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吉安玻尿酸多少钱放心口碑井冈山去除黑眼圈多少钱

来源:好医信息    发布时间:2019年07月19日 15:53:48    编辑:admin         

Cindy Wachenheim was someone people didn#39;t think they had to worry about. She was a levelheaded lawyer working for the State Supreme Court, a favorite aunt who got down on the floor to play with her nieces and nephews, and, finally, in her 40s, the mother she had long dreamed of becoming.辛迪·瓦肯海姆(Cindy Wachenheim)是一个人们觉得不用为她操心的人。她是个头脑冷静的律师,在州最高法院工作;也是个受欢迎的长辈,能和甥侄辈的孩子玩个不亦乐乎;在40多岁时,她终于实现了长期以来的梦想,成为一个母亲。But when her baby was a few months old, she became obsessed with the idea that she had caused him irrevocable brain damage. Nothing could shake her from that certainty, not even repeated assurances from doctors that he was normal.然而,在宝宝几个月大的时候,辛迪开始固执地认为,自己给孩子的大脑造成了不可挽回的损伤。任何事情,哪怕多位医生反复保她儿子一切正常,都无法动摇她对那一点的确信。;I love him so much, but it#39;s obviously a terrible kind of love,; she agonized in a 13-page handwritten note. ;It#39;s a love where I can#39;t bear knowing he is going to suffer physically and mentally/emotionally for much of his life.;“我很爱他,但这显然是一种可怕的爱,”她在手写的一封13页长的信中痛苦地写到,“这种爱,让我无法忍受知道他一生中的很多时候,都要饱受身体和精神/情感上的煎熬。”On March 13, 2013, Ms. Wachenheim, 44, strapped her 10-month-old son to her chest in a baby carrier and leapt to her death from the eighth-floor window of her Harlem apartment. ;I became so low,; she wrote in the 13-page outpouring shortly before she jumped, ;thinking that if I had unknowingly caused brain damage to my beautiful, precious baby, I didn#39;t want to live.;2013年3月13日,44岁的瓦肯海姆用背带把10个月大的儿子绑在胸前,从哈林区八楼的公寓窗户跳楼身亡。“我变得很低沉,”她在那封跳楼前不久一口气写成的长信中写道。“想到如果自己在无意中给我漂亮、珍爱的儿子造成了大脑损伤,我就不想活了。”Ms. Wachenheim#39;s story provides a wrenching case study of one woman#39;s experience with maternal mental illness in its most extreme and rare form. It also illuminates some of the surprising research findings that are redefining the scientific understanding of such disorders: that they often develop later than expected and include symptoms not just of depression, but of psychiatric illnesses.瓦肯海姆的故事是一个令人心痛的案例,以最极端、最罕见的形式呈现了一名女性患上产后精神疾病的经历。这个故事也阐明了一些出人意料的研究结果,这些研究结果正在重新定义对这类疾病的科学理解:它们的发展通常会比预期晚,不仅包括抑郁的症状,还包括精神疾病的症状。Now these mood disorders, long hidden in shame and fear, are coming out of the shadows. Many women have been afraid to admit to terrifying visions or deadened emotions, believing they should be flush with maternal joy or fearing their babies would be taken from them.如今,长期以来一直隐藏在羞耻和恐惧中的这些情绪紊乱,正在从阴影中走出来。很多女性一直害怕承认自己有可怕的念头,或是低落的情绪,认为自己应该陶醉在当母亲的喜悦中,或是害怕孩子会被夺走。But now, advocacy groups on maternal mental illness are springing up, and some mothers are blogging about their experiences with remarkable candor. A dozen states have passed laws encouraging screening, education and treatment. And celebrities, including Brooke Shields, Gwyneth Paltrow and Courteney Cox, have disclosed their postpartum depression.但现在,关注产妇精神疾病的倡导团体正在涌现,有些母亲十分坦率地在客中记述自己的经历。已经有12个州通过了鼓励筛查、教导和治疗的法律。波姬小丝(Brooke Shields)、格温妮丝·帕特洛(Gwyneth Paltrow)以及柯特尼·考克斯(Courteney Cox)等多位名人都透露自己曾患过产后抑郁症。Ms. Wachenheim#39;s sister, Deb, is among those breaking the silence.瓦肯海姆的黛布(Deb)便是打破沉默的人之一。;We did try to help her, but perhaps if we had been more knowledgeable about postpartum mood disorders, including the fact that postpartum depression is just one of an array of such mood disorders, we could have done something differently that would have maybe saved her life,; she wrote in an email.“我们的确尝试过帮她,但如果当时对产后情绪障碍有更多了解,比如产后抑郁症实际上只是诸多情绪障碍中的一种,我们或许就能以不同的方式做些事情,兴许就能挽救她的生命了,”她在电子邮件中写道。Cindy Wachenheim#39;s experience defied the long-held belief among doctors and experts that symptoms emerge within a few weeks after birth. She seemed fine until her son was about 4 months old, said family and friends. And as a healthy, active woman, Cindy had no risk factors that would signal a mother likely to become delusional and suicidal.医生和专家们长期以来认为,症状会在产后几星期内出现,但辛迪·瓦肯海姆的经历与这种观念相左。据辛迪的家人和朋友说,在儿子大约四个月之前,她看上去很正常。而且辛迪作为一个健康积极的女性,根本没有表现出这个母亲可能会产生妄想,甚至自杀的风险因素。;She loved life, she loved family, she was social,; said her sister-in-law, Karen Wachenheim.“她热爱生活,热爱家庭,也爱和人交往,”她的嫂子卡伦·瓦肯海姆(Karen Wachenheim)说。