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2019年10月19日 20:45:46来源:好医共享

  • What are some things that psychologists know, but most people don#39;t?哪些事心理学家知道,普通人却不知道?You don#39;t really know how happy or sad something is going to make you in the future, even though you think you do right now. Put another way, psychologists know that most people are very bad at being able to predict how they will respond to positive or negative events in the future.即使你认为你现在做的很好,你也不会知道将来会有什么让你开心或伤心的事。换言之,心理学家知道,大多数人不擅长预知将来他们在遇到积极或消极的事件时会如何应对。Most happiness researchers (like Dr. Dan Gilbert) believe that there is a ;happiness set point; for most people, and regardless of positive events (winning the lottery) or negative events (losing your home), a person will generally settle back to their own personal happiness set point, which may be higher than some or lower than some.大部分研究幸福心理学的人(如丹尼尔?吉尔伯特)认为,对大多数人来说,有一个“固定的幸福水平”,不管是发生积极的事(票)还是消极的事(失去你的家),一个人通常会回到他们自己原来的幸福水平上,或许高一点也或许低一点。If the happiness set point explains why people can#39;t predict what will make them happy or sad, other psychologists, like Dr. Martin Seligman, suggest that in order to be happier, you have to try to nudge your set point up a point or two.即使幸福的设定点解释了为什么人们不能预测什么会使自己快乐或悲伤,其他心理学家,如Martin Seligman士建议,为了变得更加快乐,你必须尽力让你的平均幸福水平提升一点。I continually work with my clients (and remind myself, as well) that happiness is most likely to be found in this moment, not in any future one regardless of happy plans, goals, and dreams being pursued. And imagining future catastrophes turns this moment into an unhappy one, perhaps more negative than it would actually be if the catastrophe were to actually occur.我常与我的客户一起工作(并且也提醒自己),不管你有没有计划、目标或是正在追寻的梦想,幸福最有可能发生在这一刻,而不是在未来的某一天。想象未来可能发生的灾难会让此刻变得不愉快,如果灾难真的发生的话,也许会更加消极。Stereotype threat is a fascinating phenomenon in psychology which describes underperformance among minority groups based on self-perceived stereotypes.刻板印象威胁是心理学中描述了基于自我刻板印象的少数群体表现不佳的一个有趣的现象。What this means is that, if you#39;re part of a minority which you know is typically not perceived to be adept in a certain field, you will do worse than otherwise identical peers who are unaffected by stereotype threat (people not in that minority group).这意味着,如果你是这少数人中的一份子,并且你知道这个群体在某一领域并不擅长,你会比其他没意识到这一点的同辈(不在该少数群体中)变现得更差。There have been some studies which have demonstrated tactics to overcome stereotype threat. The first step is education about stereotype threat itself. Make students aware that this is a psychological effect and that this nonsense about Black people being worse at Math or Asians being worse at writing is bogus.已经有一些研究提出了克刻板印象威胁的策略。第一步是关于刻板印象威胁本身的教育。让学生意识到这是一种心理效应,那些关于黑人在数学上表现更糟或亚洲人书写更差的说法是错误的。But evidence suggests that this only has a temporary effect. To get long-term results, make the student internalize the content surrounding stereotype threat; make them reflect on the content and write about it.但有据表明,这只是暂时的影响。要获得长期的成果,就要使学生内化有关刻板印象威胁的内容;让他们进行反思再写下来。EMDR - A therapy wherein people use a systemic process of alternate tapping or using a prompt to move the eyes back and forth while vividly recalling traumatic memories. It#39;s theorized that the left/right alternating motion encourages the brain to more thoroughly integrate unprocessed memories.眼动身心重建法---在回忆有创伤的记忆时,人们系统地交替轻拍或快速来回转动眼睛的治疗方法。它认为,目光左右移动能让大脑更彻底地加速记忆处理的速度。Tourette Syndrome - Is not just yelling out swear words. It does however involve impulses which are very difficult for the person to suppress.抽动秽语综合征-不只是喊着骂人的话。然而,它确实包含冲动的成分,而这种冲动非常难压制。Bipolar disorder - Is not someone simply being moody. Full blown (Bipolar I) disorder requires the presence of a Manic episode, which is very intense and can be so extreme as to involve hallucinations.躁郁症-不是简单的喜怒无常。在症状展现出来时,躁狂会发作,这是非常激烈的,也很极端,涉及幻觉。ADHD - Is simply a description of a set of symptoms. It is split into Hyperactive Symptoms and Inattentive symptoms. There are MANY other reasons someone can have a hard time focusing, including things like anxiety and depression.多动症-仅仅是一组症状的描述。它的症状表现为分为多动症状和注意力不集中。有许多原因导致注意力难以集中,这些原因中包括焦虑和抑郁。Anorexia Nervosa - Can exist in Men, and actually can take the form of excessive exercise or bodybuilding.神经性厌食症-可发生于男人身上,实际上可以通过大量运动或健身的形式来改善。People naturally give preference to information which confirms their biases.人们通常偏爱可以实他们的观点信息。 /201703/495370。
