旅游  |  攻略  |  美食  |  自驾  |  团购
您的位置: 青海省旅游网 / 规划 / 新闻动态 / 青海要闻

嘉兴双眼皮埋线健步新闻嘉兴市第一医院吸脂手术多少钱

来源:网上互动    发布时间:2019年09月16日 18:21:37    编辑:admin         

How a New World bird came to be named after countries halfway around the globe.这种新世界的鸟类为什么会以半个地球外的国家的名字来命名。Within the turkey lies the tangled history of the world.在土耳其境内有着错综复杂的世界历史。OK, not quite. But not far off, either.好吧,或许并非如此,但也相差无几了。;Turkey; the bird is native to North America. But ;turkey; the word is a geographic mess—a tribute to the vagaries of colonial trade and conquest. As you might have suspected, the English term for the avian creature likely comes from Turkey the country. Or, more precisely, from Turkish merchants in the 15th and 16th centuries.;火鸡;这种鸟是原产于北美洲。但是;turkey;一词来源是一种地理上的大杂烩 — — 是对殖民地贸易和征的异想天开的献礼。你可能认为这种鸟类的英文名字可能来自于土耳其这个国家的名字。或者,更确切地说,从第十五和十六世纪的土耳其商人那里得名。How exactly the word ;turkey; made its way into the English language is in dispute. The linguist Mario Pei theorized that more than five centuries ago, Turks from the commercial hub of Constantinople (which the Ottomans conquered in the mid-15th century) sold wild fowl from Guinea in West Africa to European markets, leading the English to refer to the bird as ;turkey cock; or ;turkey coq; (coq being French for ;rooster”), and eventually ;turkey; for short. When British settlers arrived in Massachusetts, they applied the same terms to the wild fowl they spotted in the New World, even though the birds were a different species than their African counterparts. The etymology expert Mark Forsyth, meanwhile, claims that Turkish traders brought guinea fowl to England from Madagascar, off the coast of southeast Africa, and that Spanish conquistadors then introduced American fowl to Europe, where they were conflated with the ;turkeys; from Madagascar. Dan Jurafsky, another linguist, argues that Europeans imported guinea fowl from Ethiopia (which was sometimes mixed up with India) via the Mamluk Turks, and then confused the birds with North American fowl shipped across the Atlantic by the Portuguese.“土耳其”这个单词如何出现在英语语言中依然有争议。语言学家Mario 裴理推测大概在五个多世纪前,君士坦丁堡这个商业中心的土耳其人 (在15 世纪中叶被土耳其人征)将来自西非几内亚的野禽(即珍珠鸡)卖到欧洲市场 ,所以那时的英国人称这种鸟为;土耳其公鸡;,并最终以;土耳其;来简称这种动物。当英国移民抵达(美国)马萨诸塞州时,在这块新大陆上他们用同一个词来称呼他们在这片土地上看到的野禽,尽管这里的野禽不同于非洲的那种。词源学专家马克福赛思说土耳其商人把几内亚的这种野禽从马达加斯加带到英国,而西班牙征者把美洲的野禽引到欧洲,所以就和来自马达加斯加的“土耳其”混合在一起了。丹 Jurafsky,另一个语言学家,认为欧洲人通过马穆鲁克土耳其人从埃塞俄比亚 (有时候人们将埃塞俄比亚同印度混在一起了) 进口几内亚野禽,然后与葡萄牙通过大西洋从北美进口的野禽混淆在一起了。The guinea fowl (left) vs.the North American turkey (Wikipedia)珍珠鸡(左图)和北美火鸡对比(图片来源:维基百科)Here#39;s where things get even more bewildering. Turkey, which has no native turkeys, does not call turkey ;turkey.; The Turks ;knew the bird wasn#39;t theirs,; Forsyth explains, so they ;made a completely different mistake and called it a hindi, because they thought the bird was probably Indian.; They weren#39;t alone. The French originally called the American bird poulet d#39;Inde (literally ;chicken from India;), which has since been abbreviated to dinde, and similar terms exist in languages ranging from Polish to Hebrew to Catalan. Then there#39;s the oddly specific Dutch word kalkoen, which, as a contraction of Calicut-hoen, literally means ;hen from Calicut,; a major Indian commercial center at the time. These names may have arisen from the mistaken belief at the time that the New World was the Indies, or the sense that the turkey trade passed through India.事情还要更复杂。土耳其当地没有火鸡,他们也不把火鸡叫做“turkey”。他们“知道这玩意不是他们国家的“, 福赛斯是这么解释的,因此他们犯了一个完全不同的错误,把火鸡叫做hindi(印度语的意思),因为他们认为这玩意也许是印度的。有这种想法的人不止是土耳其人。法国人一开始把这种美国鸡称为poulet d#39;Inde(字面意思为来自印度的鸡),后来简称为dinde,类似的称谓也存在于波兰语、希伯来语和加泰罗尼亚语中。还有一个非常奇怪的特定荷兰语称谓kalkoen,是从Calicut-hoen这个词提炼出来的,字面意思是“来自卡利卡特的母鸡”, 卡利卡特曾是印度的主要商业中心之一。这些名称的来源也许是因为当时他们认为新世界指的是西印度群岛一带,或者是认为火鸡贸易途径印度。So what is the bird called in India? It may be hindi in Turkey, but in Hindi it#39;s arki. Some Indian dialects, however, use the word piru or peru, the latter being how the Portuguese refer to the American fowl, which is not native to Peru but may have become popular in Portugal as Spanish and Portuguese explorers conquered the New World. The expansion of Western colonialism only complicated matters: Malaysians call turkey ayam blander (“Dutch chicken”), while Cambodians opt for moan barang (“French chicken”).那么火鸡在印度被称为什么呢?在土耳其他们称之为hindi,但是在印度语里他们称之为#7789;arki。在一些印度方言里使用piru或者peru这个词,后者是葡萄牙语对美国火鸡的叫法,火鸡的原产地不是秘鲁,但是在西班牙和葡萄牙征新大陆时在葡萄牙很受欢迎。西方殖民主义的扩张使事情更加复杂:马来西亚人把火鸡叫做ayam blander(荷兰鸡的意思),缅甸人选择了moan barang这个叫法(意思是法国鸡)Then there are the turkey truthers and linguistic revisionists. In the early 1990s, for instance, a debate broke out in the ;letter to the editor; section of The New York Times over the possible Hebrew origins of the word ;turkey.; On December 13, 1992, Rabbi Harold M. Kamsler suggested (as a follow-up to a Thanksgiving-themed piece titled ;One Strange Bird;) that the New World fowl received its English name from Christopher Columbus#39;s interpreter, Luis de Torres, a Jewish convert to Catholicism. In an October 12, 1492 letter to a friend in Spain, de Torres had referred to the American bird he encountered as a tuki, the word for ;peacock; in ancient Hebrew and ;parrot; in modern Hebrew (a more dubious version of this story claims that Columbus himself was a Jew who hid his identity in the aftermath of the Spanish Inquisition but drew on his lineage to christen the fowl).