2019年10月16日 17:31:42|来源:国际在线|编辑:医信息
OTTAWA — Steamed, sauted or stir-fried, cauliflower is standard fare on many dinner tables. In Canada, it is a luxury.渥太华——蒸、嫩煎或煸炒的花菜,在许多地方的餐桌上是一道家常菜。在加拿大,却是一种奢侈。A head of cauliflower there now goes for around 8 Canadian dollars, a tripling in price, the strange foodie fallout from the low price of oil and other commodities.如今一个花菜在那里可以卖到大约8加元(约合38元人民币),价格是原来的三倍,这是石油和其他大宗商品价格走低连累“吃货”的一个古怪案例。The recipe for high-priced cauliflower starts with the currency.天价花菜的出现,首先要从汇率说起。As prices for commodities have dropped, the value of the Canadian dollar has fallen, a direct link to an economy that is dependent on oil and other resources. It makes imports, like fresh American vegetables during the dark Canadian winter, look especially costly.随着大宗商品价格下跌,加元出现贬值,对于一个依赖石油和其他资源的经济体来说,这是一种直接的联动。这就导致进口商品的价格显得格外夸张,比如在天昏地暗的加拿大隆冬时节从美国进口的新鲜蔬菜。Two years ago, one Canadian dollar was worth 93 American cents. On Wednesday, it stood at 69 American cents.两年前,一加元相当于93美分。在本周三是69美分。The drought in California, where Canadians get most of their vegetables in the off-season, just compounds the sticker shock. With less bounty in the fields, farmers’ prices, in American dollars, are higher than normal.而加拿大的非时令蔬菜大多来自加州,那里的旱情也加剧了价格的暴涨。由于收成不佳,以美元计的农产品价格要高于正常水平。As a result, fresh vegetables feel more like a splurge for Canadian consumers.这样一来,新鲜蔬菜在加拿大消费者眼里就成了奢侈品。Iceberg lettuce sells for 3 Canadian dollars, up from the typical 90 Canadian cents. One head of broccoli goes for , compared with .50 for two in the past. Last winter, a head of cauliflower was selling for 2.50 Canadian.圆生菜售价从平常的90加分涨到了3加元。一个西兰花卖到4加元,在过去1.50加元可以买到两个。去年冬天,一个花菜的价格是2.50加元。“We’ve gone through this cycle before with the dollar,” said Jim McKeen, owner of McKeen Metro Glebe, a grocery store in downtown Ottawa. “But there were issues on prices anyways because of supply in addition to this whole fiasco with the Canadian dollar. It’s a perfect storm.”“这些汇率的事以前全都经历过,”渥太华市中心食品杂货店McKeen Metro Glebe老板吉姆·麦基恩(Jim McKeen)说。“但是供应不足决定了价格本来就会有问题,再加上加元惨成这样,就成了一场完美风暴。”The Canadian dollar, in part, reflects the trouble in the country’s economy.加元一定程度上反应了该国的经济困境。For years, Canada rode the global commodities boom. The rapidly growing Chinese economy — and its seemingly insatiable appetite for commodities — helped increase the price of oil, potash, nickel and the other Canadian resources.加拿大多年来得益于全球大宗商品的繁荣。快速增长的中国经济——及其看上去永无止境的大宗商品需求——推高了石油、钾盐、镍和其他加拿大资源的价格。With China’s demand now faltering, commodity prices have reversed course. Oversupply of oil has similarly devastated its price. Both factors are taking their toll on the Canadian economy. The gross domestic product increased just 0.6 percent in the third quarter of 2015, after six months of negative growth.随着中国的需求增长放缓,大宗商品价格急转直下。石油的供过于求也对价格造成了类似的冲击。这两个因素都在危害加拿大经济。在经过六个月的负增长后,其国内生产总值在2015年第三季度只增长了0.6%。Since October, the decline in the Canadian dollar, aly looking shaky against a surging American currency, has picked up speed.自去年10月以来,加元加速贬值,与强劲的美元相比,加元显得摇摇欲坠。In many ways, a weaker currency is helpful to the economy. The ed States is overwhelmingly the largest market for Canadian exports, which are now less expensive across the border because of the currency’s fall.从很多方面来看,走软的货币对经济有利。美国是加拿大最大的出口市场,远超其他国家。由于货币贬值,加拿大出口商品的价格有所降低。And commodity exports are almost all priced in American dollars. So foreign exchange gains have helped cushion some of the blow to Canadian oil producers and mining companies, which largely sell their resources elsewhere.出口大宗商品的价格几乎都是以美元定价。因此,外汇收益在一定程度上缓和了加拿大石油生产商和矿业公司遭受的冲击,这些企业开采的资源主要销往其他地区。“From a household point of view, what Canadians see is that their dollar isn’t going as far,” said Craig Alexander, vice president of economic research at the C.D. Howe Institute, an economic analysis and policy group “But it’s good for Canadians, it’s good for jobs. The primary driver for economic growth going forward has to come from nonresource export sectors.”