同安区隆鼻手术价格69爱问

明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年08月26日 06:33:36
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China’s fast-paced economy has helped create a number of massive consumer brands with growing market clout.中国快节奏的经济已经衍生出了一批大型消费品牌,它们不断增长的市场影响力都不容小觑。Technology giants Tencent, Alibaba and Baidu—often referred to as the BAT companies—are typically ranked among the world’s most valuable based on metrics like brand value and share of worldwide digital ad revenues.科技巨擘腾讯、阿里巴巴和百度 - 通常被称为BAT公司 - 如果以品牌价值和全球数字广告收入份额为标准,这几家公司都算得上是全世界最有价值的品牌。According to a March 2017 report by Kantar Millward Brown, Tencent, Alibaba and Baidu rank among the top five most valuable brands in China.Kantar Millward Brown公司2017年3月的一份报告显示,中国五大最有价值品牌,腾讯、阿里巴巴和百度占据三席。The report, which measured brand value using a forecast of each company’s future earnings and growth potential, placed Tencent at No. 1 thanks to a 2017 brand value of 6.18 billion.该报告通过预测每个公司未来盈利和发展潜力来衡量品牌价值。2017年腾讯的品牌价值为1061.8亿美元,排名第一。Alibaba came in second in terms of brand value (.01 billion), while Baidu had the fifth highest brand value at .89 billion.阿里巴巴的品牌价值(580.1亿美元)排在第二位,百度的品牌价值为238.9亿美元,排名第五。Many of the brands in Kantar Millward Brown’s list came from the telecom, banking, retail or technology sectors.Kantar Millward Brown名单上的许多品牌都来自电信、、零售或技术行业。Alibaba, for example, attributes much of its success to its ecommerce platform.例如,阿里巴巴因其电子商务平台而大获成功。But many of the top brands on this China-specific list also recognize a significant share of their revenues from sources like digital advertising.不过,还有很多出现在这份中国特色名单上的许多顶级品牌,他们的主要收入来源于数字广告等渠道。In fact, eMarketer’s 2017 estimates of the top companies worldwide ranked by net digital ad revenue share bears this out.事实上,eMarketer2017年根据数字广告净收入占比预估的全球顶级公司也实了这一现象。It’s no surprise that Google and Facebook still control the lion’s share of digital ad revenues, with a combined 49.2% of the worldwide market in 2017.毫无意外,Google和Facebook仍然控制着绝大部分数字广告份额,两家公司2017年全球数字广告份额总和为49.2%。But China’s Alibaba, Baidu and Tencent come in third, fourth and fifth, respectively, accounting for 15% of net digital ad revenues worldwide this year.而中国的阿里巴巴,百度和腾讯分列全球第三、第四和第五,占全球数字广告净收入的15%。As long as consumer incomes in China continue to grow, and the country’s companies maintain their marketing push to reach them, it seems likely these three digital behemoths will remain important players in China’s digital economy.只要中国的消费者收入持续增长,且中国的公司一直用营销的手段去迎合消费者的收入增长,那这三个数字经济巨擘仍将扮演中国数字经济中的重要角色。 /201704/502854

  

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  睡前使用手机影响睡眠Using a mobile phone before going to bed can damage your health, according to a major study.It claims that radiation from the handset can cause insomnia and headaches as well as cutting the time spent in deep sleep.Failing to get enough sleep can lead to depression, lack of concentration and personality changes.In teenagers and young children, lack of sleep can result in attention disorders and poor academic performance.The research, carried out by scientists funded by handset manufacturers, showed that using the handsets before