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楼主:周咨询 时间:2019年09月16日 18:59:14 点击:0 回复:0
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Alibaba says it will tackle the prevalence of counterfeit goods sold on its websites, bowing to criticism from a US clothing industry lobbying group.阿里巴巴(Alibaba)正面回应一家美国制衣业游说组织的批评,表示将整治其网站上售假盛行的现象。The American Apparel amp; Footwear Association (AAFA) said this month it was “frustrated” by the Chinese ecommerce company’s lack of progress in addressing what it called rampant selling of fake goods that hurt its members’ profits.美国装鞋类协会(AAFA)本月表示,对这家中国电商企业在解决其所称的售假盛行问题上的进展缓慢感到“失望”,售假伤害了其会员企业的利润。The lobby group also said the widesp nature of counterfeit apparel and footwear had worsened since the ed States Trade Representative removed Alibaba from their “notorious markets” blacklist in 2012.这家游说组织还表示,自2012年美国贸易代表(ed States Trade Representative)将阿里巴巴从其“臭名昭著市场”黑名单上剔除以来,阿里巴巴出售假冒装和鞋类的做法愈演愈烈。“Alibaba’s Taobao platform is notorious as one of the biggest platforms for counterfeit goods worldwide,” said the AAFA in a letter to USTR Michael Froman. “The slow pace has convinced us that Alibaba is either not capable of or interested in addressing this problem.”“阿里巴巴旗下的淘宝(Taobao)作为全球最大的假货平台之一臭名远扬,”该协会致函美国贸易代表迈克尔#8226;弗罗曼(Michael Froman)表示。“打假进展缓慢让我们相信,阿里巴巴要么没有能力解决这个问题,要么没有兴趣这么做。”The reappearance of pressure on the USTR to punish Alibaba is the latest setback in what has been a bruising year at the hands of regulators for the Hangzhou-based company. In January, the State Administration for Industry and Commerce, a Chinese regulator, criticised Alibaba for violations by its sellers — including tolerating bribery, counterfeit goods and faking seller rankings, known as “brushing”.美国贸易代表再次受到要求惩罚阿里巴巴的压力,是这家杭州企业在监管机构手里屡屡受挫的一年里的最新挫折。今年1月,中国监管机构国家工商总局(SAIC)批评了阿里巴巴平台卖家的违规做法——包括纵容贿赂、假货和被称为“刷信誉”的卖家评价作假。The USTR said last month it was monitoring Alibaba for sales of counterfeit and pirated goods, though it had not re-blacklisted it.美国贸易代表上月表示,其正在监督阿里巴巴出售假货和盗版产品的情况,尽管没有再次将其列入黑名单。Alibaba said in response to the AAFA letter that it was taking the issue seriously and was “dedicated to the fight against counterfeits because the health and integrity of our marketplaces depend on consumer trust”.阿里巴巴在回复美国装鞋类协会的信中表示,阿里巴巴正认真对待这一问题,并“致力于打击假货,因为我们平台的健康和完好性有赖于消费者的信任 ”。It listed measures such as data mining, enhanced co-operation with the police and working with more than 1,000 brands to increase the effectiveness of procedures to erase knock-offs.阿里巴巴列出了一些具体措施,比如数据挖掘,加强与警方的合作,以及与超过1000个品牌展开合作,提高取缔假货的程序的有效性。 /201504/370411The development of computer programs that can beat humans at games has a long history — from the mastery of noughts and crosses in the 1950s to Deep Blue’s celebrated defeat of world chess champion Garry Kasparov in 1997. 能够在游戏中击败人类高手的计算机程序有着悠久的发展历史——从上世纪50年代掌握“井字棋”制胜之道,到1997年“深蓝”(Deep Blue;IBM研发的计算机——译者注)击败国际象棋世界冠军加里#8226;卡斯帕罗夫(Garry Kasparov)。 In recent years, however, the pace of advance has quickened. Data-crunching devices routinely notch up previously unthinkable victories. Computers can triumph in quiz games, as IBM’s Watson proved when it won the TV show Jeopardy in 2011. They also mimic human aptitudes with ever greater facility. For instance, machines play arcade games simply by observing the movement of objects on the screen. 然而,近年来进步速度加快了。能够运算海量数据的设备经常取得以往不可想象的胜利。计算机能够在智力竞赛中取胜,IBM的“沃森”(Watson)在2011年赢得电视节目《危险边缘》(Jeopardy)就是例。它们还能以越来越强大的“悟性”模仿人的天赋。例如,机器通过观察屏幕上物体的运动,就能学会玩街机游戏。 Even so, the triumph of the AlphaGo computer over the South Korean world champion Lee Se-dol in the first of a five-match series in the ancient Chinese board game of Go marks more than just a new notch on the computerised honours board. Mr Lee had been confident of victory and proclaimed himself “shocked” by his defeat. 即便如此,AlphaGo电脑在古老的中国棋盘游戏——围棋的对垒中击败韩国九段棋手李世石(Lee Sedol),在五局“人机对战”中首战告捷,不仅标志着电脑荣誉板上的一个新档次。