然后出现了火鸡真相者和语言学上的修正主义者。比如在1990年代初期的时候,在《纽约时报》的“给编者的话”板块上就引发了一场有关“火鸡”这个词可能来自希伯来语的可能性的争论。1992年12月13号,犹太拉比Harold M. Kamsler认为这种新世界飞禽的英文名字源于航海家哥伦布的口译人员 Luis de Torres(他是一名犹太人,后来皈依天主教)。在1492年12月12号给西班牙一位朋友的信件中, Luis de Torres将他在美国遇到的这种飞禽称为tuki,在古希伯来文中指的是“孔雀”的意思以及在现代的希伯来文中指的是“鹦鹉”的意思(而在一个更加可疑的故事版本中称哥伦布本人就是个犹太人,在西班牙宗教法庭建立后他隐藏了自己的身份,但是利用自己的血统为这种飞禽命名)。Kamsler#39;s letter, however, was met with a firm rebuttal from the president of the Association for the Study of Jewish Languages, David L Gold. ;Rabbi Kamsler#39;s explanation, not original with him, is an old yarn spun in uninformed Jewish circles,; Gold wrote. ;Along with countless other pseudoscientific claims about supposed Hebrew influence on English and other languages, the myth of the Hebrew origin of #39;turkey#39; was quietly exploded in volume 2 of Jewish Linguistic Studies (1990).;Kamsler的看法遭到了犹太语言研究协会主席David L Gold的反驳。“拉比Kamsler的解释简直胡说八道。可以在《犹太语言研究》的第二卷(1990)中找到据明:“火鸡”这个词并非来自希伯来语。The turkey#39;s scientific name doesn#39;t make much more sense than its vernacular one. Its binomial nomenclature, Meleagris gallopavo, is a hodgepodge. The first name comes from a Greek myth in which the goddess Artemis turned the grieving sisters of the slain Meleager into guinea fowls. The second name is a portmanteau: Gallo is derived from the Latin word for rooster, gallus, while pavo is the Latin word for peacock. So, effectively, the official name for a turkey is guinea-fowl-rooster-peacock.火鸡的科学命名并不比它的俗称更有意义。双名命名法,Meleagris gallopavo(吐绶鸡),本来就是一个大杂烩。第一个词来自于希腊神话:月亮女神阿耳忒弥斯将被杀死的梅利埃格的悲伤变成了珍珠鸡(guinea fowl)。第二个词是一个混合词:Gallo来源拉丁词”公鸡“,pavo来源拉丁词”孔雀“。所以,最终,火鸡的正式名称就是:珍珠鸡-公鸡-孔雀(guinea-fowl-rooster-peacock)。Reflecting on his interview with Mario Pei, NPR#39;s Robert Krulwich noted that ;for 500 years now, this altogether American, very gallant if not particularly intelligent animal has never once been given an American name.; But the turkey does have many authentically American names—Americans just choose not to use them. After all, pre-Aztec and Aztec peoples domesticated the turkey more than a millennium before Columbus reached the New World (the Aztecs called the bird huehxolotl). There are numerous Native American words for the bird, including the Blackfoot term omahksipi#39;kssii, which literally means ;big bird.; It#39;s a bit vague, sure, but it certainly beats guinea-fowl-rooster-peacock.回顾语言学家利奥-佩(Mario Pei)的采访,美国国家公共电台(NPR)的罗伯特-科尔维奇(Robert Krulwich)提到过”500年来,所有美国人非常殷切期盼这种并不太聪明的动物能有一个美国化的名字。”但是火鸡却有很多真正的美国名字,只是美国人没选用而已。毕竟,在哥伦布到达新世界前,阿兹特克人驯养火鸡(阿兹特克人称火鸡为“huehxolotl”)已经超过一千年了。有很多原生美国词汇形容这种鸟,包括黑脚部族把它叫做“omahksipi#39;kssii”,意思是“大鸟”。这么叫是有点含糊,没错,但是确实好过“珍珠鸡-公鸡-孔雀(guinea-fowl-rooster-peacock)”。 /201501/353697。

When Sal Perez, a stylist and costume designer, was dressing the actress Rebel Wilson for her role in the movie “Pitch Perfect 2,” he had to find clothes for 20 outfit changes. This was an even bigger challenge than it sounds. Ms. Wilson is a plus-size actress working in a less-than-zero world.造型师、装设计师萨尔·佩雷斯(Sal Perez)在电影《完美音调2》(Pitch Perfect 2)中为女演员里贝尔·威尔森(Rebel Wilson)设计造型,他必须为她的角色找够20套装。这个挑战比听起来的要难。威尔森穿大码装,而在女演员的世界里,大部分人穿的都是超小号。Mr. Perez ended up finding some items online and designing others, which were made in his costume workshop.最后,佩雷斯在网上找到了一些衣,自己又设计了一些,在自己的装工作室里制作。“Trying to find plus-size clothes that are fashionable and well made is very difficult,” he said. “I am horrified by some of the clothes I find in the stores. I don’t know anyone who enjoys wearing polyester. I think the fashion industry has to realize the potential the plus-size market has.”“寻找时尚、制作精良的大码装非常困难,”他说,“我在商店里找到的一些衣把我吓坏了。我没见过谁喜欢穿涤纶装。我觉得时装界必须意识到大码市场的潜力。”Styles for plus sizes, which range from 14 to 24, have long been characterized by down-market, back-of-the-store racks of drab tent-dresses, garishly decorated blouses and polyester pants. The uniformly dark colors and generous silhouettes serve the sole purpose of covering up and deflecting attention from the body.长期以来,14码至24码的大码装大多是放在商店后面货架上的低档装——乏味的松身连衣裙、花哨的女衬衣和涤纶裤。它们有着千篇一律的深色和宽松的剪裁,唯一的目的是遮住身体,减少人们的关注。But a new crop of online boutiques, retailers and designers is trying to make plus-size styles more fashion forward. Instead of elastic-waist pants and muumuu dresses, these companies offer clothes that reflect the runways (think jumpsuits), surpass the smock (leather pants) and even show a little skin (crop tops).但是一些新的在线时装精品店、零售商和设计师在努力让大码装变得更时尚。这些公司提供的不是松紧带裤和宽大连衣裙,而是能反映秀台潮流的装(比如连身裤)和超出宽松工作范畴外的装(比如皮裤),甚至是暴露一点肌肤的装(比如露脐上衣)。The plus-size customer is “really letting her hair down for the first time,” said Marie Jean-Baptiste, the founder and designer of Rue107, which sells form-fitting mesh dresses (0) and purple metallic jumpsuits (, on sale from ) in sizes S to 3X.Rue107的创始人、设计师玛丽·让-巴普蒂斯特(Marie Jean-Baptiste)说,他们的装让穿大码装的顾客“第一次放松下来”。