In fact, Cindy, long interested in women#39;s issues and social justice, had, years earlier, identified postpartum depression in Karen. ;Cindy would call at least once a day to check on me,; Karen recalled. ;She said, #39;Maybe you have postpartum; I think it#39;s past the baby blues.#39; ; At Cindy#39;s urging, Karen got therapy and medication, recovering quickly.实际上,一直关注女性问题和社会公正的辛迪,多年前在卡伦身上发现了产后抑郁症。“辛迪每天至少会打一次电话,确认我没事,”卡伦回忆说。“她说,#39;你可能是患上了产后抑郁症,我觉得不只是生宝宝后情绪不好。#39; ”在辛迪的督促下,卡伦接受了治疗并了药,很快便康复了。A Son Who Was #39;My Heart#39;“心肝宝贝”儿子Cindy grew up in Colonie, N.Y., outside Albany, where she was her high school#39;s valedictorian. She attended the State University of New York at Buffalo and Columbia Law School. She valued public service and took a job doing research and writing for judges on the State Supreme Court in Manhattan.辛迪在纽约州奥尔巴尼郊区的科隆尼长大,曾因成绩优异在高中时作为毕业生代表发言,并在纽约州立大学布法罗分校(State University of New York at Buffalo)和哥伦比亚大学法学院(Columbia Law School)就读。她重视公共务,曾在位于曼哈顿的州最高法院工作,为法官做研究并撰写文件。When her mother became ill with leukemia, and later her father with lung cancer, Cindy would travel upstate to go to their medical appointments with them. When her siblings or their children had medical checkups, Cindy jotted the dates in notebooks, and called the night before to remind them to fill her in.当母亲患上白血病,后来父亲又患上肺癌时,辛迪会去纽约州的北部,陪同父母就诊。当兄弟或是他们的孩子体检时,辛迪会在笔记本上记下日期,并在前一天晚上打电话,提醒他们要把最新情况告诉她。;I think she even kept all those books too, in a shoe box,; said her brother, Ron. ;People collect stamps; she collected that stuff.;“我想她甚至保存着所有这些本子,放在一个鞋盒里的,”哥哥罗恩(Ron)说。“别人集邮,她收集的却是这些东西。”She married at 40, and she and her husband underwent fertility treatment. She miscarried twice. But family and friends said that while mourning those losses and dealing with fertility hormones, she remained hopeful, noting that doctors said it was a good sign she had been able to become pregnant.辛迪结婚时40岁,夫妇俩都接受过生育治疗。她小产过两次,但家人和朋友表示,尽管经历了流产之痛,还要调节生育激素,但她仍很乐观,还说医生表示,她还能怀就是个好兆头。;She just thought that she#39;s going to keep trying and take each step as it came,; said a longtime friend, Julie Knapp.“她只是觉得要不断尝试,每次机会到来时都要抓住,”多年好友朱莉·纳普(Julie Knapp)说。Experts say little evidence links fertility treatment to postpartum mental illness; indeed, becoming pregnant may bring more joy than stress. Still, Wendy N. Davis, the executive director of Postpartum Support International, said some women experience cumulative stress from ;fertility treatments, many losses, and the very, very high expectation she will enjoy this new baby.;专家称,鲜有据表明产后精神疾病与生育治疗有关;的确,怀可能会带来更多的喜悦,而非压力。然而,产后持国际组织(Postpartum Support International)的执行董事温迪·N·戴维斯(Wendy N. Davis)表示,某些女性会因“生育治疗、多次流产,以及十分十分期望自己会喜欢新生的宝宝”而导致压力累积。Eventually, Cindy was able to conceive and have an uneventful pregnancy, her only out-of-the-ordinary response being a tendency to be hyperaware of whether the fetus was kicking.终于,辛迪成功怀了,而且怀期间一切平安。唯一不寻常的反应似乎是,她常常极其在意胎儿有没有在踢她。Cindy gave birth normally and adored her son, often calling him ;my heart.;辛迪顺利生产,并且非常喜欢自己的儿子,常常称他为“我的心肝宝贝”。;Not unlike a lot of high-achieving women, she was somewhat of a perfectionist, and she also wanted to be the perfect mother,; Deb said. Still, she was pretty easygoing in the first months of her son#39;s life, even when she had to introduce formula early because she produced too little breast milk, Deb said.黛布说,“和很多优秀女性一样,她有些完美主义,而且想当一个完美的母亲。”但黛布表示,在生下儿子的最初几个月里,她还是很放松的,即便在因为母乳不足,而不得不早早地给孩子喝配方奶粉时也一样。But when her son was 4 months old, Cindy emailed Deb that he was making ;strange/jerky movements w/his right arm,; almost ;flapping like a wing.;但在儿子四个月大时,辛迪给黛布发电子邮件说儿子正在“用右手做些抽筋似的奇怪动作”,就像“在扇翅膀”。The pediatrician said it was nothing to worry about, but Cindy scoured the Internet for diagnoses. She fixated on an instance a few weeks earlier, in August when, while washing clothes, she briefly left the baby on a play mat on the floor. He fell while pushing up, hitting his head.儿科医生说完全不用担心,但辛迪却在网上四处搜寻资料自行诊断。她对数周前发生的一件事耿耿于怀。那是在8月,在洗衣时,她暂时把孩子放在了游戏垫上。宝宝在往起爬时跌倒了,碰到了头。She believed this minor episode had caused him severe neurological problems: seizures, autism, concussion. She blamed herself for leaving the room, for placing the play mat on the hardwood floor. Other incidents alarmed her, and she decided he was more irritable, smiling less.