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Soil samples collected by Greenpeace East Asia researchers near Asia’s largest zinc and lead mine and smelting plant, in Yunnan Province, show severe heavy metal contamination, the organization says. The findings, it has reported, highlight the environmental and health hazards as industries react to tighter pollution constraints in eastern China by expanding operations in less developed areas in the west.绿色和平东亚分部(Greenpeace East Asia)研究人员前往云南省境内的亚洲最大铅锌矿和冶炼厂附近进行了土壤样本采集,据样本显示,土壤的重金属污染十分严重。据该组织的报告显示,面对中国东部地区日益严格的污染限制,工业企业在向西部欠发达地区扩张,造成了当地环境和健康危害。In April, the researchers took samples of soil, household dust and river water in the town of Jinding, near the border with Myanmar, and sent them to an independent laboratory for testing. The results, released this week, show cadmium concentrations of up to 142 times the national health standard, and lead at eight times the standard, suggesting that the soil is not safe for growing food.4月,研究者在靠近中缅边境的金顶镇对土壤、家居降尘和河水进行采样,并将样本送往独立实验室进行检验。本周发布的检验结果显示,镉含量是国家健康标准的142倍,而铅的含量则是国家健康标准的8倍,这表明土壤对于粮食种植来说并不安全。“Soil pollution is less visible than water and air pollution, so the public is often unaware of the problem,” Ada Kong, a senior campaigner for Greenpeace East Asia, said in an interview. “With little public attention, the government lacks incentives to share information on the soil situation in China.”“土壤污染没有水污染和空气污染那么明显,所以大众通常都意识不到土壤污染这个问题,”绿色和平东亚分部的资深活动人士江卓珊(Ada Kong)在采访中表示。“公众关注度低,政府在国内土壤情况信息共享方面缺乏激励机制。”In April 2014, the Ministry of Environmental Protection and the Ministry of Land Resources released a report based on a national soil survey, which found that 16.1 percent of China’s soil, and 19.4 percent of its farmland, was polluted, mostly as a result of industrial and agricultural activities. The most common pollutants were cadmium, nickel and arsenic.2014年4月,中国环境保护部和国土资源部在一份国家土壤调查的基础上发布了一份报告,其中显示中国16.1%的土壤和19.4%的农田受到了污染,工业和农业活动则是主要的污染源。其中,镉,镍和砷是最常见的污染物。But Ms. Kong said that report lacked specific geographic information. “No names of the provinces or locations where they took samples were disclosed,” she said. “Some other organizations have requested more information about the study but have been turned down.”但是江卓珊说,该报告缺乏具体的地理信息。“报告没有公布土壤采样来自哪些省份或地区,”她说。“有的组织希望获取该研究的更多信息,被拒绝了。”The Greenpeace team also looked at household dust, which has received less scrutiny than soil. “China does not even have a national health standard or health regulations for pollutants in household dust,” Ms. Kong said.绿色和平研究团队还关注了家居降尘,针对这项指标的观测比土壤更少。“中国甚至没有制定家居降尘的国家健康标准,或关于粉尘污染物的法规,”江卓珊说。“The lowest level of lead concentration we found was 1,576 micrograms per square meter” of floor space, she said. This is more than six times the level cited in a study published in Public Health Reports, a journal of the ed States Public Health Service, at which children were eight times more likely than their peers to have a blood lead level of 10 micrograms per deciliter. The ed States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention used to refer to that as a “level of concern,” but it now says there is no safe blood level in children.Levels of heavy metal in samples correlated with proximity to the smelting plant. “Lead, zinc and cadmium concentrations increased by 5 percent for every kilometer closer to the plant,” Ms. Kong said.她说按住宅占地面计算,“我们发现的铅浓度水平最低的是每平方米1576微克,”她说。这是美国公共卫生局(Public Health Service)刊物《公共卫生报告》(Public Health Reports)的一篇研究中提到的浓度水平的六倍以上,而在那项研究中的浓度水平下生活的儿童,血铅含量达到每100毫升10微克的可能性是其他儿童的八倍。美国疾病控制和预防中心(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)曾经称那是“令人担忧的水平”,但现在他们认为并不存在儿童安全血浓度指标。