该公司销售修身网眼连衣裙(110美元)和紫色金属质感连身裤(59美元,原价89美元),尺码从S号到3X号。Customers have clamored for more and better options. Last spring Sarah Chiwaya, 30, a lawyer in Manhattan, attended a fashion event at Saks Fifth Avenue. Captivated by a perforated leather midi skirt from Tibi, she was y to spend. But the skirt was available only in small sizes.顾客们早已发出呼声,要求拥有更多更好的选择。30岁的莎拉·奇瓦亚(Sarah Chiwaya)是曼哈顿的一名律师。去年春天,她要去萨克斯第五大道精品百货店参加一场时尚活动。她看上了Tibi的一条皮质打孔超短裙,打算破费一下。但是那条裙子只有小号。“I would have bought it immediately if it were in my size, 16,” she said.“如果有我的号,16号,我肯定马上买了,”她说。Frustrated, Ms. Chiwaya turned to her blog, Curvily, and bemoaned the lack of options. She used a hashtag, #plussizeplease, that has been adopted by others across all sorts of social platforms like Tumblr, Pinterest, Instagram and Twitter.沮丧的奇瓦亚在自己的客Curvily上叹息选择太少。她加上了#plussizeplease(求大码),这个标签在各种社交平台上被广泛使用,比如Tumblr、Pinterest、Instagram和Twitter。“I wanted it to be a way to show retailers the money they’re losing,” she said.“我想通过这种方式告诉零售商他们正在让能到手的钱溜走,”她说。The market, in fact, is robust. The average American woman wears a size 14, and women wearing size 14 and up account for 67 percent of the population, according to the industry analyst firm Plunkett Research Ltd. Last summer, the NPD Group reported that plus-size clothing sales grew more than 5 percent from May 2013 to April 2014, going from .7 billion to .5 billion.实际上,这个市场很大。据行业分析公司Plunkett Research Ltd.称,美国女人的平均装尺码是14码,穿14码及以上的女人占全体美国女性的67%。去年夏天,NPD集团报告称,从2013年5月至2014年4月,大码装的销售额增长了5%以上,从167亿美元增长到了175亿美元。That is perhaps why youthful-leaning, mass-market retailers like Asos, H amp; M, Mango, Wet Seal, ModCloth and Forever 21 have begun selling either an expanded size range or a dedicated plus-size line.可能是由于这个原因,Asos、Hamp;M、Mango、Wet Seal、ModCloth和Forever 21等面向年轻大众的零售商开始销售更多尺码的装或者推出专门的大码装系列。“We work in the exact same way as Asos core brand,” said Natasha Smith, a buyer for the new line, Asos Curve, in London. “There’s nothing we wouldn’t try: hot pants, bodysuits.”“我们的运作方式与Asos的核心品牌一模一样,”购买新系列Asos Curve的伦敦买家娜塔莎·史密斯(Natasha Smith)说,“我们什么都尝试:热裤、紧身衣裤。”Several new companies are making plus-size their sole focus. One is Eloquii, which aims to do for the plus market what Zara has done in the mainstream market: offer customers options that mimic runway trends but at prices that are lower than those in boutiques and department stores.有几家新公司专门做大码女装。其中一家是Eloquii,它的目标很像Zara在主流市场的做法:在大码市场领域内向顾客提供模仿秀台潮流但价格低于精品店或商场的装。Currently, Eloquii is showing items like a leopard-print baseball jacket (8), a cashmere sweater with Breton stripes (8) and faux leather culottes ().目前,Eloquii正在展示豹纹棒球夹克(138美元)、布列塔尼条纹羊绒衫(138美元)和仿皮裤裙(98美元)。Eloquii was originally started in 2011 as a sister brand to the Limited, but was closed in 2013 when the Limited decided to shed its noncore brands. A group of former employees, including the creative director, Jodi Arnold, restarted the brand last year. (Its products are available on the label’s website as well as on Nordstrom.com). A former Gilt executive, John Auerbach, is a founding investor.2011年,Eloquii最初是作为Limited的品牌创立的,但是2013年,Limited决定甩掉非核心品牌,Eloquii因此倒闭。去年,Eloquii从前的一群员工,包括创意总监约迪·阿诺德(Jodi Arnold),复兴了这个品牌(你可以在该品牌的网站和Nordstrom.com上买到它的产品)。Gilt的前执行官约翰·奥尔巴赫(John Auerbach)是该品牌的创办投资人之一。“The team doesn’t have a plus background, which is a good thing,” said Mariah Chase, the company’s chief executive, using industry jargon to refer to the plus-size niche.“这个团队没有做大码时装的背景,这是好事,”该公司的首席执行官玛丽亚·蔡斯(Mariah Chase)说。“The starting point is trends, the runway,” Ms. Arnold added.“我们的起点是潮流,是秀台,”阿诺德补充说。For example, Eloquii’s Kady pant (made in an array of fabrics, from in a graphic rose print to in solid navy) is “a structured, fitted pant where our customer has just gotten stretch before,” Ms. Chase said. A faux-leather fitted midi skirt, 8, sold out in 72 hours, according to Ms. Arnold. The company has recently raised million from investors.蔡斯说,比如,Eloquii的卡迪裤(有各种面料,从88美元的玫瑰印花到78美元的纯蓝色)是“裁剪得当的修身裤,我们的顾客刚好能穿进去”。阿诺德说,128美元的仿皮修身超短裙在推出72小时后就卖光了。该公司最近从投资人那里筹集了600万美元。In a skinny-celebrity-obsessed world, it has been difficult to overcome the dowdy image of plus size. What’s more, many women are uncomfortable identifying themselves as plus-size shoppers, which hampers word-of-mouth.在痴迷身材纤细的名人的世界里,大码装很难推翻古板过时的形象。另外,很多女人不愿承认自己穿大码,这妨碍了口碑流传。But social media is helping to change that, said Aimee Cheshire, the president and a founder of HeyGorgeous.com, an online boutique that carries pieces from ABS By Allen Schwartz (wrap dress, 8), Lucky Brand denim (black straight-leg jeans, .50) and Ellen Tracy (angora coat, 9) in sizes 10 and up.不过,在线时装精品店HeyGorgeous.com的总裁和创始人艾梅·切希尔(Aimee Cheshire)说,社交媒体正在帮助改变这一点。该网店销售ABS By Allen Schwartz(裹裙,198美元)、Lucky Brand denim(黑色直筒牛仔裤,89.50美元)和 Ellen Tracy(羊毛外衣,169美元)等品牌的装,尺码都在10码以上(含10码)。“I’ll get emails asking, ‘How do I recommend it to my friend without offending her?’ ” Ms. Cheshire said. “I always say share it on Facebook.”“我收到一些邮件询问,‘我怎么才能在不冒犯朋友的情况下推荐你们网站?’”切希尔说,“我总是回复说,在Facebook上分享它。”