她认为这次小小的意外给他的神经系统造成了严重的问题:癫痫、自闭症和脑震荡。她怪自己离开了房间,怪自己把游戏垫放在了硬木地板上。其它一些事情也使她感到不安。她确信孩子变得更烦燥了,也笑得少了。She visited two pediatric neurologists. Then she saw an expert in cerebral palsy because her son did not always exhibit the Landau reflex, a Superman-like pose babies make when held aloft, stomach-down.辛迪去见了两位儿童神经科医生,后来还去看了一位大脑性麻痹领域的专家,因为儿子并不总是能做出兰多反射(Landau Reflex)——被腹部朝下抱起时,婴儿通常会做出这个像超人一样的姿势。In October 2012, when her son was 5 months old, she emailed a doctor she had seen that day: ;When you said babies can#39;t injure their brains from even several floor-level head hits on a wooden floor, did that include hits even if they are turning and hit back or side of head on the floor?;2012年10月,儿子5个月大,她给当天见过的一名医生发电子邮件询问:“你说,宝宝哪怕是头在木地板上磕了好几下也不会伤到大脑,这种情况包括他们在转身时后脑勺或脑袋两侧撞到地板上吗?”The doctor replied: ;That#39;s right. Little bumps on the head at floor level that a baby may cause themselves in the course of normal spontaneous movements would not cause any injury. Babies are really very hardy (thank goodness)!;医生回复:“是的。宝宝在地板上自发进行正常活动时,可能会导致头部受到轻微碰撞,但这不会造成任何损伤。宝宝真的很结实(谢天谢地)!”Cindy sent the doctor a of her son, noting that ;he almost always moves the right hand when holding a toy, reaching to grab something, etc.;辛迪又把儿子的一段视频发给了那名医生,称“他在拿玩具、伸手抓东西或做其他事情时,几乎总是用右手”。The doctor responded: ;All of his movements look like normal, age-appropriate movements to me.;医生回复:“在我看来,你儿子的所有举动都很正常,都和他的年龄相符。”Her siblings assured her that their children had made similar movements, but she was implacable. Without telling her sister, Deb called the pediatrician, who said she was also concerned about Cindy. Deb said Cindy#39;s husband worried too, although ;part of him said: #39;Maybe she#39;s right. She is smart and was with the baby all the time.#39; ;辛迪的兄弟安慰她说,他们的孩子也曾有过类似的动作,但这还是无法缓解辛迪的忧虑。黛布瞒着,偷偷给那名儿科医生打了电话。医生表示她也对辛迪有所担心。黛布说,夫也有忧虑,不过“他同时认为:#39;或许她是对的。她很聪明,而且时刻都和孩子在一起。#39;”Still, both Cindy#39;s husband and siblings urged her to seek therapy.但辛迪的丈夫和兄弟还是敦促她接受治疗。;I just really want you to see someone,; Deb emailed Cindy. ;You cannot continue like this, for your sake and for his sake.;“我真的想让你去看看医生,”黛布给辛迪发邮件。“为了你自己,也为了你儿子,不能再这样下去了。”Cindy agreed, but insisted that she had no postpartum mental illness. She told her family she was simply depressed because of the harm she had done to the baby.辛迪同意了,但坚称自己没患产后精神疾病。她告诉家人,只是因为给宝宝造成了伤害而觉得郁闷。;You can hardly imagine how it feels to strongly believe he has brain damage and that I caused it,; she emailed Deb. ;It must be one of the top one or two nightmares for any parent. iloveyou, cindy.;“你几乎想象不到这种感觉是什么样子,我强烈地觉得他有大脑损伤,而且是我造成的,”她给黛布发邮件说。“对任何父母来说,这肯定都是数一数二的恶梦。爱你的辛迪。”Consumed With Worry忧心忡忡Experts say such breaks from reality are likely symptoms of postpartum psychosis, which affects only one or two in 1,000 mothers. About 4 percent of those hurt their children; about 5 percent kill themselves. Flagrant cases usually emerge soon after birth; women may hear voices or feel compelled to inflict harm, like Andrea Yates, who drowned her five children in a bathtub in 2001, or Dena Schlosser, who in 2004 cut off her infant#39;s arms. Both women were ultimately found not guilty by reason of insanity.专家表示,这类与现实的脱节,很可能是产后精神病的症状。产后精神病的发病率只有千分之一到千分之二。在那些患病的母亲中,约有4%的人会伤害自己的孩子;大约5%的人会自杀。骇人听闻的案例通常出现在母亲生下孩子后不久;产妇可能会出现幻听,或者有去制造伤害的冲动,比如2001年将自己的五个孩子淹死在浴缸里的安德烈娅·耶茨(Andrea Yates),以及2004年砍掉婴儿双臂的德娜·施洛瑟(Dena Schlosser)。这两位母亲最终都因精神失常被判无罪。;More subtle forms of psychosis are going to be picked up later,; said Dr. Katherine Wisner, a professor of psychiatry and obstetrics at Northwestern University. These women ;tend to have prolonged delusional thinking: #39;there#39;s something really wrong with my baby.#39; ;西北大学(Northwestern University)的精神病学和产科学教授凯瑟琳·威斯纳(Katherine Wisner)说:“不那么典型的产后精神病会较晚出现症状。”这些女性“往往会出现长期错觉:#39;我的孩子真的有问题#39;”。Most other maternal mood disorders do not involve such unshakably unrealistic convictions; most women know something is wrong, and although they fear they will harm their children, they rarely do.大部分其他产后情绪障碍都不会出现这类不切实际到不可动摇的坚定想法;大部分女性知道出了问题,而且尽管害怕自己会伤害到孩子,但她们很少真的那么做。