赛前对胜利信心满满的李世石,在落败后坦承“震惊”。 Go is a little like a version of chess, only vastly more complicated. Indeed the possible moves within a game exceed the number of atoms within the universe. This is a challenge that would defeat traditional programmes. Indeed it can only be mastered by computers assembled into neural networks that teach themselves through observation and practice — abilities that remain at the frontiers of computer science. 围棋有点像国际象棋的变体,只是复杂程度高得多。的确,其棋局的变数比宇宙中的原子数量还要多。这个挑战会挫败传统的程序。事实上,只有多台计算机组成神经网络,通过观察和实践来“自学”(这些能力仍处于计算机科学的前沿),才能驾驭这种高难度挑战。 Demis Hassabis and his team at DeepMind, the UK-based artificial intelligence (AI) arm of Alphabet, deserve credit for the speed at which they have mastered this undertaking. True, AlphaGo, a formidable piece of IT, could be described as a computerised sledgehammer aimed at a recreational nut. Its victory, however, is a reminder of how fast the world is overcoming the obstacles in the way of AI, and its deployment in the world about us. 杰米斯#8226;哈萨比斯(Demis Hassabis)以及他在DeepMind(Alphabet旗下英国人工智能部门)的团队以如此快的速度掌握围棋制胜之道,这一点值得赞赏。没错,作为一件具有强大能力的信息技术设备,AlphaGo可以被形容为一把计算机化的大锤,其用途是敲开一个消遣的坚果。然而,它的胜利提醒世人,世界正在快速攻克人工智能及其实际部署所面临的障碍。 That is largely due to the huge amount of cash being poured into AI research by US and Chinese companies. These are poaching some of the brightest computer scientists from universities, giving them the capacity and tools to pursue their heart’s desire. 这在很大程度上归功于美国和中国企业对人工智能研究的巨大投入。这些企业从高校挖走一些最优秀的计算机科学家,并提供资源和工具,让这些科学家从事内心渴望的研究。 According to a recent survey, half of the world’s AI experts believe human level machine intelligence will be achieved by 2040. This opens up huge possibilities for the enrichment of mankind, from tackling climate change and treating disease to labour-saving devices. It also raises ethical questions every bit as profound as those posed by genetics. AI experts talk about the possibility of the human brain being reverse-engineered. Physicist Stephen Hawking last year warned that unless we take care, board games might be the least of it: AI could ultimately “outsmart us all”. 根据最近的一项调查,全球半数人工智能专家相信,人类水平的机器智能到2040年就能成为现实。这为增进人类福祉开启巨大可能性——从应对气候变化、治疗疾病,到节省劳动力的设备。这也引发种种道德问题,其深刻性丝毫不亚于遗传学所构成的道德问题。人工智能专家谈到人脑被“逆向工程”的可能性。物理学家史蒂芬#8226;霍金(Stephen Hawking)去年曾警告,除非我们小心,否则棋盘游戏可能是最无关紧要的问题:人工智能最终可能“比我们所有人更聪明”。 One does not have to believe in some future tech dystopia to believe that governments and wider society should take the implications of these developments seriously. Google, Facebook and other companies rushing into AI point out that they are establishing ethics panels to consider appropriate uses for these technologies. These are unlikely to be immune from commercial interests or indeed from the gung-ho enthusiasm of the researchers. 人们不一定非要相信未来将出现某种科技“敌托邦”才会认为,政府和整个社会应该认真对待这些发展的潜在影响。竞相进军人工智能领域的谷歌(Google)、Facebook等公司指出,他们正在成立伦理小组以考量这些技术的适当用途。这些小组不太可能对商业利益以及研究人员的热忱无动于衷。 Some external scrutiny akin to that supplied in the case of genetics by the UK’s Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority is needed to protect the public from developments that may threaten more than the amour-propre of a South Korean Go champion. Granted, there may yet be no evidence that computers will ever shrug off their human masters but we should still treat these developments with the humility and caution they deserve. 需要进行一些外部监督,类似于遗传学领域的英国人类受精和胚胎学(HFEA),以保护公众免受相关发展的威胁,这些威胁所牵涉的不只是韩国围棋高手的自尊。当然,目前也许还没有据表明计算机有朝一日将踢开他们的人类主人,但我们仍应该对这些发展给予应有的谦卑和审慎。 /201603/431097Big claims are made for what neuroscience, behavioural economics and psychology can do for us. Some authors give the impression that certain outcomes can be almost guaranteed if you approach human interactions with the right bag of tricks.神经科学、行为经济学和心理学对我们有什么用处?人们有些夸大其词。一些作者给我们这样一种印象,如果你与人交往中用对了技巧,那么你几乎可以确定能得到某种结果。