She said she tries to encourage plus-size women to openly embrace their personal style rather than hide their shape. HeyGorgeous tells these women they “aren’t the ugly stepsister, they’re our main woman,” Ms. Cheshire said.切希尔说她尽量鼓励穿大码的女人公开接受自己的个人风格,而不是掩饰身材。她还说,HeyGorgeous网站对这些女人说,她们“不是丑陋的继女,而是女性的主流”。“They’re not used to being wanted,” she said. “There’s no aspiration, no Vogue for the plus sized.”“人们还不习惯去期待大码装,”她说,“在大码时装界没有抱负,没有时尚。”Most plus-size clothes could be divided into three segments: “work wear, club wear and grandma clothes,” said Nicolette Mason, a plus-size fashion blogger. The problem has not been just a lack of options for consumers, but also retailers’ belief that plus-size women can’t support a high-fashion niche.大码时装客写手尼科莱特·梅森(Nicolette Mason)说,大部分大码装可以分为三类:“工作、俱乐部装和祖母”。问题不只是顾客们缺少可选的衣,零售商们也认为穿大码装的女人撑不起高级时装这个细分市场。“When you’re taught to look at your body as a work in progress, you’re not going to spend ,000 on a coat to last forever because you’re not hoping for it to last forever,” Ms. Mason said.“如果别人教导你,让你认为自己的身体可以不断改进,那你就不会花1000美元买一件能一直穿下去的外衣,因为你不希望自己的身材永远是这样的,”梅森说。Gwynnie Bee, a clothing rental subscription service for sizes 10 to 32, is a more casual version of Rent the Runway (which began its own plus-size division in 2013). The site carries lines like BB Dakota and Three Dots. A -a-month commitment will get you one piece of clothing at a time; 10 pieces will cost 9 a month.Gwynnie Bee是一个租赁10码至32码装的订购务公司,是休闲装版的Rent the Runway(这家公司从2013年开设了大码装部门)。该网站提供BB Dakota和Three Dots等品牌的装。一个月付35美元,你便能每次能租一件衣;一个月付159美元,便可以每次租10件。In the shadow of all the new focus on how to dress a larger woman, mainstays of the fashion industry that have helped propagate the connection between high fashion and small sizes are showing a greater willingness to embrace a curvier world. Calvin Klein used the model Myla Dalbesio, who is a size 10, in a lingerie campaign. In November, Vogue.com shot a lingerie sp using plus-size models.过去,大型时装公司曾鼓吹高级时装和小码之间有着密不可分的联系。如今,如何给体型偏胖的女人设计装成了新的焦点,大公司也开始乐于接受更丰满的世界。Calvin Klein请穿10码的麦拉·戴尔伯西奥(Myla Dalbesio)担任一个内衣广告的模特。去年11月,Vogue.com请一些大码模特拍摄了一个内衣平面广告。The 2015 Pirelli calendar, shot by Steven Meisel and styled by Carine Roitfeld, included the plus-size model Candice Huffine. Two edgy clothing lines, Chromat and Zana Bayne, sent plus-size models down the runway in their presentations last September.倍耐力(Pirelli)的2015年历中有大码模特坎迪丝·赫法恩(Candice Huffine),摄影师是史蒂文·梅塞(Steven Meisel),造型师是卡琳·洛菲德(Carine Roitfeld)。两大前卫时装品牌Chromat和Zana Bayne在去年9月的时装秀上派出了大码模特。For now, any competition is welcome.目前,任何竞争都是受欢迎的。“I would love to have more places to shop, for it to be a fun leisure activity with multiple sources,” said Kelly Goldston, the director of marketing at Eloquii. As more plus-size women get into the habit of expressing their personal style, business will be better for everyone involved, she said, adding, “New players would be good for us.”“我希望有更多可以购物的地方,因为那将是汇聚人脉的有趣的休闲活动,”Eloquii的营销总监凯利·戈德斯顿(Kelly Goldston)说。她说,更多穿大码的女人养成了表现个人风格的习惯,这对所有参与这项生意的人来说都是好事,“新竞争对手将有益于我们”。 /201501/354174。

Do you Yahoo!? Would you if you had to Jerry#39;s Guide to the World Wide Web?你喜欢“雅虎”这个名字吗?如果叫“杰瑞的网络指南”还会喜欢吗?While a bad name isn#39;t enough to sink a brand on its own, several of the biggest shed some puzzling titles before becoming worldwide hits.虽然一个不太好的品牌名称不足以让一个品牌没落,但有一些顶级品牌在成为全球热门品牌前曾放弃过一些令人费解的名字。According to CN, electronics chain Best Buy was still called Sound of Music back in 1981 when the brand#39;s Roseville, Minnesota, store was reduced to rubble by a tornado.根据美国全国广播公司财经频道介绍,电子商品连锁店百思买(Best Buy)在1981年还叫“音乐之声”(Sound of Music)。当时,其品牌旗下位于明尼苏达州的罗斯维尔零售店被龙卷风夷为平地。Afterwards, the store held a #39;Tornado Sale#39; in the parking lot advertising #39;best buys#39; on damaged electronics. Two years later, all the stores were rebranded as Best Buy.后来,该门店在自家停车场举行“龙卷风后甩卖”,为受损的电子产品打出“最划算商品”的广告。两年后,所有的门店都更名为百思买。Google, the most popular search engine provider, earned that name two years after it was founded in 1986, under infinitely less catchy name BackRub.最受欢迎的搜索引擎提供商——谷歌,在1986年刚刚创建时使用的是一个极不显眼的名字“BackRub”(译者注:谷歌创始人佩奇把他在斯坦福的一个项目称为BackRub),两年后才更名为“谷歌”。Hertz Rent-A-Car was originally Hertz Drive-Ur-Self System, but changed to The Hertz Corporation in 1954 after a major restructuring.赫兹租车公司原名为“赫兹自我驾驶系统公司”,1954年进行了一次重大重组后,更名为赫兹租车公司。Many of the top brands simply went from wordy and boring to short and sweet with their name changes.许多顶级品牌通过改名字就实现了由冗长而乏味向简洁友好形象的转变。Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation became IBM (International Business Machines), while Jerry#39;s Guide to the World Wide Web became Yahoo, an acronym for Yet Another Hierarchical Officious Oracle.“计算列表纪录公司”更名为IBM——国际商业机器公司,“杰瑞的网络指南”更名为“雅虎”(Yahoo),这是“另一种非官方层次化数据库”的首字母缩写。Quantum Computer Services turned into America Online back in 1991, then in 2006 shortened its name to AOL.1991年,量子电脑务更名为“美国在线”,2006年又将名字缩短为“AOL”。Starbucks Coffee, Tea and Spice, once called Il Giornale Coffee Company, was shortened to simply Starbucks, and Marafuku Company turned into Nintendo Playing Card Company before becoming Nintendo.“星巴克咖啡,茶叶和香料”原来叫“每日咖啡公司”,后缩减成简单的“星巴克”;任天堂在使用现用名之前,最初曾命名为马拉夫库公司,后又曾更名为任天堂扑克牌公司。