At Thanksgiving in 2012, Cindy#39;s family gathered at her brother Ron#39;s home outside Albany, and Cindy, normally outgoing, seemed consumed with her son#39;s supposed problems. She told Deb she had thought about suicide, saying ;How can you go on knowing that you#39;ve ruined your baby#39;s life and it was your fault?; Deb was stunned. She and Cindy#39;s husband discussed the situation, hopeful that therapy would help.2012年的感恩节,辛迪的家人在哥哥罗恩(Ron)位于奥尔巴尼郊区的家中聚会。通常颇为外向的辛迪,似乎一心想着她所谓的儿子的问题。她告诉黛布她想过自杀,说“知道因为自己的错误而亲手毁了孩子的一生,你还能活下去吗?”黛布大吃一惊。她和辛迪的丈夫讨论了这一情况,希望治疗会有所帮助。Later that visit, the baby rolled off a low bed. It was one of several times that Cindy panicked and took him to the emergency room, where doctors pronounced him fine.那次聚会后,宝宝从一张矮床上滚了下来。辛迪惊慌失措地把孩子送到急诊室,但医生却说宝宝一切安好。这样的情况发生过好几次。The next month, Cindy began seeing a psychiatrist, who prescribed Zoloft, an antidepressant. She briefly visited other counselors for talk therapy. Friends offered support and company.接下来的那个月里,辛迪开始看精神科医生。那名医师给她开了左洛复(Zoloft),一种抗忧郁的药物。她还短暂地去其他几名咨询师那里接受过谈话治疗。朋友给了她持与陪伴。One January weekend at Ron#39;s house, she seemed more engaged, smiling more. When Deb asked, she acknowledged still having thoughts of suicide, but said her psychiatrist had told her it was not too worrisome ;as long as they#39;re not getting more frequent,; Deb recalled.1月的一个周末,在哥哥罗恩家,辛迪似乎精神更集中了,笑容也多了。黛布回忆,当她问起时,辛迪坦言依然会有自杀的想法,但她说,精神科医生告诉她不用太担心,“只要这些想法没有变得更频繁。”Family and friends wonder now if she was feigning feeling better. ;Now I think maybe she was backing off so everyone wouldn#39;t think she was crazy,; Karen said.家人和朋友现在揣测,她当时是不是假装感觉好些了?“我现在觉得,她那时候是退了一步,这样大家就不会觉得她疯了,”卡伦说。Experts said postpartum psychosis symptoms can fluctuate. Sometimes women are ;lucid and not delusional,; said Dr. Davis of Postpartum Support International. ;Then they slip back into delusions more easily than with other types of psychosis.;专家表示,产后精神病的症状可能会出现波动。国际产后持组织的戴维斯士说,病人有时候“头脑清晰,不会产生错觉。然后,她们会比患其他精神病的人更容易陷入错觉中去”。The mixed signals from Cindy continued into March. She discussed returning to work and finding day care. On a visit to her mother-in-law on Long Island, she called Deb while strolling by the ocean and sounded good. But the next day, Sunday, the baby fell while pulling up on a chair in his grandmother#39;s kitchen. Cindy considered it another disastrous ;head hit.;辛迪表现出来的复杂情况持续到了3月。她说起回去工作,并找家日间托儿所。去长岛探望婆婆期间,她一边在海边散步,一边给黛布打电话,当时听上去挺好的。但第二天是星期日,在奶奶的厨房里,孩子碰到椅子上摔倒了。辛迪把这看作是另一场灾难性的“撞头事件”。On Tuesday, Cindy uncharacteristically canceled her psychiatrist#39;s appointment, citing rain. On Wednesday, as she sometimes did, Cindy asked her husband to come home from work. When he arrived, she said their son#39;s morning had been rough, but that she was feeling better. After a few hours, he returned to work.接下来的周二,辛迪以下雨为由,反常地取消了和精神科医生的预约。周三,与之前偶尔出现的情况一样,辛迪把丈夫从公司叫回了家。丈夫到家后,她说儿子一上午都过得不顺,不过她感觉正在好转。几个小时后,丈夫回去上班了。That afternoon, with her baby snug to her chest, she jumped.当天下午,辛迪把孩子捆在自己胸前,跳下了楼。;I am so unbearably sorry, which I know does nothing to undo the evil I have done,; her farewell note began. ;I wanted to be a mother so badly and I hoped to be a wonderful one, and instead I have become the worst of the worst.;“我特别特别愧疚,我知道这无法弥补我犯下的恶行,”辛迪在遗书开头写道。“我非常想当母亲,想成为一位优秀的母亲,然而,我却成了差到不能再差的一个母亲。”Searching for anything to blame herself for, she described minor, harmless moments: tucking a light blanket over his face for warmth, letting him suck a leaf, briefly putting a dime in his mouth and immediately removing it. ;These things I did were horrible,; she wrote.在找一切理由责怪自己时,她说到了一些没造成什么伤害的小事:为了保暖把薄毯子盖到了宝宝脸上、任由他吮吸一片树叶、短暂地把十分钱硬币放到宝宝嘴里又马上拿走。“我做的这一切太可怕了,”她在信里写道。She was sure her son would never walk, and said she believed his most recent fall caused a concussion. ;I#39;m so so sorry, but I can#39;t bear for him to suffer more and more.;她确信儿子永远都不会走路,还说她认为最近那次摔倒造成了脑震荡。“真的非常非常对不起,但我无法忍受他越来越遭罪。”She said she knew others would see her suicide as a result of ;postpartum depression/psychosis.; But, she said: ;I know I am right that I mistakenly harmed him. I#39;m not claiming a voice told me to do this.;她还说自己知道,其他人会把她的自杀归咎于“产后抑郁症/精神病”,但她说:“我无意中伤害到了儿子,我知道自己是有理由这么想的。并不是说有个声音让我这么做。”She even chastised herself for crumbling emotionally, saying she made her son a less happy baby.她甚至苛责自己情绪不稳定,说她让儿子没那么快乐。;I don#39;t know if there is a hell,; she wrote, ;but I hope so.;“我不知道是否有地狱,”她写道,“但我希望有。”Cindy Wachenheim would never know that in her last act, her body cushioned the fall for her son and saved his life. Weeks later, the healthy little boy took his first steps.辛迪·瓦肯海姆永远不会知道,她生命的最后一刻,自己的身体为儿子从高处摔下来时提供了缓冲,救了他一命。几个星期后,这个健康的小男孩迈出了人生的第一步。 /201411/339901。