  • The ;honeymoon stage; of a relationship is great, but once that comes to an end, we begin to notice things about our partner that we may have overlooked in the beginning. You or your loved one may be doing things subconsciously that are sabotaging your relationship. Annoying habits like leaving dirty clothes on the floor or leaving dirty dishes in the sink are one thing; but name-calling or hiding the phone is another.甜蜜的恋情阶段十分美好,但一旦这一阶段到了尽头,我们会开始注意另一半身上不好的细节,而我们在刚谈恋爱时可能忽略了这些细节。你或你的挚爱可能在潜意识地做一些破坏你们感情的事情。将脏衣扔在地板上或将脏盘子扔在洗碗池中就是让人恼火的习惯,但直呼名字或是藏手机就是另一个性质了。Silent treatment冷战Avoiding and running away from conflict is not going to resolve anything. ;Successful couples learn to fight well and find solutions quickly,; sex therapist and relationship counsellor Giverny Lewis, says. ;They don#39;t avoid fighting altogether and shut each other out.逃避、避免冲突并不会解决任何事情。;成功的CP知道如何争吵以及如何快速地找到解决方法,;性治疗师和情感咨询师吉维尼·刘易斯说道。;他们会正视争吵,不会让对方闭嘴。;Checking their phone检查对方的手机;In the world of online relationships, more and more people are obsessively checking their partners#39; history, messages, and social media posts,; Lewis says. ;Unfortunately this is a double-edged sword.; If you find something that looks suspicious, it#39;s almost impossible to raise it with your partner - this means you need to reveal your snooping. ;You also usually don#39;t have all the context, so it#39;s easy to misinterpret what you#39;re seeing. And if you find nothing, often you assume they#39;re just being extra secretive, and the cycle continues,; she says. ;If you#39;re having difficulty trusting your partner it#39;s best to talk to them and work out strategies together to address this concern.;;在网络恋情的世界中,越来越多的人痴迷于检查另一半的历史聊天记录、短信和社交状态,;刘易斯说道。;不幸的是,这种行为有利有弊。;如果你发现了一些猫腻,你几乎不会直接问你的对象--因为这意味着你要向他坦白你偷看他的手机了。;通常你看到的东西没有上下文,因此很容易产生误解。如果你什么都没发现,你就会假设他们十分谨慎,以此类推,循环往复,;她说道。;如果你很难相信自己的对象,那最好的方法就是和他们聊聊,并一起找出解决方法。;Making assumptions做假设;Routines are fantastic and they help us feel secure in relationships, but familiarity can really kill the romance and excitement,; Lewis says. ;Getting stuck in the same old day-in, day-out habits can make the relationship feel stale and unrewarding.; Relax a bit - have a mid-week date night, go on a weekend adventure or take on a new hobby together. You#39;ll discover new things about your partner and reinvigorate the fire, she adds.;一尘不变很美好,也能让我们在恋情中有安全感,但过于熟悉会扼杀浪漫和兴奋,;刘易斯说道。;每日每夜,习惯一尘不变,这样你们的关系就会没有新鲜感,而且也没有收获。;放松放松--周三的晚上出去约个会,周末去冒险或是一起培养新爱好。她补充道,你会发现对象身上有一些新的闪光点,让你重新对他充满热情。Spending all your time together总是腻在一起;It may seem counter-intuitive, but spending too much time together can actually drive you apart,; Lewis says. ;Doing things separately helps to reinstate your individual identity and lets you grow alongside your partner.; Go out and spend time with friends, find a solo after-work activity, or spend some time indulging on your own. ;You#39;ll have plenty to talk about and bring a fresh attitude back to your time with your partner,; she adds.;这看起来与大家的正常预期相反,但总是腻在一起实则会使你们分开,;刘易斯说道。;单独做事情有利于恢复你的个体身份,让你和对象一起成长。;出门和朋友聚聚吧,找一个下班后单独放松的活动,或是花些时间自己沉思。;这样当你与另一半在一起时你们就会有很多话要说,而且态度也会焕然一新。;她补充道。译文属 /201703/500527。
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