One of the most profitable companies in history, Apple Inc, made only a subtle change from Apple Computers in 2007 as the company moved into other areas of consumer electronics.历史上最赚钱的公司之一——苹果公司,在其进军其他消费电子产品领域时只是对名字作了细微更改——将“苹果电脑公司”更名为“苹果公司”。Once known as Research in Motion, the makers of the BlackBerry simply adopted the name of their flagship product in 2013 as they tried to catch up to competition in the midst of declining sales.曾经被称为移动研究公司是黑莓手机的制造商,该公司在2013年改名为黑莓,这是该公司最有名的一款旗舰产品的名字,此番改名主要是他们想要在销量下降的情况下与竞争对手抗衡。Other companies, named after their original founders, eventually outgrew their more provincial-sounding names.还有一些以创始人名字命名的公司,最终的发展与他们最初带有乡音的名字已经不可同日而语。Pete#39;s Super Submarines became SUBWAY, Wards Company became Circuit City, Brad#39;s Drink turned into Pepsi-Cola and Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo became Sony.“皮特的超级潜艇”现在成了“赛百味”,“华德公司”更名为“电路城”,“布拉德饮料公司”更名为“百事可乐”,东京通信工业公司也变成了“索尼”。Blue Ribbon Sports, which distributed Japanese sneakers Onitsuka Tiger in the US, eventually became Nike, named after the winged Greek goddess of victory.最初在美国代理日本鬼冢虎运动鞋的蓝带体育用品公司最终成为了如今的耐克公司,耐克是古希腊神话中展翅的胜利女神的名字。 /201506/378790。

Plenty of lives are admirable or eventful, but only a very few are so influential that it’s difficult to wrap your head around just how much they meant to the world. Thomas A. Edison lived such a life, and it receives a thorough two-hour examination in Tuesday’s “American Experience” on PBS.很多人的一生令人钦佩或充满变故,但只有极少数人的影响力如此重大,连深刻理解他们对世界的意义都不是一件容易的事。托马斯·A·爱迪生(Thomas A. Edison)的人生就是这样的,PBS频道周二(本文发表于2015年1月27日。)播出的《美国体验》(American Experience)栏目将用两个小时来详细回顾爱迪生的一生。A well-chosen collection of historians and other experts take us through Edison’s life, from his birth in Ohio in 1847 to his death in New Jersey in 1931. They sometimes struggle to convey just how earthshaking it was to go from lamplight to electric light, from a world where the human voice was ephemeral to one where it could be captured and preserved, but who wouldn’t?一些精心挑选的史学家和专家带我们回顾爱迪生的一生,从他1847年在俄亥俄州出生到1931年在新泽西州去世。爱迪生把我们从煤油灯的世界带到了电灯的世界,把我们从人的声音转瞬即逝的世界带到了声音可以被记录和保存的世界,这些专家们有时竭力想让我们明白这样的变化有多么翻天覆地,但谁不会这样做呢?They are particularly good at conveying that what made Edison special wasn’t so much his inventions as knowing what to do with them. As several note, he didn’t merely invent things, he invented the profession of inventor. And, especially with the light bulb, he tackled not just the technological problem, but also the infrastructure needed to illuminate homes.这些专家们有一点格外出色,他们让我们明白,爱迪生的独特之处不在于他的发明,而更多的在于他知道如何应用它们。就像几位史学家指出的那样,他不只是发明了东西,他还发明了发明家这个职业。而且,以电灯泡为例,他不只是解决了技术问题,而且发明了家庭照明所需的基础设施。“You had to be able to not just marshal the science, but then put the people and the money, the capital and the organizations together,” the historian Nancy F. Koehn, a professor at the Harvard Business School, says. “And the politics. I can’t think of another figure who could operate on all those different levels.”“能够引领科学还不够,你还必须把人力、金钱、资本和组织结合起来,”史学家、哈佛商学院教授南希·F·克恩(Nancy F. Koehn)说,“还有政治。我想不出还有哪个人物能运作所有这些不同层面。”Edison’s story, though, was also one of celebrity and its hazards. He became world famous, and practically no one reaches those heights without problems. A falling out with a friend, unflattering efforts to discredit other inventors and entrepreneurs and more are duly noted.不过,爱迪生的故事也是关于名声及其危险的故事。他举世闻名,实际上所有达到这种高度的人几乎都会出现问题。节目中也适当提及他与一个朋友的争执以及他抹黑其他发明家和企业家等不光行为。But he ended his life widely revered. Would we still be ing by kerosene lamp had Edison not lived? No; someone else would have made that breakthrough and the others credited to him. The impressive part is that the same guy had a hand in so many transformative changes.但是他的一生终究受到广泛崇敬。如果没有爱迪生,我们是否还在煤油灯下读书?不会的。其他人会取得这个突破,他名下的其他成就也会有别人发明出来。令人钦佩的是,他一个人参与了这么多翻天覆地的变革。 /201502/357889。

Where most people see beloved New York locales, John Honerkamp, Paul Leak and their merry band of some 100 followers see prime exercise sites.在大多数挚爱纽约的人看来,很多地方不过是寻常地点,而约翰·霍纳坎普(John Honerkamp)、保罗·利克(Paul Leak)以及约100位快乐的追随者却视这些地方为极佳锻炼场所。One morning last year at precisely 6:28, the group descended on the steps of the Metropolitan Museum of Art for perhaps the most physical game of Pictionary ever played: Athletes sprinted to pick up clues, held plank poses while team members sketched and performed penalty burpees (an explosive squat/push-up combination) for failing to guess correctly.去年一个清晨的6点28分,这群人突然来到大都会艺术物馆的台阶上,他们所进行的看图猜词游戏可能是最剧烈的:运动员们快速跑去捡起提示板,然后在队友们画画时保持平板撑的姿势,如果猜错了,就罚做下蹲俯卧撑。They have done wall sits and stair runs at Borough Hall, “mountain climbers” outside Gracie Mansion (where security guards cheered them on) and relays around the Lincoln Center fountain (though they were soon asked to leave).他们在市政厅练习直角坐墙和跑楼梯;在纽约市长官邸格雷西大厦外玩“爬山”游戏(那里的保安给他们鼓劲);在林肯中心喷泉周围进行接力赛(不过他们很快被要求离开)。And on a recent 19-degree Friday morning, they used another Midtown fountain for jumps on and off its two-foot-high ledge, although Mr. Leak was aly making more ambitious plans for the water.前不久一个周五的清晨,气温只有19华氏度(大致相当于零下7度),他们在中城的另一处喷泉进行跳跃运动,从两英尺高的喷泉边缘跳上跳下,不过利克已经为这里设计了几项更有野心的计划。