One reason so many American women are overweight may be that we are vacuuming and doing laundry less often, according to a new study that, while scrupulously even-handed, is likely to stir controversy and emotions.一项新的研究显示,美国有如此之多的超重女性,原因之一是她们不再那么经常使用吸尘器和洗衣。即使以谨慎而公正的方式进行,这项研究也可能在舆论和情感层面引起轩然。The study, published this month in PLoS One, is a follow-up to an influential 2011 report which used data from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics to determine that, during the past 50 years, most American workers began sitting down on the job. Physical activity at work, such as walking or lifting, almost vanished, according to the data, with workers now spending most of their time seated before a computer or talking on the phone. Consequently, the authors found, the average American worker was burning almost 150 fewer calories daily at work than his or her employed parents had, a change that had materially contributed to the rise in obesity during the same time frame, especially among men, the authors concluded.上述研究成果是2011年发表的一篇论文的续作,刊登在本月的科研杂志《PLoS One》上。前作引起了很大反响,它通过美国劳工统计局(Bureau of Labor Statistics)的数据得出结论说,50年来,大多数美国劳动者逐渐开始坐着工作。像四处走动或搬运东西这样的体力劳动几乎已经消失。这些数据显示,现在劳动者把大多数时间都用在了操作电脑和打电话上。该论文的作者发现,和他们的父辈相比,美国劳动者每天在工作中消耗的热量减少了150大卡。作者断定,这样的变化对同一时期肥胖现象的增多有实质性的推动作用,特别是男性肥胖。“Fifty years ago, a majority of women did not work outside of the home, ” said Edward Archer, a research fellow with the Arnold School of Public Health at the University of South Carolina in Columbia, and lead author of the new study.哥伦比亚市南卡罗来那大学阿诺德公共健康学院(Arnold School of Public Health at University of South Carolina)研究员爱德华·阿彻(Edward Archer)士是这篇新研究报告的主笔。他说:“50年前,多数女性都不外出工作。”So, in collaboration with many of the authors of the earlier study of occupational physical activity, Dr. Archer set out to find data about how women had once spent their hours at home and whether and how their patterns of movement had changed over the years.因此,阿彻士联合了在之前的论文中探讨过职业体力劳动情况的多位作者,开始着手寻找过去女性在家中分配时间的数据,进而探究这些年来她们的行为模式是否改变以及出现了哪些变化。He found the information he needed in the American Heritage Time Use Study, a remarkable archive of “time-use diaries” provided by thousands of women beginning in 1965. Because Dr. Archer wished to examine how women in a variety of circumstances spent their time around the house, he gathered diaries from both working and non-employed women, starting with those in 1965 and extending through 2010.他在一项名为“美国时间分配研究资料库”(American Heritage Time Use Study, AHTUS)的研究中找到了自己需要的信息。AHTUS的课题是美国人怎样利用时间,它有一个非同凡响的数据库,其中收集了从1965年至今数千名美国女性的日记,内容是自己如何分配时间。由于阿彻士希望了解不同条件下美国女性怎样在家里配时间,所以他同时收集了职业女性和家庭主妇的日记,这些日记从1965年开始,一直延续到2010年。He and his colleagues then pulled data from the diaries about how many hours the women were spending in various activities, how many calories they likely were expending in each of those tasks, and how the activities and associated energy expenditures changed over the years.接下来,阿彻士和同事们开始从这些日记中提取信息,以确定美国女性在各项家务上花费的时间、消耗的热量以及这么多年来这些家务和与之相关的能量消耗有了怎样的变化。As it turned out, their findings broadly echoed those of the occupational time-use study. Women, they found, once had been quite physically active around the house, spending, in 1965, an average of 25.7 hours a week cleaning, cooking and doing laundry. Those activities, whatever their social freight, required the expenditure of considerable energy. (The authors did not include child care time in their calculations, since the women’s diary entries related to child care were inconsistent and often overlapped those of other activities.) In general at that time, working women devoted somewhat fewer hours to housework, while those not employed outside the home spent more.最终,他们的发现和此前对劳动者如何分配时间的研究所得出的结论大体相同。以前,美国女性曾在家中从事相当多的体力劳动。在1965年,她们花在清扫、做饭和洗衣上的时间平均为每周25.7个小时。无论借助怎样的工具,这些家务都会消耗相当多的能量。(研究者们没有把照看孩子的时间计算在内,原因是这些女性在照看孩子方面的记录存在矛盾而且经常和其他家务重叠在一起。)