bed causes people to take longer to reach the deeper stages of sleep and to spend less time in them.Deep sleep is essential as it is the time when the body rejuvenates cells and repairs damage suffered during the day.Dr Chris Idzikowski, director of the Edinburgh Sleep Centre, said: "There is now more than sufficient evidence from a large number of reputable investigators who are finding that mobile phone exposure an hour before sleep adversely affects deep sleep."In the study scientists examined the sleep patterns of 36 women and 35 men aged 18 to 45.Some were exposed to radiation that mimicked what a person receives when using a mobile phone. The others received none.The first group took longer to enter the first of the deeper stages of sleep and spent less time in the deepest one.The scientists concluded: "The study indicates that during laboratory exposure to 884 MHz wireless signals components of sleep believed to be important for recovery from daily wear and tear are adversely affected."The findings will shock many parents whose children routinely chat to friends on their mobiles before sleep.The study, by scientists from the Karolinska Institute and Uppsala University in Sweden and from Wayne State University in Michigan, is thought to be the most comprehensive of its kind.The research was published by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and funded by the Mobile Manufacturers Forum. 一项大规模研究表明,睡前使用手机会损害健康。该研究称,手机产生的辐射会导致失眠和头痛,而且会缩短深度睡眠的时间。而睡眠不足则会导致情绪低落、注意力不集中及性格变化。对于青少年和儿童来说,睡眠不足会导致注意力障碍和学习成绩下降。该项由科研人员开展的调查由手机制造商提供资金持。研究结果表明,睡前使用手机会使进入深度睡眠的时间延长,而且深度睡眠的时间会缩短。深度睡眠对健康很重要,因为身体在这段时间内会更新细胞及修复白天的损伤。爱丁堡睡眠研究中心主任克理斯#8226;艾迪兹科维斯基说:“资深科研人员搜集的大量据已足以说明这一点,而且研究人员发现,如果睡前使用手机达到一小时,就会影响深度睡眠。”研究人员对年龄在18岁至45岁的36名女性和35名男性的睡眠习惯进行了研究。其中一部分人处在与手机辐射相同的模拟环境中,而另一部分人则处于无辐射环境中。结果发现,受到辐射的那组研究对象进入深度睡眠第一阶段所用的时间较长,而且深度睡眠的时间也较短。研究人员得出结论:“该研究表明,当研究对象受到实验室884兆赫无线信号的辐射后,对恢复白天损伤十分重要的睡眠结构便受到了不利的影响。”这个结论一定会让很多家长大吃一惊,因为现在不少孩子有睡前与朋友打手机聊天的习惯。这项研究由瑞典卡罗琳斯卡研究所和乌普萨拉大学及美国密歇根韦恩州立大学的科研人员开展,被认为是迄今为止这一领域最全面的一项研究。该研究由“手机制造商论坛”提供资金持,研究结果由马萨诸塞科技研究所公布。 /200803/31799

  Airbnb has announced a raft of policies to fight discrimination at the home-sharing platform, after user complaints and academic studies found bias against non-white users.在用户投诉以及学术研究发现非白人用户遭遇偏见后,Airbnb宣布了一系列政策来解决这个居所共享平台的歧视问题。The issue of discrimination is one that cuts to the quick at many Silicon Valley tech companies, where most start-up founders and executives are white men.歧视问题戳到了很多硅谷科技公司的痛处,多数初创公司的创始人和高管都是白人男性。Airbnb’s new policies include increasing the number of instant book rooms (which are less prone to discrimination), establishing a team of engineers to fight bias, and asking all Airbnb users to sign an anti-discrimination agreement.Airbnb的新政策包括增加即刻预定房间(不容易出现歧视),组建一个工程师团队来对抗偏见,同时要求Airbnb所有用户签订一份反歧视协议。The online room-letting service is also experimenting with reducing the prominence of profile photos for guests, to reduce discrimination by hosts.这个在线房间出租务还在尝试降低租客档案照片的重要性,以减少房东的歧视。