“This would be perfect for an urban triathlon, but there’s not a Citi Bike station nearby,” mused Mr. Leak, 27, whose later-in-the-day job is event management. “We would entirely get in trouble, but we love that.” (Mr. Leak also has designs on the Staten Island Ferry.)“要是附近有市政自行车出租站点的话,这里会成为城市铁人三项的完美地点,”27岁的利克若有所思地说道。他的正式工作是会展管理。“我们会彻底陷入麻烦,但是我们很喜欢那样。”(利克还就斯塔滕岛的渡船设计了一些活动。)Mr. Leak and Mr. Honerkamp, 39, are the New York leaders of an early-morning workout flash mob known as the November Project, which began in Boston in 2011 and has since sp to 19 cities in the ed States and Canada. It’s a point of pride that the group — not quite running club, not quite boot camp — defies categorization. It blends the intensity of CrossFit, the cultishness of SoulCycle and the weather agnosticism of a Polar Bear swim with the high jinks of an obstacle course and the camaraderie and accountability of a sports team.利克和39岁的霍纳坎普是一个名为“11月计划”(November Project)的清晨锻炼快闪族的纽约领头人。该计划2011年始于波士顿,之后扩散到美国和加拿大的19个城市。它引以为豪的是,你几乎无法给它归类——它既不是跑步俱乐部,也不是训练营。它融合了CrossFit健身公司的强度、SoulCycle健身公司的狂热、北极熊游泳俱乐部(Polar Bear)的天气不可知性,以及障碍训练的狂欢、体育队的友情和责任。Workouts in Boston have drawn more than 1,400 people, among them Olympic and professional athletes. Rodale plans to publish a book about the November Project in 2016.波士顿的健身活动吸引了1400多人,其中包括奥运选手和职业运动员。罗代尔出版社(Rodale)计划于2016年出版一本关于“11月计划”的书。Sessions open with members — new exercisers and marathoners alike — being instructed to touch the nose of someone they don’t know and tell the person, “I’m happy you’re here.” Handshakes upon meeting are forbidden; this is a hugs-only zone. And because workouts are free and outdoors, there’s no booking hassle, unforgiving cancellation policy or scramble for a spot. Take that, boutique fitness class. (November Project has recently begun working with sponsors: Last year, North Face was among the companies supporting the group’s annual summit, and beginning next week will team up with it on another project.)每次锻炼前,组织者会引导会员们——锻炼新手、马拉松跑步者等——去触摸一个他们不认识的人的鼻子,说:“我很高兴你能来这儿。”大家不允许见面握手,在这里只能拥抱。因为锻炼是免费的,在户外进行,所以没有预订的麻烦、苛刻的取消政策或地盘争夺。想想看,精品健身课程可要35美元一节(“11月计划”最近开始与赞助商合作:去年,北面[North Face]等公司赞助了该组织的年度峰会。下周起,北面将和该组织合作另一个项目)。Brogan Graham, 32, a former college rowing coach who is one of the group’s founders, said: “Some people need their exercise to be certified and sanctioned and expensive. We just want to have more fun.”32岁的布罗根·格雷厄姆(Brogan Graham)是该组织的创始人之一,曾是大学划船教练。他说:“有些人需要那种经过认批准的昂贵的健身项目。我们只是想获得更多乐趣。”He added, “We’re making people be people and put their” — expletive — “phones down.” (Said phones do reappear at the end for the obligatory postworkout group photo, promptly posted to social media.)他补充说,“我们让人回归本性,放下该死的手机(他说,锻炼结束后手机的确会再次现身,以便拍摄强制性的健身后合影,并立刻发布到社交媒体上)。”Kaitlin Fuelling, 23, who moved to the Lower East Side from Pasadena, Calif., in 2013, said November Project friendships account for the majority of her social life.23岁的凯特琳·菲林(Kaitlin Fuelling)2013年从加利福尼亚州帕萨迪纳市搬到纽约下东区。她说,在“11月计划”结交朋友是她的主要社交活动。“I did the stint with a gym, but I was looking for people I could kind of relate to,” Ms. Fuelling said breathlessly between “hoisties” — November Project lingo for squat jumps done while pressing one’s palms against a partner’s. “Everybody thinks it’s a little crazy, but once you go you can’t even explain how much fun you have.” She has kept her membership at 24 Hour Fitness, but “just for the shower.”“当时,我在一个健身房定期锻炼,但是我想寻找能跟我产生共鸣的人,”菲林在蹲起运动(hoisties)的间隙气喘吁吁地说。hoisties是“11月计划”的一个内部术语,指两人一组,交叉握紧双手,从坐姿升起为完全站立。“大家都觉得这有点疯狂,不过一旦你去了,就能获得说不完的乐趣。”她保留了在24小时健身俱乐部(24 Hour Fitness)的会员身份,不过“只是为了去那儿洗澡”。Leaders of each city’s tribe, as the November Project calls its affiliates, are volunteers with athletic backgrounds whose only instructions are that locations must be epic and that workouts must start at 6:30 a.m. (or before), be scalable for all levels of fitness — and unpredictable.每个城市的部落(“11月计划”这样称呼自己的分)领袖都是有运动员背景的志愿者,他们只得到这样的指示:健身地点必须宽敞,锻炼必须在早上6点半(或之前)开始,可以进行各种层次的出人意料的健身活动。In San Francisco, organizers drew a version of the board game Chutes and Ladders on the cement of Alamo Square, requiring different exercises to traverse the board.在旧金山,组织者们在阿拉莫广场(Alamo Square)的水泥地上开展了一个类似棋盘游戏滑梯和梯子(Chutes and Ladders)的活动,参与者必须完成不同的运动才能穿过棋盘。A San Diego session in January involved teams of four pushing Toyota Priuses, with participants instructed to stand between the cars’ rear taillights so feet couldn’t be run over, recalled Mr. Graham, who was visiting at the time. (No one factored in a slight downhill to the course, so the workout involved an extra cardio challenge: chasing runaway cars.)格雷厄姆回忆说,1月份他去圣迭戈时,参加了那里的一个活动——四人一组推动丰田普锐斯汽车。参与者按照指示,站在车的两个尾灯之间,这样就不会压到脚(谁也没料到中间有一段轻缓下坡路,所以那次锻炼多了一项有氧运动:追逐下滑的汽车)。Like many crazy ideas, the movement grew out of a late-night bar chat, this one in October 2011, when Mr. Graham and his former Northeastern University rowing teammate Bojan Mandaric, 33, decided to head off the winter tendency to slack on exercise by making a pact to train every day before work the next month. They tracked their workouts on a Google document named the November Project.和很多疯狂的想法一样,该组织也起源于一次深夜酒吧谈话。