总的来说,当时职业女性在家务上花的时间较少,而家庭主妇在这方面所花的时间则较多。Forty-five years later, in 2010, things had changed dramatically. By then, the time-use diaries showed, women were spending an average of 13.3 hours per week on housework.45年后,也就是2010年,情况有了显著变化。上述日记显示,到2010年,美国女性花在家务上的时间平均为每周13.3小时。More striking, the diary entries showed, women at home were now spending far more hours sitting in front of a screen. In 1965, women typically had spent about eight hours a week sitting and watching television. (Home computers weren’t invented yet.)更引人注目的是,在这些日记中,家庭主妇坐在电视或电脑前的时间大幅上升。1965年,美国女性每周看电视的时间通常为八小时左右(当时还没有出现家用电脑)。By 2010, those hours had more than doubled, to 16.5 hours per week. In essence, women had exchanged time spent in active pursuits, like vacuuming, for time spent being sedentary.到了2010年,这个数字提高了一倍以上,达到每周16.5小时。实际上,美国女性压缩了用在清扫等动态行为上的时间,而延长了静坐不动的时间。In the process, they had also greatly reduced the number of calories that they typically expended during their hours at home. According to the authors’ calculations, American women not employed outside the home were burning about 360 fewer calories every day in 2010 than they had in 1965, with working women burning about 132 fewer calories at home each day in 2010 than in 1965.在这个过程中,她们在家里消耗的热量下降了很多。研究者们计算,2010年美国家庭主妇每天消耗的热量比1965年减少了360大卡左右,对职业女性来说,这个数字约为132大卡。“Those are large reductions in energy expenditure, ” Dr. Archer said, and would result, over the years, in significant weight gain without reductions in caloric intake.阿彻士指出:“这在能量消耗方面是一个巨大退步。”如果不减少热量摄入,长此以往体重就会明显上升。This does not mean, he said, that women — or men — should be doing more housework. For one thing, the effort involved is such activities today is less than it once was. Using modern, gliding vacuum cleaners is less taxing than struggling with the clunky, heavy machines once available, and thank goodness for that.他说这并不意味着女性或男性应该分担更多家务。首先,现在做家务已不像从前那样耗费体力。谢天谢地,如今的吸尘器轻巧灵活,不像以前那样笨拙沉重,使用起来也不再那么费力。Nor is more time spent helping around the house a guarantee of more activity, over all. A telling 2012 study of television viewing habits found that when men increased the number of hours they spent on housework, they also greatly increased the hours they spent sitting in front of the TV, presumably because it was there and beckoning.其次,总的来说在家务上花更多时间并不能保有更多的运动量。2012年一项关于看电视习惯的研究就生动地说明了这一点。这项研究表明,人们做家务的时间增多后,他们坐在那里看电视的时间也会大幅上升,原因大概是开着的电视引起了他们的注意。Instead, Dr. Archer said, we should start consciously tracking what we do when we are at home and try to reduce the amount of time spent sitting. “Walk to the mailbox, ” he said. Chop vegetables in the kitchen. Play ball with your, or a neighbor’s, dog. Chivvy your spouse into helping you fold sheets. “The data clearly shows, ” Dr. Archer said, that even at home, we need to be in motion.阿彻士说,相反,人们待在家里时应该有意识地记录自己的活动并设法缩短坐着的时间。他建议说:“走到信箱那儿取信”,到厨房切菜,和自己或者邻居养的做游戏,哄爱人帮你一起叠床单。他指出,“这些数据清楚地表明”,就算在家,我们也需要动起来。 /201401/272679。

Many people who work with startup companies say that entrepreneurs are among the healthiest people they know. The reason, they note, may relate to the disciplined and driven personalities required for entrepreneurship, along with the flexible work schedules self-employment allows.很多跟初创公司打交道的人都会说,创业者是他们见过的最健康的一群人。他们认为,原因可能跟创业所必需的自律与冲劲有关,此外,创业人士的工作日程也比较灵活。But I know a different startup story. Most of my friends are men who graduated from Stanford in the past few years, which is to say, most of my friends are entrepreneurs. And many have dropped off the map for long stretches of time, only to resurface looking awful, with bags under their eyes and shoulders hunched under the weight of so much responsibility. I have long wondered if my friends were the exception or the rule.但我也知道不一样的创业故事。我的大部分朋友都是近几年刚从斯坦福大学(Stanford)毕业的男人,换言之,我的大部分朋友都在创业。他们中的很多人忙得没有一点余裕,好容易出来透口气时,看起来都是形容憔悴,脸上挂着大大的眼袋,肩膀耷拉下来,一副被责任压得喘不过气的样子。一直以来我都在猜想,我的朋友们究竟是上述说法的例外还是常规。A new analysis conducted by Gallup-Healthways for The New York Times using data from their Well-Being Index, which assesses everything from physical and emotional health to dietary habits and life purpose, paints a paradoxical picture. Nationwide, entrepreneurs tend to eat more healthful foods and exercise more than other workers. But they also have more stress and are less likely to have health insurance.