and Professor Dr Mohd Ismail Noor of the Malaysian Society for the Study of Obesity say it should be referred to as a disease #39;so that the public can be more aware of the dangers of the condition#39;. Obesity Australia is also campaigning for formal recognition of obesity as a disease to #39;remove stigma and reduce obesity rates.#39;医生是研究疾病并找寻治疗方法的人。所以医生说某一种症状应列入疾病范畴时,我们就应该相信!美国医疗学会于2003年把肥胖列入疾病范畴,对此,美国食品及药物、美国肠胃病学院、美国心脏病协会等组织都十分持这一举措。美国不是唯一一个赞同把肥胖列为疾病的国家。马来西亚营养协会的Tee E. Siong士和马来西亚肥胖研究所的Mohd Ismail Noor教授都认为,将肥胖与疾病联系起来,公众会更容易意识到肥胖的威胁性。澳大利亚肥胖协会也正在努力争取把肥胖症归为正式的疾病,以达到“减少耻辱和降低肥胖率”的目的。8.The World Health Organisation Says It Is8.世界卫生组织说肥胖是病Obesity was aly formally classified as a disease by The World Health Organisation when it was founded (back in 1948). Obesity was, however, ignored for a long time as it was seen to be a problem of the developed world. By 1988 the World Health Organisation Obesity Report showed that obesity was becoming a worldwide problem. WHO#39;s factsheet #39;Obesity and Overweight#39; gives advice to individuals, society and food manufacturers on how to combat obesity and other related #39;noncommunicable#39; diseases.肥胖在1948年的时候就被世界卫生组织列为一种疾病。然而,在相当长的时间里,肥胖一直为人所忽视,它被认为是发达国家才有的问题。直到1988年,世界卫生组织肥胖报告表明,肥胖正成为全球性问题。世界卫生组织的“肥胖与超重”实况报告在关于如何对抗肥胖症和别的相关“非传染性疾病方面给个人、社会和食品制造商列出了许多建议。”7.Obesity Can Be Inherited7.肥胖可以遗传No matter how healthy a lifestyle, how well people eat, some people are simply predisposed to be obese. People who suffer from conditions such as Prader-Willi Syndrome or a congenital condition such as hyperthyroidism are likely to be obese – sometimes from a young age.不论人们生活方式多么健康,饮食多么合理,有些人就是容易胖。患有威利综合症或者先天性疾病的人群,例如,甲状腺机能亢进症患者,更倾向于患有肥胖,有时甚至年纪轻轻就会很肥胖。Even if you do not have markers for any particular syndrome it is possible to be predisposed to obesity. If both your parents are obese you have an 80% chance of being obese yourself. There are more than 41 genes that predispose people to obesity. Why is this? There are survival benefits to obesity – if you can store up energy in the good times you are more likely to survive a period of famine. This so called #39;thrifty gene#39; was a great benefit in century#39;s past. A modern day #39;paleo#39; diet may be all very well but it is not the answer for everyone. Even in prehistoric times there were some people who were predisposed to be obese. Many of the #39;Venus#39; figurines recovered from the time show women with large breasts, stomachs and buttocks. These figurines may demonstrate the #39;desired optimum#39; i.e. large is beautiful but even if that is the case the optimum had to exist for the artists to be aware of it. Put simply some cave men were obese and that genetic predisposition has been passed on to their descendants – us!即使你没有任何特殊症状,你也还是有可能患上肥胖症。如果你的父母都肥胖,那么你有80%的几率患有肥胖症。因为人体本身就有超过41种使人们更倾向于肥胖的基因。怎么会这样?因为肥胖有生存益处——如果平时储存足够能量,就可以在饥荒期间生存下来。这个所谓的“节俭基因”在过去可是非常有益的。现在我们提及的“原始饮食”也许非常好,但不适合所有人。即使在古代,也是有人更易于肥胖的。许多存留下来的“维纳斯时期”女人雕像的特征都是丰乳肥臀。这些雕像展示的也许就是当时的“完美标准”, 例如,“大”即是美。但“最美”的东西也得有懂得欣赏的艺术家。简单来说,一些洞穴人是肥胖的,他们的这种基因特性也遗传给了他们的后代——我们!6.Obesity Has an Impact on Life Expectancy6.