“普遍看法是,加拿大人认为加元不会一路跌下去,”经济分析及政策研究机构C·D·豪研究所(C.D. Howe Institute)负责经济分析的副所长克雷格·亚历山大(Craig Alexander)说。“但这对加拿大人有利,对就业有利。经济继续增长的主要驱动力来自非资源型出口领域。”Canada’s tourism industry and other service sectors, which had been suffering, are aly experiencing gains from the currency drop. Luke Azevedo, the film commissioner for Calgary Economic Development, said there had been a notable rise in production in Alberta, where large portions of the movie “The Revenant” and the television series “Fargo” were filmed last year.步履艰难的加拿大旅游业及其他务行业,已经从货币贬值的形势中受益。卡尔加里经济发展局(Calgary Economic Development)电影专员卢克·阿塞韦多(Luke Azevedo)表示,艾伯塔省的制片活动显著增多。去年,电影《荒野猎人》(The Revenant)和电视剧《冰血暴》(Fargo)的很多场景都是在卡尔加里拍摄的。“It’s across the country and the dollar plays a fairly significant role,” Mr. Azevedo said.阿塞韦多说,“全国都是这样,加元汇率发挥了重要作用。”Speaking at the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland, on Wednesday, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau emphasized Canada’s strengths in technology and education rather than its ailing natural resource sector.周三,加拿大总理贾斯廷·特鲁多(Justin Trudeau)在瑞士达沃斯举行的世界经济论坛(World Economic Forum)发表讲话时,强调了加拿大在技术和教育方面的优势,并未多谈状况欠佳的自然资源行业。“Our natural resources are important and always will be,” Mr. Trudeau said. “But Canadians know that growth and prosperity is not only based on what’s under our feet but particularly on what we have between our ears.”“我们的自然资源非常重要,将来也是如此,”特鲁多说。“但加拿大人知道,发展和繁荣不仅仅是基于我们脚底下的资源,还尤其要依靠我们的头脑。”Consumer costs are creeping up in a number of areas.在一些领域,消费者的购物成本在逐渐提高。The turnover in the grocery aisle, compared with, say, a clothing store, is faster, meaning changes in currency are more quickly reflected. And profit margins are thin, so grocery stores are less willing to absorb the losses.例如,与装店相比,食杂店的价格上涨得更快一些,这意味着杂货店更快速地体现了汇率波动。由于利润空间非常微薄,食杂店更不愿承受这种损失。The current collapse of the country’s dollar could have a more significant impact in supermarkets than it did in the early 2000s, according to Sylvain Charlebois, a professor at the University of Guelph in Ontario and one of the authors of an annual study of Canadian food prices.安大略省圭尔夫大学(University of Guelph)教授西尔万·沙勒布瓦(Sylvain Charlebois)表示,与2000年代初期的情况相比,目前加元汇率暴跌的形势可能会给超市带来更为显著的影响。沙勒布瓦跟其他人合著了一份关于加拿大食品价格的年度研究报告。Professor Charlebois estimated that about 140 Canadian food processing plants have closed in recent years. Many were owned by multinationals that have replaced Canadian production with imports from their larger American plants. Kellogg’s ended a century of production in London, Ontario, just over a year ago.据沙勒布瓦教授估计,近些年来约有140家加拿大食品加工厂关门。很多加工厂归跨国公司所有,这些公司用规模更大的美国加工厂生产的进口产品,代替加拿大本地生产的产品。一年多以前,氏(Kellogg)停止了该公司在安大略省伦敦市已经持续百年的生产活动。The result, Professor Charlebois said, is that price increases will be seen throughout grocery stores and not just in their fresh produce aisles. Aly, he said, some breakfast cereals have hit 10 Canadian dollars.沙勒布瓦教授表示,结果就是,不仅新鲜农产品的价格会上涨,食杂店商品的价格也会抬高。他表示,一些谷类早餐的价格已经达到10加元。Fishermen in Prince Edward Island now send most of their oyster harvest to the ed States to capitalize on the currency difference. That’s leading to shortages at Canadian fishmongers, forcing some restaurant owners to reimport from the ed States.爱德华王子岛的渔民现在将收获的大多数牡蛎都运往了美国,以便利用汇率差价获利。这导致加拿大鱼贩缺货,迫使一些餐厅老板从美国再进口牡蛎。“It’s mind-boggling that I have to buy Malpeque oysters from my American importer in Boston,” said David McMillan, the co-owner of Joe Beef and two other restaurants in Montreal, adding that the cost of the oyster from Prince Edward Island had risen to 120 Canadian dollars a box from about 90 Canadian dollars. “That’s a lot of money for not a special oyster.”“我得从美国波士顿的进口商那里购买莫尔佩克产的牡蛎,这真是令人难以置信,”戴维·麦克米伦(David McMillan)说。麦克米伦在蒙特利尔与别人合开了Joe Beef及其他两家餐厅。他还表示,爱德华王子岛出产的牡蛎价格从一箱90加元上涨到了120加元。“对于并不特别的牡蛎来说,这个价格太高了。” /201601/424085In this day and age, living without money sounds almost impossible, but that#39;s exactly what this Australian couple has been doing for almost a year. It#39;s been anything but easy, but they#39;ve somehow made it work.