盖洛普-健维(Gallup-Healthways)运用其“身心健康指数”为纽约时报进行了一项新分析,分析了从身体到心理健康,从饮食习惯到生活目标的各种指数,它描绘了一幅看似矛盾的画面。从全美来看,相比其他职场人士,创业者往往吃得更健康,运动也更多。但他们同时也要承受更大的压力,而且有更大的可能没有购买健康保险。The data come from random telephone interviews with more than 200,000 employed Americans across all 50 states, conducted on most days from January 2012 through June 2013. Entrepreneurs, defined as both ;self-employed; and ;business owners,; made up about 3 percent of the sample, though the data is not separated by type of small business owner or number of years in business.分析的数据源自对全美50个洲20多万受薪人士的随机电话访谈,调查时间在2012年1月到2013年6月间。在受访样本中,同时定义为“自雇人士”和“企业所有人”的创业人士约占3%,不过数据未能区分小型企业所有人的类型或开业年数。Diet emerged as entrepreneurs#39; greatest health advantage. Compared with other full-time or part-time workers, self-employed business owners were slightly more likely to report they ;ate healthy all day yesterday; or regularly eat fruits and vegetables. Fifty-nine percent of entrepreneurs reported they exercise for 30 minutes three or more days per week, versus 54 percent of other workers; and 19 percent reported being obese, compared with 25 percent of other workers.创业人士最大的健康优势看来是饮食。与其他全职或兼职的员工相比,自雇企业所有人自称“昨天一天吃得都很健康”,或者常吃水果蔬菜的可能性要略大一些。59%的创业者自称每周有超过三天运动,每次时长30分钟,而其他员工的比例为54%;同时,有19%的人自称达到了肥胖标准,而其他员工在这方面的比例为25%。;Believe it or not, everyone#39;s not living off high-sodium ramen,; said Joey Pomerenke, co-founder of UP Global, a support organization for entrepreneurs that was launched in Seattle in May. He has worked with hundreds of company founders during his career and says ;there#39;s a level of freedom you don#39;t have at a corporation; that makes it easier to be active and eat well, and to create a healthy work culture when building a company from scratch. UP Global#39;s employee handbook encourages employees to take advantage if ;the snow is deep; or ;the lake is calling; and to make up work later.“信也好不信也罢,不是所有的创业者都在靠吃高钠的拉面为生,”乔伊·波默伦科(Joey Pomerenke)说。他是“UP Global”的联合创始人,这是一家面向创业人士的持机构,今年5月创立于西雅图。在他的职业生涯里,他跟上千位公司创始人合作过,他说“创业者拥有在公司打工时所没有的自由度”,因此更便于运动和健康饮食,同时在白手起家创建公司时,也能创造健康的工作文化。UP Global公司在员工手册里鼓励大家在遇到“积雪很深”或者“好想去湖里游个泳”的情况下不去上班,然后加个班弥补时间损失。But Dan MacCombie, a co-founder of Runa, a Brooklyn-based beverage company, said the need to reassure investors of one#39;s commitment can complicate the health picture. He described a ;martyr complex; among many entrepreneurs he knows, ;the implicit expectation that if you#39;re not wearing yourself a little thin you#39;re not putting enough effort in.; He puts a personal priority on sleep, while his business partner ;will go out of his way to cook an elaborate, veggie-heavy meal because he believes that#39;s important.;不过,总部位于布鲁克里的饮料公司Runa联合创始人丹·迈考比(Dan MacCombie)说,努力打拼好让投资人放心的需求,往往会搅乱健康的前景。他形容说,他认识的很多创业者都有“烈士情结”,“如果你没有把自己累瘦,言下之意就好像是你没有全力以赴。”他个人把保睡眠放在一个最重要的位置,而他的商业伙伴则会“精心烹制一份有很多蔬菜的晚饭,因为他相信这很重要。”A new, nationwide online training group called Minimum Viable Fitness was designed specifically to address the unique challenges of people working in the tech industry. It was co-founded by Julie Fredrickson, who saw her health plummet when she started her first company and, as a chief executive, ;put on 25 pounds, had terrible habits and was exhausted all the time,; she said. ;And I grew up as a competitive athlete in Colorado.; She and co-founder Dick Talens explained that the scarce breaks and frequent travel required of tech entrepreneurs, along with catered lunches and schmoozing over cocktails, often result in decision fatigue when it comes to diet and exercise.“极简可行健身”(Minimum Viable Fitness)是一个新的为解决科技业界人士面对的独特挑战而设立的全美在线训练小组。朱莉·弗雷德里克森(Julie Fredrickson)参与创建了这个小组,她在开办自己的首家公司时,健康状况急剧下滑,作为公司首席执行官,她“长了25磅,生活习惯很糟糕,而且无时无刻不感到疲惫,”她说,“而且当年我在科罗拉多长大,打小是个竞技运动员。”她和小组的另一位创始人迪克·塔伦斯(Dick Talens)解释说,科技业界的创业人士往往休息极少,频繁出差,同时要面对觥筹交错,结果就是每当碰到节食和锻炼时,往往会出现决策疲劳(decision fatigue)。Entrepreneurship certainly has its upsides. Entrepreneurs are more optimistic about their futures than other workers, according to an earlier Gallup analysis of the Well-Being Index conducted last fall and optimism is correlated with good health in some studies. The same analysis found they are also more likely to experience enjoyment and intellectual stimulation on a daily basis.