样本中的重金属水平和冶炼厂的距离是相关的。“距工厂距离每拉近一公里,铅、锌、镉浓度会增加5%,”江卓珊说。Household dust is a major vehicle for lead being absorbed by the human body, said Chen Nengchang, a scientist at the Guangdong Institute of Eco-environmental and Soil Sciences.广东省生态环境与土壤研究所的科学家陈能场说,家居降尘是人体吸收铅的重要途径。“In children, it can impair learning ability and lead to behavior problems,” Mr. Chen said in an interview. “Lead in blood can be dispersed rather quickly, but some of the lead can accumulate in brain tissues and bones, where it can remain for a very long time.”“它会给儿童的认知能力造成损害,导致行为异常,”陈能场在采访中说。“铅在血液中可以很快分解,但有些铅会在大脑组织和骨骼中沉积,那样就会留存相当长一段时间。”The lead and zinc mine and smelting plant, which began operations in 2003, are owned by Yunnan Jinding Zinc. The Greenpeace report is not the first time that the company has been accused of polluting surrounding areas.云南金鼎锌业公司所有的这些铅锌矿和冶炼厂是2003年投产的。绿色和平的此次调研已经不是该公司第一次面临污染周边环境的指责。Records compiled by the Institute of Public and Environmental Affairs, a nonprofit organization based in Beijing that monitors corporate environmental performance, show that the Nujiang Prefecture Environmental Department and the Yunnan Environmental Protection Bureau cited the company as in violation of environmental regulations in 2009, 2011 and 2014.监督企业环保状况的北京非盈利机构公共环境研究中心整理的资料显示,怒江州环境保护局和云南省环境保护厅分别在2009、2011和2014年指出该公司存在环保违规。One document shows that in 2009, the company was fined 600,000 renminbi, nearly 0,000 at the current exchange rate, for disposing of wastewater containing cadmium levels 887 times the national health standard into the nearby Bijiang River.其中一份文件显示,2009年该公司因向附近的沘江排放镉浓度超标887倍的废水,被罚款60万元人民币。Local residents appear well aware of the health risks.当地居民似乎很清楚自己面临的健康风险。“You can see layers of black dust on your furniture all the time,” said Li Zhouping, 24, who lives with his family in Maigandian, a village about 100 meters, or around 330 feet, from the smelting plant.“家具上什么时候都是一层黑灰,”24岁的李周平(音)说,他家所在的麦秆甸村距离冶炼厂大约100米。Greenpeace says that in 2010, the Lanping County health bureau conducted blood tests of children in Maigandian and found that 59 of 61 children had high levels of lead.绿色和平称,2010年兰坪县卫生局对麦秆甸村儿童进行血液化验,结果61名儿童中有59人血铅浓度偏高。Mr. Li said that to protect his 3-month-old child’s health, he has been urging Yunnan Jinding Zinc to help the family move to a safer area.李周平说为了3个月大的孩子的健康,他曾要求金鼎锌业帮助他把一家人搬到安全的地方。“They promised us a relocation in 2006, but no action has been taken,” he said in an interview.“他们在2006年答应搬迁,但没有实际行动,”他在接受采访时说。Last year, he said, he and other villagers went to the company’s offices to press their case.他说去年他和其他村民一起去公司办公室施加压力。“We went there around six or seven times,” he said. “They just told us they would hurry up, but nothing has been done.”“我们去了六七次,”他说。“他们就只知道说我们会抓紧,但什么也没做。”At a news conference in Beijing on Tuesday, at which the Greenpeace report was released, Ms. Kong said: “In 2013, the Lanping County government announced again a relocation plan and told villagers they would be relocated by the end of 2016. The villagers say, however, that they have yet to receive any more information on this.”绿色和平于周二在北京举行新闻发布会公布了研究报告,江卓珊在发布会上说:“兰坪县政府在2013年再次宣布了搬迁计划,并对村民说在2016年底之前可以完成搬迁。然而村民们说除此之外他们再也没收到关于此事的其他消息。”An official in the public information department of the Yunnan Environmental Protection Bureau reached by telephone declined to comment on the report’s findings or on allegations of environmental violations by Yunnan Jinding Zinc. A woman who answered the phone at the company said none of its executives were available to comment.记者通过电话联系到的一位云南环保厅信息公开部门官员,他拒绝就该报告的发现以及金鼎锌业的环保违规行为置评。金鼎锌业公司一位接听电话的女性表示,公司领导层没有人能就此事置评。 /201506/380881With Asia-Pacific leaders gathering for a summit meeting in Beijing, forecasts that smog would envelop the capital this weekend were bad news not just for China’s leaders, who hoped to present the city in its best light for the occasion, but for officials charged with ensuring clean air.预报称,北京周末会被雾霾笼罩。由于亚太地区领导人将相聚北京参加峰会,这对于希望借此机会展现北京最佳形象的中国领导人,以及负责确保空气清洁的官员来说,都是一个坏消息。On Friday, The Economic Daily reported that 24 officials in Shijiazhuang, the capital of Hebei Province, which encircles Beijing, would be disciplined for their failure to control air pollution levels, and that five leaders of the most-polluting companies in the city would face administrative detention and fines.周五,《经济日报》报道称,在北京周边的河北省省会石家庄,24名官员将因控污工作不力遭受处分,五家污染最为严重的企业的负责人将被行政拘留,并处以罚款。Inspection tours, which were carried out on Wednesday by the Ministry of Environmental Protection in Beijing and surrounding regions to check air quality, identified dozens of workplaces in Shijiazhuang in violation of pollution control regulations. The inspection teams found that 33 enterprises in Shijiazhuang had not halted or cut back on production as directed, and that work had continued as usual at 18 construction sites. In addition, the inspectors reported that road dust in the city exceeded acceptable levels, and that the burning of trash and straw was rampant.周三,环保部派出督查组在北京及其周边地区检查空气质量,确认石家庄的几十个工作场所违背了污染控制规定。督查组发现,石家庄的33家企业未按要求进行停产、限产,18个施工场地未按要求停止施工。除此之外,督查人员报告称,石家庄市的道路扬尘超过可接受水平,秸秆垃圾焚烧问题严重。In October, in preparation for the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation meeting in Beijing, the government said it would enact stringent air pollution controls in a 200-kilometer, or 124-mile, radius of the capital, reducing traffic and industrial production from Nov. 1 to 12. Shijiazhuang, which is reported to have some of the worst air pollution in China, received special attention.今年10月,为了准备北京亚太经合组织会议,中国政府称他们将在北京周边200公里(约合124英里)的范围内实施严格的空气污染控制规定,在11月1日至12日期间减少车流量与工业生产。石家庄受到特别关注,该市据称是中国污染最为严重的城市之一。On Thursday, after the China Meteorological Administration forecast that Beijing would experience smog into Tuesday, the government extended the emergency pollution reduction measures even farther south to include Jinan, the capital of Shandong Province.上周四,在中国气象局预报称北京的雾霾天将持续至周二之后,政府将紧急减霾举措的实施范围扩展至包括山东省省会济南市在内的南部地区。In Beijing, state news media reported that the huge number of fireworks that were set off on Tuesday evening in a rehearsal for the planned Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation display might have contributed to an increase in pollution levels.官方媒体报道称,北京市于上周二晚间燃放了大量烟花,为亚太经合组织会议期间的表演活动排,这可能在一定程度上导致污染水平上升。Meanwhile, the Ministry of Environmental Protection designated Henan Province as its next target for closer supervision, after summoning the mayor of Anyang, Ma Linqing, to Beijing to discuss his city’s failures in carrying out pollution regulations.与此同时,环保部将河南省定为下一个进行严密监督的目标。环保部在此之前将安阳市市长马林青召至北京,讨论安阳市在实施污染防治规定方面出现的问题。Henan, the province south of Hebei, is a center for copper-smelting, iron and steel mills, and coking plants. According to the ministry, despite the emergency antipollution measures ordered for this week, some heavily polluting enterprises either continued production as usual or discharged pollutants at night in an effort to hide them.位于河北南部的河南省是炼铜厂、炼钢厂及焦化厂的聚集地。环保部表示,尽管政府下令在本周实施污染防治举措,一些污染严重的企业要么像往常一样继续生产,要么在夜间排放污染物,进行遮掩。 /201411/341772More than 150 enterprises near the Shanghai Disney Resort that pose a pollution threat have been ordered to close by the end of next year by city authorities.上海迪士尼乐园附近150多家存在污染威胁的企业已被政府下令在明年年底之前关闭。