肥胖影响寿命If someone who is not obese suffers from a condition that reduces their life expectancy most people would be comfortable labelling that condition a disease or illness. Lung Cancer is a disease whether or not the person who has it was a smoker. Cirrhosis of the liver is a disease whether or not the sufferer is a drinker. WHO states that 3.4 million adults die from obesity each year. Shockingly 65% of the world#39;s population now live in countries where obesity is more of a health risk than being underweight. The sad fact is that obesity is one of the leading causes of preventable death worldwide by as much as 10 years in the most extreme cases. If any other condition had this type of major impact there would be no debate about whether or not it should be classified as a disease – indeed there would be an outcry if it was not.无论一个人是否肥胖,只要他因此而寿命缩短,人们自然就会将它标志为“疾病”。不管患者是不是烟民,肺癌都是一种疾病;不管患者是不是酒鬼,肝硬化都是一种疾病。世界卫生组织指出,每年都有340万成年人死于肥胖。让人震惊的是,现在世界有65%的人口都居住在把“肥胖”列为“危害健康”行列的国家,在这些国家肥胖造成的伤害比饮养不良还要大。更令人沮丧的是,在10年中最严重的情况下,肥胖是全球可预防性死亡的诱因之一。如果有什么能和肥胖一样产生如此大的影响,则没有人会反对把它列为“疾病”,否则贸然将肥胖列为疾病必然会引起公愤。审校:哈利 来源:前十网 /201601/420334。
  • Organic meat and milk differ markedly from their conventionally produced counterparts in measures of certain nutrients, a review of scientific studies reported on Tuesday.周二(2月9日),一项科学研究综述报告,有机肉类和牛奶在某些营养成分上与通过常规方式生产的同类产品间存在明显差异。In particular, levels of omega-3 fatty acids, beneficial for lowering the risk of heart disease, were 50 percent higher in the organic versions.尤其是,有机产品中有益于降低心脏病风险的ω-3脂肪酸的水平比普通产品高出50%。“The fatty acid composition is definitely better,” said Carlo Leifert, a professor of ecological agriculture at Newcastle University in England and the leader of an international team of scientists who performed the review.该综述由一国际科学家小组完成,其负责人,英格兰纽卡斯尔大学(Newcastle University)的生态农业教授卡洛·莱费特(Carlo Leifert)说:“(有机产品的)脂肪酸组成绝对更佳。”The European Commission, the executive body of the European Union, and the Sheepdrove Trust, a British charity that supports organic farming research, paid for the analysis, which cost about 0,000.该项分析耗资约60万美元,这些费用由欧盟(European Union)的执行机构欧盟委员会(European Commission)和持有机农业研究的英国慈善机构Sheepdrove Trust承担。However, the question of whether these differences are likely to translate to better health in people who eat organic meat and drink organic milk is sharply disputed.然而,上述差异是否代表着吃有机肉类、喝有机牛奶的人更为健康呢?人们对此仍有尖锐的争议。“We don’t have that answer right now,” said Richard P. Bazinet, a professor of nutritional sciences at the University of Toronto who was not involved with the research. “Based on the composition, it looks like they should be better for us.”“这个问题的我们现在还不得而知,”多伦多大学(University of Toronto)的营养科学教授理查德·P·巴齐内(Richard P. Bazinet)说,他没有参与上述研究。“但就营养组成而言,它们(有机产品)似乎更为有益。”The two new scientific papers, published in The British Journal of Nutrition, are not the result of any new experiments, but instead employ a statistical technique called meta-analysis that attempts to pull robust conclusions out of many disparate studies.这两篇新的科学论文发表在《英国营养学杂志》(The British Journal of Nutrition)上,它们并没有介绍什么新的实验结果,而是采用了一种名为荟萃分析的统计技术,试图从众多不同的研究中得出强有力的结论。They are certain to further stir a combative debate over whether organic foods are healthier. Some scientists assert that organic and conventional foods are nutritionally indistinguishable, and others find significant benefits to organic. Many people who buy organic food say they do so not for a nutritional advantage, but because of environmental concerns and to avoid pesticides.它们势必会进一步激起人们就有机食品是否更为健康展开激烈的辩论。一些科学家宣称,有机食品和常规食品的营养价值并无区别,而其他人则发现有机产品显著较好。许多人称自己购买有机食品并非是为了更高的营养价值,而是出于对环境的忧虑,以及希望能避免农药问题。