A report that Airbnb commissioned from Laura Murphy, a former official at the American Civil Liberties Union, found that part of the reason the company was slow to address discrimination concerns was the company’s employees are not sufficiently diverse.Airbnb委托美国公民自由联盟(American Civil Liberties Union)前官员劳拉#8226;墨菲(Laura Murphy)所作的报告发现,该公司解决歧视问题进程缓慢的部分原因是该公司员工不够多元化。In response, Airbnb has pledged to increase its ratio of minority employees, from 9.6 per cent today to 11 per cent by the end of 2017, and to increase its procurement from minority suppliers.作为回应,Airbnb承诺提高少数族裔员工的比例,从当前的9.6%提高至2017年底的11%,并且增加从少数族裔供应商采购。The company is also working with community-based organisations to encourage more minorities to act as Airbnb hosts.该公司还与社区组织合作,鼓励更多少数族裔成为Airbnb的房东。Airbnb, which has shaken up the global hospitality industry, is one of Silicon Valley’s most prominent private tech companies, but in recent months it has become a lightning rod for discussions about diversity in the industry.撼动了全球酒店行业的Airbnb,是硅谷最著名的私有科技公司之一,但是最近几个月它在业内引发了围绕多元化的讨论。Last December a Harvard University study found Airbnb travellers with black-sounding names were less likely to book a room, and this year several Airbnb users complained of discrimination from hosts. 去年12月,哈佛大学(Harvard University)的一份研究显示,Airbnb上名字听起来像黑人的旅客不太可能租到房屋,今年一些Airbnb用户投诉受到了房东的歧视。In her report, Ms Murphy said Airbnb’s own research had confirmed that minorities struggle more than others to book a listing.墨菲在报告中称,Airbnb自己的研究实少数族裔比其他人更难订到房间。Since those complaints emerged Brian Chesky, chief executive, has been frank about Airbnb’s shortcomingsin dealing with discrimination. 自从接到投诉后,Airbnb首席执行官布赖恩#8226;切斯基(Brian Chesky)对公司在处理歧视时的缺陷毫无隐瞒。We have been slow to address these problems, and for this I am sorry, he said in an email sent to all Airbnb users yesterday. I take responsibility for any pain or frustration this has caused members of our community.我们在解决这些问题时进程缓慢,我对此表示抱歉,他在昨天发送给Airbnb所有用户的电子邮件中表示,我对这给我们社区成员造成的任何痛苦或失望负责。The company’s plans also include mandatory anti-bias training for all employees, as well as an Open Doors policy that will provide special assistance for any guest who experiences -discrimination.该公司的计划还包括对所有员工强制进行反偏见培训,并推出了一项开门政策,为经历了歧视的房客提供特别协助。 /201609/465863

  The US government has announced that it is launching a cyber warfare campaign against the Islamic State (IS). This is the first instance of the US publicly using cyber attacks as a tool in warfare.美国政府近日宣布,,将对;伊斯兰国;组织(IS)发动网络战。这是美国首次公开将网络攻击作为一种作战手段。;I have given Cyber Command really its first wartime assignment,; said Ashton Carter, the US defence secretary, speaking to the US Senate. ;Even a few years ago, it would not have occurred to a Secretary of Defence to say, #39;let#39;s get cyber in the game#39;, but here we have real opportunities.;美国国防部长阿什顿·卡特对美国参议院说:“我已经给网络司令部布置了第一项真正的作战任务。即使是几年前,一个国防部长也不会说#39;让网络参与战局#39;。但是现在已经具备切实的可能性。”The US will use its arsenal of digital tools to weaken IS#39;s online communications network, and its access to money and trade. Carter said the cyber tactics would look to disrupt ;their ability to command their forces, interrupting their ability to plot;, and hamper ;their finances, their ability to pay people;.美国将使用其数字化工具“武器库”削弱IS的在线通信网络并破坏该组织获取资金、进行贸易的渠道。