这次谈话发生在2011年10月,格雷厄姆和他在美国东北大学的前划船队友、33岁的扬·曼达里奇(Bojan Mandaric)约定在之后的一个月里,每天上班前训练,以防冬季越来越懒得动。他们在一个命名为“11月计划”的谷歌文档中追踪记录锻炼过程。“We thought if we did it, we’d become morning people and also more connected,” Mr. Mandaric said. “Even if it’s your best friend, people get busy. But nobody is busy at 6:30 in the morning.”“当时我们想,如果我们做到了,那么我们就能变成晨型人,而且我们的关系也会更密切,”曼达里奇说,“即使是最好的朋友,有时也会因为忙碌而疏于联系。但是,早上6点半,谁都有空。”As they kept the project running past its intended expiration date, they created a blog and Twitter account, and people they didn’t know began showing up for what became their signature Wednesday morning session: running the stairs of all 37 sections of Harvard Stadium, a workout known as the “full tour.”在原定的截止日期之后,他们继续执行这个计划。他们创立了客和Twitter账户,原先不认识的人也开始出现在他们标志性的周三晨练中:跑完哈佛大学体育馆的全部37组台阶,这项锻炼被称为“全程游览”(full tour)。One early convert — whose huge Twitter following helped sp the November Project gospel — was Andrew Ference, then a defenseman for the Stanley Cup-winning Boston Bruins just trying to stay in shape during the 2012-13 National Hockey League lockout.安德鲁·费伦茨(Andrew Ference)是较早参与“11月计划”的人之一,他的Twitter账户拥有众多粉丝,帮助扩散了该计划。当时,费伦茨是斯坦利杯冰球锦标赛(Stanley Cup)冠军波士顿棕熊队(Boston Bruins)的防守队员,他只是想在2012至2013美国全国冰球协会(National Hockey League)停赛期间保持体形。“I didn’t know what was going on with the hugging and hooting and hollering, but everyone was really cool,” said Mr. Ference, who learned of the group from a bicycle shop. “I went and chased these fast dudes around the stadium, and I just kept going back.”“之前,我不知道他们为什么拥抱、喊叫,但是每个人看起来都很酷,”费伦茨说。他是在一个自行车店听说这个组织的。“后来我也去了,在体育馆周围追逐这些跑得飞快的伙伴,后来就一直参加他们的活动。”He has since moved to Edmonton, Alberta, where he is the captain of the Edmonton Oilers and a November Project leader. He is also the creator of November Project’s most coveted badge of honor: a Boy-Scout-like circle patch with “-30” written in blue. It is given to anyone who shows up to a workout when the thermometer s that number or below. So far, no November Project workout has ever been canceled because of weather.他后来搬到加拿大艾伯塔省埃德蒙顿市,担任埃德蒙顿油工队(Edmonton Oilers)队长,也成为当地“11月计划”的领头人。他还创造了该组织最令人艳羡的荣誉徽章:一个童子军式的圆臂章,上面绣着蓝色的“-30”。它授予所有在气温低于(或等于)零下30华氏度(大致相当于零下34摄氏度)的天气参加锻炼的人。到目前为止,还没有“11月计划”锻炼活动因天气原因被取消。Anyone who has promised to come (“dropped a verbal,” in November Project parlance), and then doesn’t, appears on the “We Missed You” page of the blog. No matter what the excuse, the November Project makes it look as if the absentee was out partying by pulling old photos from a Facebook page that show him or her drinking or eating nachos. It is a shame theory of accountability that featured in a TEDx talk Mr. Graham and Mr. Mandaric gave recently.任何答应要来(用“11月计划”的话说是“留下口信”)但是没来的人都会出现在该组织客的“我们想念你”(We Missed You)页面。不管因何种原因未能赴约,“11月计划”都会弄得好像缺席者是出去玩了,该组织从缺席者的Facebook网页上找到他们之前喝酒或吃奶酪玉米片的旧照片,放到“我们想念你”页面上。这是格雷厄姆和曼达里奇前不久在TED大会上演讲的主题——责任羞耻理论。“It’s in jest but it works,” said Peter Kruse, 27, who lives in Midtown. This winter, he arrived three minutes late to a workout when the wind chill was minus 10 because the ski goggles he wore had fogged up and he missed a turn. The group had left, but Mr. Kruse raced to catch up.“那是开玩笑,但是很管用,”27岁的彼得·克鲁泽(Peter Kruse)说。他住在纽约中城。去年冬天的一个早上,寒风凛冽,气温只有零下10华氏度,他的滑雪护目镜起雾了,所以他错过了一个路口,迟到了三分钟。大部队已经离开,但是克鲁泽快跑追上了。“That was a real low point,” Mr. Kruse said.“那真是让人沮丧,”克鲁泽说。To start a chapter in a new city, there is a strict pledge process. (At least it’s strict by November Project’s freewheeling standards.) Aspiring leaders spend a year proving they can attract a following before they are allowed to use the November Project name. They start with a Wednesday morning workout — Wednesday because no one is recovering from the weekend or getting on a plane for a coming weekend — and eventually add Fridays, then Mondays. They are encouraged to start in the dead of winter, to attract a core group of die-hards, because summer members can be fair-weather participants.要在一个新城市开分部,需要经过严格的明过程(至少以“11月计划”松散的标准看,算是挺严格的)。有抱负的领头人要用一年时间明自己能够吸引追随者,然后才能使用“11月计划”的名头。他们先从周三晨练做起——因为在周三,人们不会尚未从周末的散漫状态中恢复过来,也不会早起搭飞机开始周末旅行。最后加上周五和周一。他们被鼓励在冬天最寒冷的时候开始,以吸引一批铁杆核心成员,因为那些在夏季参加活动的人可能只在天气好的时候参加。On a recent Friday, about 30 members of the New York group, most of them in gear spray-painted with the graffiti-like November Project logo, huddled in a passageway in Midtown near the Fox News studio.前不久的一个周五,纽约分部的约30名成员在中城福克斯新闻演播室附近的地下通道里挤作一团。大部分人脸上喷着涂鸦风格的“11月计划”标识。They warmed up by jumping up and down, turning in midair and yelling “Fox” on the ascent and “Friends” when they landed. They ran past Radio City Music Hall calling to people they passed to “have a spectacular day,” and they face-planted on the concrete after their arm muscles failed from seven minutes of push-ups and triceps dips before 7 a.m.他们的热身方式是上下跳跃,在空中转身,跳起时大喊“狐狸”(Fox),落下时大喊“朋友”(Friends)。他们跑过广播城音乐厅(Radio City Music Hall)时,对遇见的行人大声说“祝你这一天过得精”。七点前,在练完七分钟俯卧撑和撑臂屈伸(triceps dips)后,他们的臂部肌肉实在撑不住了,一头栽到水泥地面上。Mr. Honerkamp urged them closer. “We need subway close; we need the 6 train close,” he yelled. “If anyone’s new, it might be a little awkward, but that’s the point.”霍纳坎普鼓励他们挤得更紧些。“我们要像挤地铁那样靠近,像在晚高峰地铁上那样挤,”他喊道,“新来的人可能觉得有点不好意思,但我们的目的就是让你不再不好意思。” /201504/370551。