The higher levels of omega-3, a type of polyunsaturated fat, arise not from the attributes usually associated with organic food — that the animals are not given antibiotics, hormones or genetically modified feed — but rather from a requirement that animals raised organically spend time outside. Organic milk and beef come from cattle that graze on grass, while most conventional milk and beef come from cows subsisting on grain.ω-3脂肪酸是一种多不饱和脂肪。有机食品中ω-3脂肪酸水平较高,并不是有机食品本身的特点(即不给予动物抗生素、激素或转基因饲料)造成的,而是因为有机养殖的动物在室外活动的时间较长。有机牛奶和牛肉产自在草地上放牧的牛,而大多数普通牛奶和牛肉则产自吃谷物的牛。“It’s not something magical about organic,” said Charles M. Benbrook, an organic industry consultant who is an author of the studies. “It’s about what the animals are being fed.”“有机食品本身并没有什么神奇之处,”研究的作者之一,有机产业顾问查尔斯·M·本布鲁克(Charles M. Benbrook)说。“关键在于动物是用什么东西饲喂的。”Most of the same changes would be observed in conventionally raised animals that also grazed for the majority of their diet, the scientists said.“For once, this is a pretty simple story,” Dr. Benbrook said.科学家们表示,如果常规饲养的动物也以吃草为主,那么在它们身上也能发现很多相同的改变。“这样一来,问题就变得简单了,“本布鲁克士说。The review of comparisons of organic and conventional milk analyzed all 196 papers the scientists found. Because studies of meat are sparser, they could not look at just one type of meat like beef or pork. Instead, they did one analysis of the 67 papers they found for all types of meat. “Only if you throw them all in one pot can you do a meta-analysis,” Dr. Leifert said.科学家们在比较有机和常规牛奶的综述中分析了他们所能找到的所有196篇论文。由于对肉类的研究较少,他们发现只审查关于某一种肉,如牛肉或猪肉的研究不现实。反之,他们对关于各种肉的67篇论文统一进行了分析。“只有把它们放在一起才能进行荟萃分析,”莱费特士解释道。Two years ago, Dr. Leifert led a similar review for fruits and vegetables that found organic produce had higher levels of some antioxidants and less pesticide residue than conventionally grown crops.两年前,莱费特士领导了一项关于水果和蔬菜的类似综述,发现与用常规方法种植的作物相比,有机农产品中某些抗氧化剂的水平较高,农药残留较少。Nutrition experts broadly agree that omega-3 fatty acids in food offer numerous health benefits. When the ed States Department of Agriculture revised its dietary guidelines in 2010, it urged people to eat more seafood, which is rich in omega-3.营养专家普遍认同,食物中的ω-3脂肪酸具有多种健康效益。美国农业部(ed States Department of Agriculture)在2010年修订其膳食指南时,呼吁人们多多食用富含ω-3脂肪酸的海产品。Omega-3 is much more prevalent in grass than in grain, which is why organic livestock and milk also contain higher levels. “Lo and behold, we altered in some fundamental ways the nutrient intake of these animals and hence the nutrient composition of the products that we derive from those animals,” Dr. Benbrook said.草料中的ω-3脂肪酸含量比谷物中高,因此有机家畜及其乳制品中也含有较高水平的ω-3脂肪酸。“你瞧,我们改变了这些动物摄入营养的基本方式,这才影响了其衍生产品的营养成分,”本布鲁克士说。The new analysis found that levels of another polyunsaturated fat, omega-6, were slightly lower in organic meat and dairy. Omega-3 and omega-6 are essential for the functioning of the human body, which can make neither. But some have argued that a skewing toward omega-6 has become unhealthy.新的分析还发现,在有机肉类和乳制品中,另一种多不饱和脂肪酸:ω-6脂肪酸的水平略低。ω-3和ω-6脂肪酸对于人体的正常功能来说都必不可少,而且人体无法自己合成它们。但也有人认为,过多摄入ω-6脂肪酸并不利于健康。Centuries ago, people ate roughly equal amounts of the two fatty acids. Today, most Americans eat more than 10 times as much omega-6, which is prevalent in certain vegetable oils and thus also fried foods, as omega-3.几个世纪以前,人们摄入的这两种脂肪酸大致等量。今天,由于某些植物油中普遍含有ω-6脂肪酸(因此油炸食品也一样),大多数美国人摄入的ω-6脂肪酸约为ω-3的10倍以上。In an email, Dr. Walter C. Willett, the chairman of the nutrition department at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, said the differences between organic and conventional beef were trivial, and the amount of saturated fat in both were high.