卡特表示,网络攻击手段将着眼于扰乱他们指挥武装力量的能力,干扰他们策划阴谋的能力,削弱他们的财力以及雇用士兵的能力。Isil#39;s cyber capabilities have been well documented. It released a security manual that revealed part of its cyber strategy in the week after the Paris attacks.“伊斯兰国”组织的网络能力已经有翔实的资料佐。巴黎袭击事件发生后的那周内,该组织发布了一份安全手册,泄露了部分网络战术。Advice included using the Tor browser and secure email. It also places great emphasis on communicating through social media, including Facebook and Twitter, and messaging apps, such as Telegram and WhatsApp. It even launched a #39;help desk#39; on encrypted messaging app Telegram.所提供的建议包括使用洋葱浏览器与可靠的电子邮箱。该组织尤其强调通过社交媒体与潜在的持者沟通,包括脸书和推特以及Telegram和WhatsApp软件。“伊斯兰国”组织甚至在加密即时通讯应用软件Telegram上建立一个“帮助桌面”。Public companies, including Facebook and Telegram have joined the cyber fight against Isil. Facebook, for instance, receives more than a million reports every day about objectionable content, ranging from nudity to terrorism, on the site.报道称,包括脸书和Telegram在内,一些公司已经加入这场对“伊斯兰国”组织的网络战。例如,脸书网站每天收到逾百万份有关违禁内容的报告,内容从色情到恐怖主义。Monika Bickert, who oversees the team that polices content on Facebook, including terrorism-related activity, told the Telegraph: ;One thing we’ve heard time and time again from academics is if you want to find terrorists online or those supporting terrorist ideologies, the best thing is to find their friends. So when we become aware of an account supporting terrorism, we look at associated accounts so we can remove them immediately.;脸书内容管理团队的主管莫妮卡·比克特对记者说:“我们不时从学者那里听到的一点是,要想发现网络上的恐怖分子或者持恐怖主义思想的人,最好的办法就是找到他们的朋友。所以我们发现一个持恐怖主义的账户后,就会查看关联账户,立即清除这些账户。” /201604/437608

  Put a muzzle on your bad breathSome simple measures can helpput a muzzle onbad breath, according to an article in the June issue of the Mayo Clinic Health Letter.Bad breath can be caused by food particles in the mouth, dry mouth, or a health problem. Mayo experts offer these tips to help prevent it:Brush your teeth or usemouthwashafter you eat. Brushing is the more effective of the two. If you use mouthwash, make sure you swish it around in your mouth for 30 seconds before you spit it out.Flossyour teeth at least once a day in order to remove decaying food.When brushing your teeth, brush the back of your tongue, too, or scrape it with a tongue scraper.Drink water to keep your mouth moist. When your mouth gets dry, there isn't enough saliva to wash away dead cells. You can also chew sugarless gum or suck on sugarless hard candy to help stimulate saliva production.Don't eat foods - such as onions and garlic - that encourage bad breath. These foods contain oils that are transferred to the lungs and exhaled.If you have dentures, clean them daily to get rid of food particles and bacteria.If these simple measures don't improve your bad breath, see your doctor or dentist. Persistent bad breath may be a sign of periodontal disease, an abscessed tooth, chronic sinusitis, postnasal drip, chronic bronchitis, certain kinds of oesophageal problems, and other health conditions.《梅奥门诊健康通讯》6月号上刊登的一篇文章提到,有几种简单的方法可防止口臭。导致口腔异味的原因包括口中的食物残渣、口腔干燥及健康问题。梅奥门诊的专家们提出以下几种防止口臭的方法。饭后刷牙或用漱口水漱口。刷牙比漱口水的效果好。如果用漱口水,要保漱口水在口中漱半分钟,再吐出来。每天至少用牙线清洁牙齿一次,以清除残留在牙缝间的腐烂食物。刷牙时,还要刷刷舌根,或用刮舌器将舌头刮干净。多喝水以保持口腔湿润。当口腔变得干燥时,口中便没有足够的唾液将坏死细胞冲走。你也可以嚼无糖口香糖或含无糖硬糖来促进唾液分泌。不要吃易导致口腔异味的食品,如洋葱和大蒜。这些食品中所含的油会转移到肺中,然后被呼出来。如果你戴假牙,要每天清洗,以清除假牙上的食物残渣和细菌。如果这些简便方法不能消除你的口腔异味,最好去看医生或牙医。持久的口腔异味可能是某种疾病的征兆,如牙龈病、牙床脓肿、慢性鼻窦炎、后鼻漏、慢性气管炎或某些食道疾病及其他健康问题。Vocabulary:put a muzzle on: 防止;遏制mouthwash: 漱口水 /200808/45870