在如今这个年月,不花钱过活几乎不太可能。不过,一对澳大利亚夫妇近一年来就过着这样的生活。这样过日子可不简单,但他们还是想方设法做到了。Rachel Newby, 24, and Liam Culbertson, 26, have come up with innovative ways of making it through the year without any cash. They built themselves a new home on a friend#39;s plot in West Gippsland, a rural region in Victoria. The house is made entirely out of scrap timber and recycled materials. They grow their own food, and at times, don#39;t hesitate to dive into dumpsters for leftovers. They also help out local farmers in exchange for fresh produce and yarn.蕾切尔·纽比现年24岁,她的丈夫利亚姆·卡伯特森26岁。夫妇俩为了可以不花一分钱过上一年想出了种种奇招。他们给自己在维多利亚州乡下的西吉普斯兰地区盖了一个新家,新家建在朋友的一块地皮上。房子完全由木材废料和可循环材料建成。他们自耕自给,偶尔也到垃圾桶里找些残羹冷炙。他们还为当地农民打下手,好换得一些新鲜食物和纱线。“We enjoy the feeling of being able to choose what we do regardless of money,” said Rachel. “We don#39;t have to worry about rent or plane tickets or food or fancy clothes. Effectively, all of our time is free time because we get to decide how we spend it.”“我们享受这种抛开金钱,自给自足的生活。”蕾切尔说,“我俩不必操心房租、机票、食物或华到底要多少钱。事实上,现在的生活自由极了,我们能完全自主地安排自己的时间。”Rachel and Liam moved into the house in January, but this isn#39;t the first time they#39;re experiencing living off the land. While Rachel spent two years previously on an organic farm in Canada, Liam has traveled to the Arctic. They#39;ve both always tried to use local produce and be as eco-friendly as possible.一月,蕾切尔与利亚姆搬进了新家,这可不是他们第一次过自给自足的生活了。此前,蕾切尔在加拿大的一个有机农场生活过两年,利亚姆则曾赴北极旅行。夫妻俩都尽量使用当地土产品,不破坏生态环境。But in spite of all their experience, they claim that this last year has been quite difficult. The soil on their patch of land is rather infertile, so they#39;ve been struggling to grow crops. The climate is pretty harsh as well, so their makeshift residence isn#39;t holding out too well. The thrifty home – a 2.5 square meter structure – is really only good for privacy. They shower under cold rainwater collected on the roof, and share toilets with the rest of the community. And because they have no appliances, they wash their clothes in the sink.尽管有过自给自足的经验,两人依然表示,过去的一年困难重重。他们居住的地方土地贫瘠,种植粮食并非易事。当地气候条件严苛,临时居所时常风雨飘摇。这间2.5平米的小屋,仅仅是个简陋的容身之处。两人不得不搜集屋顶的冰冷雨水用于洗浴,上厕所还得与他人共用。家中没有任何电器,夫妻俩只能在水槽中洗衣。Even though they don#39;t have jobs, Rachel and Liam don#39;t have a lot of leisure time to waste. They spend most of the day working for local farmers – planting vegetables and picking berries, just so they can earn their next meal. They have five ducks that provide them with fresh eggs, but when supplies go low, they have to go sift through dumpsters for discarded vegetables, fruit, and b.虽然两人没有工作,蕾切尔与利亚姆却也没有多少休闲时间。他们大部分时候得帮当地的农民打打下手,比如种菜或采莓子,才能换得一顿吃的。他们饲养了5只鸭子,不时能吃上新鲜鸭蛋。不过,食物不够了,他们就得到垃圾箱里找吃的,拣别人扔掉的蔬菜、水果和面包。Despite the couple#39;s best efforts, their experiment hasn#39;t remained totally cash free – Liam needed dental work earlier this year, which cost the couple 0, and Rachel also had to spring for a new bike so she could ride into town. But those were pretty much their biggest expenses for the year.夫妇两人虽苦心经营,但还是碰上了花钱的时候。今年早些时候,利亚姆去看牙医,花掉了300美元,蕾切尔为了方便进城,也不得不买了辆新自行车。不过,这些钱大概是他们这一年里最大的开了。With only a few months left of their cashless year, the couple hasn#39;t decided if they#39;re going to return to civilization or not. It#39;s not easy, but they might just continue to live off the grid. They seem quite happy with their lifestyle despite the hardships, and they get along really well with their neighbors too. “Older folks seem to love the idea of us doing what they used to do as kids, or in some cases, as young hippies,” Rachel told That#39;s Life! Magazine, adding that she and Liam might just burn out from all the work, but they#39;re enjoying themselves for now.还有几个月,他们分文不花的生活就要满一年了。夫妻俩尚未决定是否要回归文明世界。自给自足并不容易,但他们或许打算继续过下去。尽管困难重重,两人似乎开心不已,与邻居相处得也十分融洽。“老一辈似乎很持我们,毕竟他们小时候就是这么过的。他们中有人年轻时还当过嬉皮士哩,”蕾切尔告诉《活出精!》(That#39;s Life!)杂志。她说,虽然丈夫和自己最终可能精疲力尽,但两人都很满意目前的生活。 /201509/400520

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