Most of the 153 enterprises have high pollution risks, high energy consumption but low productivity in industries that include machining, metalware production, printing, plastics production and chemical engineering.这153家企业中的大多数都是高污染、高能量消耗、低产出的行业,包括机械加工、金属器皿生产、印刷、塑料制品生产和化学工程。This is according to an announcement on the website of the Shanghai Commission of Economy and Information Technology.此消息来自于上海市经济和信息化委员会网站上的公告。;Seventy-nine enterprises will be shut down in the first half of 2016 and the rest will be closed by the end of next year in an effort to make the zone better serve the needs of Disneyland as well as the Shanghai International Tourism and Resorts Zone,; the announcement stated.“为使此地区更好地符合迪士尼乐园以及上海国际旅游度假区的需要,2016年上半年将关闭79家企业,其余的将在2016年年底前被关闭,”公告如是说。Tourism products with agricultural features will be developed on 10 square kilometers of land in Zhoupu town in Pudong New Area, which is next to the Shanghai International Tourism and Resorts Zone.浦东新区周浦镇有10平方公里的土地将被用来发展具有农业特色的旅游产品,这里紧挨着上海国际旅游度假区。The .5 billion Disney theme park, which is scheduled to open next spring and is Disney’s first on the Chinese mainland, forms part of the resorts zone.这个耗资达55亿美元的迪士尼主题公园计划在明年春天开业,这是中国大陆第一个迪士尼主题公园,也是度假区的一部分。Pan Chunfeng, an information officer with the resorts zone’s management committee, said the decision to close the enterprises is not just to protect Disneyland but is also part of the city’s environmental protection campaign.度假区管委会的一位新闻官员潘春风说,关闭工厂这一决定不仅仅是为了保护迪士尼乐园,同时这也是城市环境保护运动中的一部分。Economic experts said the Shanghai government is using the Disney project to speed up industrial restructuring and to promote the relocation of enterprises with pollution problems.经济专家称,上海政府正在利用迪士尼工程加速产业结构调整,促进污染企业的搬迁。Lu Ming, a professor of economics at Shanghai Jiao Tong University, said, ;When considering the plan to build the Disney resort, the Shanghai government must have analyzed how it would benefit various sectors.;上海交大的经济学教授刘明说,“在考虑建迪士尼乐园这个计划时,上海政府必须分析它是如何使各个行业受益的。”Qigan, a village in Zhoupu, which borders the Disneyland resort to the north, has taken a lead in land reclamation. In 2009, an ecological farm with sightseeing, leisure and entertainment services was opened.周浦旗杆村位于迪士尼乐园南面,其在土地开垦方面发挥了带头作用。2009年,一个集观光、休闲、务为一体的生态农场开放了。Hu Xingdou, an economics professor at the Beijing Institute of Technology, said reducing pollution is to some extent more meaningful than merely closing or relocating enterprises with pollution problems.北京理工大学经济学教授胡兴东说,减少污染,在一定程度上比只是关掉或是迁移有污染问题的工厂,要有意义得多。 /201509/399429North America has about a year left to enjoy its reign as the region with the greatest number of extremely wealthy people, according to the authors of a new wealth report. Poised for succession is the Asian-Pacific region, which, as early as next year, will be home to the world’s largest population of people with more than million in investible assets, largely thanks to big growth in countries like China and Singapore.据一份最新财富报告的执笔者们称,北美继续享有拥有世界最多超级富豪地区名号的时间仅仅剩下约一年。已准备好接替美国的地区是亚太,它最早将于明年成为拥有超过3,000万美元投资资产超级富豪人数最多的地区,其中大部分原因是由于中国和新加坡等国家中的富豪人数大幅增加。That might not sound so remarkable, especially considering that the Asia-Pacific region today has more than 4.2 billion people and the U.S. only has 317 million, according to the ed Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. But historically, that hasn’t mattered. The U.S. has around four million very rich people, more than the second and third-ranked countries (Japan and Germany, respectively) combined.听起来没什么了不起的,特别是考虑到,据联合国(ed Nations)经济和社会事务部(Department of Economic and Social Affairs)的数据,亚太地区当前拥有超过42亿人,而美国仅有3.17亿人。但从历史上看,这一点并不重要。美国拥有约400万非常富有的人,富豪人数比排名第二位和第三的国家(分别为日本和德国)加起来还多。 /201407/309507

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