  Chinese women want to change the shape of their faces, while men want straighter noses, a recent survey by the Beijing-based Horizon Research Consultancy Group has found.The survey polled nearly 1,600 people aged 18 and 55 from Shanghai, Tianjin and Shenzhen.The results were given on the independent polling company's website.Almost 33 percent of women wanted to improve the contours of their faces, the survey found. Eyelid surgery was second most popular at 29 percent. A face shaped like a goose egg and double eyelids were favorite, it showed.Fat removal from the stomach and waist ranked third, followed by liposuction of the legs. Nose sculpting came last among the top five most sought-after procedures for women.A Beijing-based cosmetic surgeon surnamed Huang said women wanted to look more Caucasian.They particularly wanted to look leggy, busty and skinny, he said.In comparison, men were less concerned about fat and only 7.5 percent would consider liposuction, the survey said.Nearly 45 percent of men said they wanted to straighten their noses to give them a more masculine look.Nearly 33 percent said they would consider double eyelid surgery, followed by cosmetic improvement of the teeth and face shaping.Many men did not want their partner to have breast implants, even though women did it to please them, cosmetic surgeon Huang said.There are about 1 million plastic surgery operations performed every year in China, according to official estimates. 北京零点调查咨询集团近日开展的一项调查发现,中国女性最希望改变自己的脸型,而男性则希望自己的鼻子更挺拔。该项调查在上海、天津、深圳开展,共有近1600人参加,年龄在18岁至55岁之间。调查结果已在零点调查公司的网站上公布。调查显示,近33%的女性希望自己的脸型有所改善;其次,29%的女性想做双眼皮手术。鹅蛋脸和双眼皮最受青睐。在女性最想做的五种整形术中,腰腹抽脂名列第三,然后是腿部抽脂,塑鼻整形位居最后。北京一位姓黄的美容师说,女性希望自己的外表更像白种人。他说,女性尤为希望自己双腿修长、胸部丰满、身材苗条。相反,男性对胖瘦并不那么在意,只有7.5%的人表示会考虑做抽脂手术。近45%的男性想把鼻子整得更挺拔,因为这样能让他们看起来更有男人味。近33%的人表示他们会考虑做双眼皮手术,其次是矫正牙齿和重塑脸型。黄整形师说,很多男性不希望他们的配偶隆胸,即使女性这样做是为了取悦他们。据官方统计数据,中国每年的整形手术数量达到约100万例。 /200803/30012。

  Mobile phones can lose half of their value a month after being released, meaning they depreciate faster than cars, according to research.一项研究指出,手机在发布一个月后就会贬值一半,这意味着其贬值速度比汽车还快。While cars typically lose 20 per cent of their value a year after being driven off the forecourt, money-draining mobiles struggle to retain their value after a matter of months, a report by musicMagpie.co.uk has concluded.musicMagpie.co.uk网站的一份报告指出,新车在使用一年后通常会贬值20%。而投入大笔金额的手机大约在几个月之后就很难保留其价格了。Android phones tend to lose their value quicker than iPhones, with the exception of the iPhone 5 (16GB), which has seen 66 per cent wiped off its value in eight months, according to the website.该网站称,除了推出8个月后就贬值66%的内存16G的iPhone 5之外,安卓手机比苹果手机贬值更快。In the Android sector, the HTC One M9 lost 65 per cent of its value a month after being released, while the Samsung Galaxy S5 lost half of its value within two months of being released onto the market. The LG G4 depreciated by 88% nine months after its release.