Accessories of Dragon Boat Festial端午佩饰1 Healthy Man健人In Jiangsu and Zhejiang area women will wear decorations called ‘healthy man’ on Dragon Boat Festival. Generally made with gold and silver wire or copper foil shape as a person who rides a tiger , also with a bell, bell, tassel and garlic, dumplings, etc. Wear in women#39;s bun, also used to feed.江浙一带端五时妇女的一种饰物。一般用金银丝或铜丝金箔做成,形状为小人骑虎,亦有另加钟、铃、缨及蒜、粽子等的。插在妇女发髻,也用以馈送。2 Damselfly豆娘Female’s headdress decorated on the Dragon Boat festival. Especially in the area of Jiangnan. Also known as the ‘healthy man’ in some regions.端五节妇女的头饰。多见于江南。一些地区亦称作健人。3 Tiger艾虎Tiger is an exorcism precious thing on the Dragon Boat Festival, and for decoration. In ancient of China tiger is known as god beast, common thought that can ward off bad luck, bless peace端午节驱邪辟祟之物,也作装饰品。我国古代视虎为神兽,俗以为可以镇祟辟邪、保佑安宁4 Draw the forehead画额Drawing with realgar on forehead on the Dragon Boat Festival can ward off the vermin. The typical method is to draw the forehead, with realgar wine in pediatric forehead painting ;king; word with realgar to avoid poison, and two tigers will ward off evil.端午节以雄黄涂抹小儿额头的习俗,可驱避毒虫。典型的方法是画额,用雄黄酒在小儿额头画“王”字,一借雄黄以驱毒,二借猛虎镇邪。5 Long strand长命缕During the Dragon Boat Festival with five colors’ knot rope, or hung on the door , or wear around children#39;s neck, or children#39;s arm, or hang in the place such as bed nets, cradle, to avoid disaster, bless peace, prolong life.在端午节以五色丝结而成索,或悬于门首,或戴小儿项颈,或系小儿手臂,或挂于床帐、摇篮等处,俗谓可避灾除病、保佑安康、益寿延年。6 Wearing Perfume Sachet戴香包In order to prevent illness, the elderly usually like to wear the plum blossom, chrysanthemum, lotus, etc. These flowers mean all the best, conjugal love and family harmony.老年人为了防病健身,一般喜欢戴梅花、菊花、荷花等。象征着鸟语花香,万事如意,夫妻恩爱,家庭和睦。 /201506/381349。

Note to self: the key to happiness is keeping a diary and writing down the things that make you smile.写给自己:保持幸福的诀窍就是记日记,记下那些让你快乐的事。For while fictional diarists Bridget Jones and Adrian Mole used journals to record their woes and embarrassments, paying attention to the things that lift our moods mean we can learn how to cheer ourselves up, says a leading physicist.一位著名的物理学家说,《BJ单身日记》和《艾德里安·莫尔的秘密日记》等虚构日记的作者用日记记录他们的伤心和尴尬事,不过多关注那些能提振我们心情的事情或许意味着我们可以学会让自己快乐起来。Author Dr Stefan Klein has found that being happy is a skill that can be learned like a foreign language, and one way to train ourselves to be happy is to write down the little things that cheer us up each day – a technique he practises himself.作者斯蒂芬·克莱因士发现保持快乐是一门技巧,它可以像学习外语一样通过学习来掌握,训练我们自己快乐的方法之一就是记下每天让我们高兴的事,这门技巧他自己也在研习。Dr Klein, who analysed psychological research for his book The Science of Happiness, added he often writes about his three young children, despite occasionally finding them #39;incredibly annoying’.克莱因士在他的著作《幸福的科学》一书中进行了心理学研究,他表示,他会经常写一些关于他三个小孩儿的事情,虽然偶尔也会发现这些孩子“出奇地恼人”。Speaking at the Cheltenham Science Festival, the German-born researcher said that decades of study into happiness has shown that people who are clinically depressed often believe there are no sources of joy in their lives.出生于德国的克莱因士在切尔腾纳姆科学节的演讲中表示,几十年来对于幸福的研究表明,那些通过临床诊断为抑郁的人们通常认为在他们的生活中没有快乐的来源。But a study by Italian psychiatrist Giovanni Fava found that when patients were asked to keep diaries of events that made them happy, it #39;helped them a lot to get better’.但是,意大利精神病学家乔瓦尼·法瓦通过研究发现,当病人被要求将那些使他们快乐的事情记录下来时,“他们的情况好转很多。”Dr Klein said: #39;It is incredibly simple – you just sit down in the evening and write down the moments where you feel happy and the circumstances.克莱因士说:“这个方法非常简单,你只要每晚坐下来,然后把那些让你感到快乐的时刻与当时的情景写下来就可以了。”#39;The object of the exercise is to simply make you more aware of these moments to know yourself better.“这个练习的目的只是为了让你更多地意识到那些感觉良好的时刻,让你更了解自己。”#39;Even in states of severe depression there are moments of happiness, but the person suffering it doesn’t believe they have these moments in their lives.’“即使处于严重的抑郁状态,也总会有幸福快乐的时刻,但是患抑郁的人却不相信在他们的生命中也有快乐的时刻。”And if you decide to take Dr Klein’s advice, you can make yourself even happier by recommending the technique to others.如果你决定接受克莱因士的建议,那么把这个技巧介绍给他人吧,这会让你更快乐。Happiness occurs when the brain releases endorphins – chemicals that trigger positive feelings – and scientists have found this occurs not only when we achieve one of our own goals, but when we help someone else achieve theirs.当大脑释放内啡肽(能引发积极情感的化学物质)时,幸福感就会产生。此外,科学家发现幸福感不仅仅在我们达到自己的预期目标时产生,在我们帮助他人实现目标时也会产生幸福感。Dr Klein added it is important not to dwell on the times we felt sad, saying: #39;Going deep down into your negative feelings, [the idea] it has a cathartic effect, and you have to cry your tears out and shout your fears out, is really c**p’.’克莱因士补充道,最重要的是不要一味沉浸于那种悲伤情绪之中,“沉入你内心的负面情绪,(那种说)这样做有宣泄作用,你必须哭出来,将害怕的情绪宣泄出来,那都是胡说。”The idea we should delve into our sadness became popular under Sigmund Freud, who saw the mind as a pressure cooker that needed to let out steam. But Dr Klein argued this was a #39;misguided analogy’.精神分析学家西格蒙德·佛洛伊德,将心灵看做一个需要释放压力的高压锅,在他的提倡下,深入探究我们的悲伤情绪这种理念得以普及。但是克莱因士却认为这种看法是个“有误导性的类比”。 /201506/382898。