哈佛大学公共卫生学院(Harvard School of Public Health)的营养系主任沃尔特·C·威利特(Walter C. Willett)士在一封电子邮件中写道,有机和常规牛肉之间的差异微不足道,而且两者中的饱和脂肪含量均很高。“Far greater, and beneficial, differences in fatty acids are seen if poultry and fish replace red meat,” Dr. Willett said.“如果用禽肉和鱼肉来代替红肉,你会发现更大、更有益于健康的脂肪酸差异,”威利特士如是说。A shortcoming of the recommendation to eat more fish is that if everyone followed it, the rivers, oceans and lakes would be emptied of fish. Dr. Bazinet of the University of Toronto said perhaps encouraging people to switch to organic meats and milk would be “a way to kind of get at them with the foods they’re aly eating.”不过,多吃鱼这个建议本身也有其缺点:如果每个人都遵循这个建议,那么河流、海洋和湖泊中的鱼就要被吃光了。多伦多大学的巴齐内士表示,鼓励人们改吃有机肉类和牛奶或许“只是在教人摄入本来就在吃的食物”。Dr. Bazinet said observational studies suggested that adding 200 milligrams a day of omega-3s to an average diet should yield health benefits. Switching to organic beef would add about 50 milligrams. “Eating one grass-fed beef serving per day is not going to do it,” he said.巴齐内士说,观察研究表明,在普通膳食的基础上,每天增加摄入200毫克ω-3脂肪酸可带来健康效益。而改吃有机牛肉只能多摄取到约50毫克的ω-3脂肪酸。于是他总结道:“每天吃一份草饲牛肉达不到你(补充ω-3脂肪酸)的目的。”But if combined with a couple of glasses of organic milk, “it should make a difference,” Dr. Bazinet said. “That would be the hypothesis.”但是,如果再喝上一两杯有机牛奶的话,“应该就有用了,”巴齐内士说。“假设上是如此。”Scientists are now trying to examine the health question more directly.现在科学家们正试图以更直接的方式来探讨这些健康问题。Dr. Leifert cited several studies that indicated that infants of mothers who ate organic fruits and vegetables were less likely to contract some diseases. He is also conducting experiments to see if rats fed organic foods are healthier. So far, he said, it appears that crop pesticide residue does have measurable effects on the rats’ hormones.莱费特士列举了数项研究,它们都表明,食用有机水果和蔬菜的母亲所诞下的婴儿较不容易患某些疾病。他还在进行实验,以研究饲喂有机食品的大鼠是否更健康。他说,从迄今为止的结果来看,农作物上的农药残留确实对大鼠的激素水平造成了明显的影响。“We still don’t know whether it kills you, but we do know it has an effect on hormonal balances,” he said. “It’s something that makes you think a little bit.”“虽然尚不清楚它是否会致死,但我们的确发现,它会影响激素的平衡。”他说,“这一点颇值得深思。” /201602/428192。
  • Mr Porter Goes East to Find Fresh Looks男装购物网站Mr Porter去东方寻找新鲜造型Limited Edition限量版Although spring and summer clothing is now hitting the stores, fashion editors and buyers are looking toward the fall as they jet off to the fashion shows in London, Milan and Paris. Representatives of Mr Porter will celebrate London men’s fashion week with an unveiling of six collections featuring emerging brands previously unavailable outside Japan, in collaboration with Beams, a Japanese department store.虽然春夏装正在到店,但是时尚编辑和买家们在展望秋季装,因为他们开始启程前去观看伦敦、米兰和巴黎的时装秀。为了庆祝伦敦男装周,Mr Porter的代表们与日本百货公司Beams合作,推出来自新兴品牌的六个系列,这些品牌之前不曾在日本以外的地方销售。“First and foremost, we wanted to ensure that these collections had universal appeal, and having contributors from six different brands allowed us that versatility,” said Daniel Todd, a buyer at Mr Porter. “Each brand has a real point of difference, so there is something in there for everyone without having to dilute the story behind each collection. Teatora, for example, makes outstanding technical travel suits whereas orSlow has a fantastic denim offering.”Mr Porter的采购员丹尼尔·托德(Daniel Todd)说:“最重要的是,我们想确保这些系列受到普遍欢迎,六个不同品牌的产品让我们变得多样化。每个品牌都有真正的独特之处,所以每个人都能找到自己喜欢的,不必淡化每个系列背后的故事。比如,Teatora生产出色的有技术含量的旅行装,orSlow生产很棒的牛仔裤。”