在安卓品牌中,HTC One M9推出一个月后就贬值了65%,而三星盖乐世S5在上市两个月后贬值一半。LG G4在推出9个月后贬值88%。In contrast, the iPhone 4 has clung on to 39% of its value five years after its launch in 2010. The iPhone 6 (16GB) has kept 50% of its value a year after being released.相比之下,2010年发布的iPhone 4在上市5年后,仍保有原价值的39%,而16G的iPhone 6在推出一年后保持住了原价值的一半。While the majority of iPhone models don#39;t lose their value as quickly as Android phones, the iPhone 5 is an exception, having seen 66 per cent wiped off its value within eight months of its release date. One reason the research gives for the iPhone 5#39;s rapid depreciation is the iPhone 5s, which was released shortly after the iPhone 5.虽然大多数型号的iPhone手机没有像安卓手机一样那么快地贬值,但是iPhone 5是个例外。在发布8个月之后,这款手机就已经贬值66%了。该项研究给出的iPhone 5快速贬值的原因之一就是因为紧随其后发布的iPhone 5s。Liam Howley, marketing director at musicMagpie, told This is Money: #39;After the initial loss in value, which was different for all models and makes, all the phones we researched seemed to lose value at a consistent average rate of 1 per cent a month after then.#39;musicMagpie网站市场主管利亚姆·豪利接受《This is Money》采访时表示:“视手机型号和品牌有所不同,在经历过最初的贬值后,我们研究的所有手机,基本上贬值的平均速度都为1%。” /201607/452813

  “十一”带你走进“西藏江南”Nyingchi becoming first stop for tourists to TibetNyingchi in the southeast of China's Tibet Autonomous Region is becoming the first stop for domestic and overseas tourists to the mysterious autonomous region.With an average altitude of 3,100 meters, Nyingchi has received 199,159, or nearly one third of all the tourists to Tibet, and made a revenue of 79.66 million yuan in the first five months of this year, 20 percent and 24 percent higher than the respective figures for the corresponding period last year, said local tourism bureau.Zhang Yang, a tourist from Southwest China's Yunnan Province, believed that as Nyingchi's altitude is relatively lower than other parts of the region, "tourists can adapt to plateau condition gradually before touring to other areas of Tibet."The Nyingchi airport, which began operation on September 1, 2006, has contributed a lot to the boost of tourism in the prefecture.Surrounded by mountains with average altitude of more than 4,000 meters, the Nyingchi airport has handled 53,000 tourists to Tibet by September this year, despite its location that makes flights more difficult and restricts theairworthy time to only 100 days a year.Altitudes of the other two civil airports in Tibet, located in the regional capital Lhasa and Xigaze, were measured at 3,650 meters and 3,836 meters respectively.Nyingchi Prefecture, covering 117,000 square kilometers, is known for its humid and mild climate, charming scenery and rich natural resources.During the upcoming week-long National Day holiday, Nyingchi is expected to receive about 350,000 tourists, according to local tourism bureau.(Xinhua) 位于西藏自治区东南部的林芝县正成为海内外游客进藏的第一站。林芝平均海拔3100米,据当地旅游局介绍,今年1月至5月,林芝共接待游客199159人次,占进藏游客的近三分之一,旅游总收入达7699万元,分别比去年同期增长了20%和24%。一位名叫张杨的云南游客说,与西藏其它地区相比,林芝的海拔相对较低,因此“游客前往其它地区之前,可以在这过渡一下,逐步适应高原环境。”去年9月1日,林芝机场正式通航,极大促进了当地旅游业的发展,林芝机场的周围都是平均海拔达四千多米的高山峻岭,尽管地势险峻、飞行困难,全年的适航时间仅有100天,但截至今年9月,林芝机场已安全运送游客53000人次。西藏其它两个民用机场位于西藏自治区的首府拉萨和日喀则,海拔分别为3650米和3836米。林芝地区总面积为11万7千平方公里,气候宜人、景色优美、自然资源丰富。据当地旅游局介绍,“十一”国庆黄金周期间,林芝预计将接待约35万名游客。 /200803/30011