Fortunately, Caroline Webb, a former partner at management consultancy McKinsey, is not one of those authors. She adopts a restrained tone when drawing on emerging discoveries about the brain and human psychology.所幸管理咨询公司麦肯锡(McKinsey)前合伙人卡罗琳韦布(Caroline Webb)不是这样的作者。她对于人类大脑和心理新发现的运用持一种克制的论调。Although she hundreds of academic papers before writing this book, Webb’s purpose is practical, as captured by the understated title. She offers what she calls “science-based tweaks” in behaviour and attitudes which could help you have a better day at work.虽然韦布在写这本书之前阅读了几百篇学术论文,就像其低调的书名显示出的那样,她的目标是务实的。她指出,通过对行为和态度进行“基于科学的微调”,可以帮助你在工作中表现得更好。Webb briskly summarises some of the findings made by psychologists and neuroscientists that are increasingly familiar. She returns constantly to the context of the workplace, citing practical examples rather than speculating about the psychological potential of humankind.韦布干净利落地总结了几条心理学家和神经学家越来越被人熟知的几条发现。她没有对人类的心理潜力妄加猜测,而是不断回到职场环境下引用工作之中的实例。Reflecting on a grumpy conference for which she was underprepared and that got a day off to a bad start, she has three observations, based on her study of how our minds work.她反思了自己因为准备不足在一场视频会议上发脾气的经历,那场会议给当天开了一个不好的头。对此,她基于自己对人类心理的研究,总结了三条发现。First, priorities and assumptions determine our perceptions to a surprising extent. Second, setting the right kind of goals lifts our performance and makes us feel good. And third, what we imagine in our mind’s eye can shape our real-life experience. Webb’s book is essentially about “focusing on the right things, and organising your time to give those priorities your best attention”. This is not wishful thinking. That focus and “best attention” are based on working with our human nature, not against it.第一,优先事项和假设对认知的决定作用是惊人的。第二,设定恰当的目标可以提升我们的表现,让我们感觉良好。第三,我们内心的设想可以造就我们现实生活的经历。韦布的书基本上讲的是“关注正确的事物,安排好时间,将最好的注意力集中在那些优先事项上”。这不是主观上一厢情愿的想法。这种关注和“最好的注意力”是顺应人性的,而非与之相左。We should not just let the day happen to us, she says. A quick daily intention-setting routine can help, though we should set specific goals in “bite-sized chunks”. Any to-do list should be of today’s tasks only, otherwise our brains will be overwhelmed.她说,我们不能随波逐流地度日。每天迅速设立全天的目标是有用的,不过我们应该按照“一口吃完的份量”来设定具体目标。任何待办事项应该只是今天之内完成的任务,否则我们的大脑会应接不暇。We should plan downtime and avoid “decision fatigue”. “Pit stops are not wasted time — they’re an essential part of an efficient, well-planned race,” she says. We need enough sleep. “As one CEO I know put it, going short of sleep is like forgetting to save a document that you’ve worked on all day...If we don’t regularly rest and refuel our brain, the quality of our reasoning, self-control and planning declines sharply.”我们应该规划休息时间,避免陷入“决策疲劳”。“停车加油休息不是浪费时间——而是一场规划良好的高效竞赛中必不可少的一环,”她说。我们需要足够的睡眠。“就像我认识的一名CEO所说的,睡眠不足就像你没有保存你处理了一整天的文件……如果我们不能规律作息,给大脑充电,那么我们理性思考、自控和规划的能力就会大幅下降。”The science does not all lead to dutiful conclusions. Gossip is healthy. Why? “Merely getting answers to questions visibly activates the reward system in people who are lying in a brain scanner,” Webb writes.科学得出的结论并不全像人们想的那样。八卦是有益健康的。为什么呢?“通过观察脑部扫描仪,仅仅是得到问题的就能够显著激活人脑的奖励系统,”韦布写到。And we can prime ourselves to perform better, too. The author admits to humming Donna Summer’s “I Feel Love” to herself before client workshops.此外,我们还能通过事前准备来让自己表现得更好。韦布坦言,她开客户研讨会前会哼唱唐娜萨默(Donna Summer)的歌曲《我感到了爱》(I Feel Love)。What else does science reveal that will help us have a good day? “Multitasking” damages productivity: “We’re far more productive if we singletask.”科学上还有什么发现能帮我们过好一天?“同时处理多项任务”会降低我们的工作效率:“当我们只处理一项任务的时候,效率会高得多。”The routines of work can sometimes make it seem like a Sisyphean task. But, as Albert Camus said, we have to believe that Sisyphus is happy. And think how much happier he might have been if he had known the words to “I Feel Love”.日复一日的工作有时候会让我们觉得自己像西西弗斯(Sisyphus)一般周而复始地推着石头。但是,就像阿尔贝加缪(Albert Camus)说的那样,我们必须相信西西弗斯是快乐的。而且去想象如果他知道《我感到了爱》的歌词,他肯定会更加快乐。 /201601/421340

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