London Meets Fukui伦敦遇见福井Specs专业人员In Fukui, a coastal city in western Japan, there is a centuries-old community of optical artisans called Shokunin who have been making eyewear, using local titanium and acetate, through a 200-step process. Rohan Dhir, the founder of the London-based online retailer Archibald Optics, is collaborating with the artisans to create slightly retro eyeglasses and shades that bring together British design and Japanese know-how.在日本西部沿海城市福井,有一个有几百年历史的眼镜手工艺人(手工艺人在日本被称为职人[Shokunin]——译注)群体。他们采用当地产的钛和醋酸盐,经过200道工序制作眼镜。伦敦在线零售商Archibald Optics的创始人罗恩·迪尔(Rohan Dhir)正在与这些手工艺人合作,制造略微复古的眼镜和墨镜,把英国的设计与日本的技术结合起来。It’s Back!回归了!Consider考虑一下吧Who would have thought that the fanny pack, long considered an accessory of the clueless tourist, would find its way to the spring 2016 men’s collections? Designers including Tomas Maier and Lemaire have new interpretations of this onetime fashion “don’t.” Saturdays, a brand with an emphasis on surf wear, has introduced a fanny pack in collaboration with the Japanese accessories company Porter-Yoshida. (To put distance between the fanny pack’s fashionable present and its unstylish past, most brands now call it a “waist bag.”) “The waist bag is a perfect travel companion for the man on the run,” said Morgan Collett, a Saturdays founder.长期以来,腰包被认为是无知游客的配饰,谁能想到它会进入2016年的春季男装系列?托马斯·梅尔(Tomas Maier)和勒迈尔(Lemaire)等设计师对这个曾经的时尚“禁品”进行了新的诠释。主要做冲浪装的Saturdays与日本配饰公司 Porter-Yoshida合作推出一款腰包(为了把现在时尚的新设计和过去不时尚的设计区别开来,大部分品牌不把腰包称为fanny pack,而是称为waist bag)。Saturdays的创始人根·科利特(Morgan Collett)说:“对奔忙的男人来说,腰包是完美的旅行伴侣。”O.K., maybe we’ll consider it.好吧,我们也许会考虑它的。A Fashion Alliance时装公司的联盟Collaboration合作Closed, a family-run German fashion brand founded in 1978 that is known for its denim, has hired Hirofumi Kurino, a founder of the Japanese company ed Arrows, to produce two styles of men’s chinos. “Closed and ed Arrows have the same positive vibration and seriousness to be a human-oriented company,” said Mr. Kurino (shown). “The high-level production skill and the rich archive from Closed, together with the sincerity of Japanese fabric and the smart ed Arrows taste — that makes a good chemistry.”创立于1978年的德国家族时装品牌Closed以牛仔裤闻名,它聘请日本时装公司ed Arrows的创始人栗野文(Hirofumi Kurino)生产两种风格的男士牛仔裤。栗野文(如图)说:“Closed和ed Arrows具有相同的乐观精神和认真态度,都是以人为本的公司。Closed高水平的生产技术和丰富的历史资料,加上日本面料的真诚和ed Arrows的时尚品味,会产生很好的化学反应。”A Style Assist From Abroad来自国外的时尚助手Men’s Style Reads男装时尚读物“In the twenty-first century, it is now conventional wisdom that the Japanese ‘do Americana better than Americans,’” W. David Marx writes in his new book, “Ametora: How Japan Saved American Style.”W·大卫·马克斯(W. David Marx)在他的新书《Ametora:日本如何拯救了美国时尚》(Ametora: How Japan Saved American Style)中写道:“在21世纪,大家公认,日本人‘比美国人更擅长创造美国风情’。”With its affectionate takes on classic men’s wear, from bluejeans to Oxford shirts, Japan’s fashion industry has had a longstanding relationship withAmerican style. In a step-by-step account, Mr. Marx traces the history of this cross-cultural sartorial phenomenon, from the Brooks Brothers-influenced “Ivy League” look introduced by the fashion magnate Kensuke Ishizu in 1959 all the way up to Tokyo’s neo-traditionalist designers of recent years.日本时装业一直厚爱经典男装,比如蓝色牛仔裤和牛津布衬衫,所以与美国风尚保持着长久的关系。马克斯一步一步地追溯这种跨文化制衣现象的历史,从1959年时装巨头石津健介(Kensuke Ishizu)引入受Brooks Brothers影响的“常春藤盟校”造型一直到近些年东京的新传统主义设计师。 /201601/422690。
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