  Germans have a word for it -- schadenfreude -- and when it comes to getting pleasure from someone else's misfortune, men seem to enjoy it more than women. Such is the conclusion reached by scientists at University College London in what they say is the first neuroscientific(1) evidence of schadenfreude.Using brain-imaging techniques, they compared how men and women reacted when watching other people suffer pain.If the sufferer was someone they liked, areas of the brain linked to empathy and pain were activated in both sexes. To those they disliked women had a similar response, but men showed a surge(2) in the reward areas of the brain."The women had a diminished(3) empathic response(4)," said Dr Stephan, a co-author of the report. "But it was still there, whereas in the men it was completely absent(5)."The scientists said the research shows that empathic responses in men are shaped by the perceived fairness of others." Empathic responses to other people are not automatic, as has been assumed in the past, but depend on the emotional link to the person who is observed suffering," Stephan said.In the two-part study, 32 men and women volunteers played a game in which they exchanged money with four other people who were actors playing a part. The actors were either fair(6) characters, who returned equal amounts of cash that have been given to them, or unfair people who gave little or no money back to the volunteers.In the second part of the experiment, the volunteers were placed in magnetic(7) imaging brain scanners(8) as they watched the actors receiving a mild(9) electric shock, similar to a bee sting. The scientists measured reactions of the volunteers in areas of the brain associated with pain and empathy and reward while the actors experienced pain.The responses shown in the brain images were backed up with questionnaires(10) filled in by the volunteers. Men admitted to having a much higher desire for revenge than women and derived(11) satisfaction from seeing the unfair person being punished."We will need to confirm these gender(12) differences in larger studies because it is possible the experimental design favoured(13) men as there was a physical rather than psychological or financial threat involved," said Dr Tania Singer, who led the study. 德语中有一个词专用于形容幸灾乐祸:“schadenfreude”。伦敦尤尼弗斯特大学科学家从神经学方面实:男性比女性更容易幸灾乐祸。科学家们利用脑电波成像技术比较男性和女性在看到别人受苦时的脑部反应。如果受难者是他们喜欢的人,男女脑中负责同情和痛苦区域的反应同样活跃。如果受难者是他们反感的人,女人的反应没有太大变化,但是男人脑中的奖赏区域的反应却十分剧烈报告合作作者斯戴芬士说:“女性的移情反应有所减弱,至少还有,但是男性的根本就消失了。”科学家们说研究表明,男性是否会产生移情反应取决于他人是否曾善待他。斯戴芬说,同情并非如我们曾经认为的那样是自发的,而是取决于受难者与自己的情感关系。这项研究分成两个步骤,共有32个志愿者参加。首先每个志愿者与4个工作人员换钱。有的“正直”的工作人员交还了同样数量的钱,但其他“不正直”的人要么只还一点要么干脆不还。第二部分中,志愿者们戴着电磁脑部扫描设备观看工作人员遭受轻度的电击(像被蜜蜂蜇了一下)。同时,科学家们记录下他们脑部有关同情、痛苦和回报区域的活动情况。科学家们同时记录下他们脑部有关同情、痛感和回报的区域的活动情况。志愿者们在调查问卷中的回答也进一步实了脑部扫描结果的准确性。男性志愿者承认他们有更强的报复心理,看到对他们不公正的人受苦能获得满足感。坦尼亚辛格·士说:“科学家们认为仍需要进行更大规模的研究来验这一性别差异。因为此次试验主要针对生理的威胁,而不是心理或财务危机,可能会导致男性反应比女性剧烈。” /200804/36984

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