当然,创业也有它的好处。盖洛普去年秋天进行的较早期的身心健康指数分析表明,比起其他员工,创业者对未来更乐观,而一些研究发现,乐观与健康状况良好有联系。通过同样的指数还能发现,创业者每天体会到的喜悦情绪与脑力激荡要更多。But entrepreneurs also report more stress and worry than other workers do, and slightly more sadness, both of which have been tied to worse health. Edward Marks, co-founder of a mobile app company called Twist, said that, unlike being an employee, ;so much of your self-worth is actually invested in a company. I#39;ve seen entrepreneurs cry.;不过,创业人士自称感到压力与焦虑的程度也甚于其他受薪人士,同时他们体会到的悲哀程度也略高,而这些情绪都与健康恶化有关。爱德华·马克斯(Edward Marks)是一家叫Twist的移动应用软件公司联合创始人,他说,跟普通员工不一样,创业者“把自己的身家性命都投到了公司里。我曾亲眼见过创业者大哭。”Lack of health insurance may deepen entrepreneurs#39; stress. Three-fourths of self-employed business owners reported having health insurance, compared with 9 in 10 among other workers — the most significant difference between the two groups. (Likely related, entrepreneurs are also less likely to visit the dentist.)缺乏医疗保险可能会进一步加深创业人士的压力。相比受薪人士90%的医保覆盖率,自雇企业所有人中只有75%拥有医保——这是这两类人群最显著的区别。(创业者看牙医的可能性也较低,这也许跟上述情况有联系。);One of the biggest reasons a would-be entrepreneur doesn#39;t become one is lack of health care,; said Scott Gerber, founder of the Young Entrepreneur Council, which provides startup mentorship and resources and conducts research on entrepreneurs#39; needs. To address this problem, his organization is introducing StartupInsurance, an online platform of health insurance plans offered by major health insurers, which will be compliant with the Affordable Care Act by 2014 and are tailored for entrepreneurs.“之所以有人本来有机会创业,但最后放弃,很大一个原因就在于没有医保,”斯科特·葛伯(Scott Gerber)说。他是“青年创业者理事会”(Young Entrepreneur Council)创始人,该机构提供创业指导和资源,并视乎创业者的需求开展研究。为解决这个问题,他的机构引入了“初创保险”(StartupInsurance),这是一个由大型医疗保险商提供医疗保险计划的在线平台,它将在2014年前根据“平价医疗法案”(Affordable Care Act)完成修订,专为创业人士量身打造。The net effect of all the differences is that slightly fewer entrepreneurs report being diagnosed with health problems like high cholesterol and high blood pressure. But stress remains a constant, and too often ignored, factor in the lives of self-employed business owners, said Carter Coberley, vice president of the Healthways Center for Health Research. He said these ;motivated go-getters; either ;choose not to pay attention to the stress or are so focused on making their work succeed that unfortunately they ignore it to their detriment.;综合各种差别产生的净效果是:自称得到确诊,出现了高胆固醇和高血压这类健康问题的创业人士,比例要略低一些。但据健维健康研究中心(Healthways Center for Health Research)的副总裁卡特·科伯雷(Carter Coberley)说,在自雇企业所有人的生活中,压力仍是一个持续存在、而且往往被忽视的因素。他说这些“上进、有进取心的人”要么“选择不把压力摆在心上,要么完全把注意力放在如何令事业成功上,不幸的是,他们忽略了这样做带来的危害。”;I think that#39;s a picture that#39;s been missing in the workforce over all,; he added. ;But it appears to be exacerbated in small business owners because of additional demands.;“我认为在整个劳动力人口中,这都是一个缺失的画面,”他进一步说,“但看来在小企业业主中问题最严重,因为他们要面对额外的需求。” /201410/338262。

Despite the fact that we’ve just had Christmas and New Year, the world decided that some of us needed yet another reminder of how sad and alone we are. Enter Valentine’s Day, a faux semi-holiday that was invented to stimulate the sales of the floral, jewelry, chocolate and suicide hotline industries. In case you find yourself partner-free this February 14th, here is some proof that you can totally rock the day, singles style.尽管我们刚过了圣诞节和新年,另外一个节日又要提醒我们多么孤独悲伤。那就是情人节,人们设立了这个半假日来增加鲜花、珠宝、巧克力的销售,自杀热线产业也更为火爆。如果你发现没有人陪你度过2月14日这一天,通过以下单身者的方式你也可以过得很嗨。1. Party1.聚会Why sit around wallowing in self pity when you can be out having a good time. If you’re invited to a V-Day party, go. Who cares if it’s going to mostly be couples. You get the chance to drink and eat on somebody else’s dime while observing things going on around you. Perhaps there’ll be some hotties there, or maybe just couples pretending not to be in a fight over inadequate Valentines gifts. Either way, there will be good times! Alternatively, you can throw your own party with an appropriate theme such as “historical couples” or “horror movie characters.”既然能外出度过一个好时光,又何必闲坐着自我怜悯呢。如果有人邀请你去参加情人节聚会,那就去吧。谁在乎是不是大部分人都和情人一起去的呢。你有机会在别处吃喝,观察着周围的事情。也许会有些美女,也许有些夫妻假装着并没有因为情人节礼物不合适而争吵。不管怎样,你会过得很开心的!你也可以给自己的聚会一个合适的主题,如“历史夫妻”、“恐怖电影人物”。 /201402/275654。