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2020年02月28日 03:33:44来源:新华中文

  • Professor Valter Longo费尔特·隆戈教授studies the complex mechanisms which control ageing.致力于研究造成衰老的复杂机制He#39;s honed in on a critical pathway他所进行的重要研究是that links what we eat with how we age.饮食结构与衰老方式之间的联系He#39;s taking me to see two mice.他要带我去看两只小鼠They are both the same age, same species, same sex.它们同龄 同类并且同性But there#39;s one significant difference between them.但是它们之间存在一个很大的差别The little one is going to be living an awful lot longer这只小个的会比这只大个的than the big one.活得长很多This little mouse right here这个小家伙保持着holds the world record for longevity extension in a mammal.哺乳动物中延长寿命的世界纪录Oh, right. That is remarkable.真是不可思议So, how long would these subspecies of mice last?那这些小鼠能活多久呢The big mouse here, about two years,这只大的大概能活两年and the little mouse, about a 40% longer lifespan.这只小的能比它长寿40%Right. They#39;re very different, aren#39;t they?它们之间的差别很大 不是吗Whoa! He is trying to bite me.它要咬我重点解释:1.world record 世界记录例句:She#39;s going for the world record in the high jump.她想创造跳高世界纪录。2.try to 尽力, 试图例句:Do not try to cover a mistake.不要试图掩盖错误。 Article/201509/401087。
  • 栏目简介:Two young men donated their stem cells today in order to save two people with blood diseases. To encourage more volunteers to join the Chinese Marrow Donor Program, officials from Shanghai Red Cross say they#39;re introducing new measures to make the process easier as a majority of donors often hesitate when there is a match. Reporter Song Wenjing visited Shanghai No.1 People#39;s Hospital to find out more. Article/201702/490223。
  • 原味人文风情:I a lot of great books in 2016. Here#39;s a few that were especially interesting and you might wanna consider.我在 2016 年读了许多好书。这里是一些特别有趣而且你们可能想要考虑的书。String Theory by David Foster Wallace. You know, tennis is kind of amazing. There#39;s interesting personalities and incredible play. The more you know about it, the more you are impressed by those people playing at the top level. It requires a lot of concentration. I loved him talking about his tennis career, and being slammed into the fence, and being a little bit modest about how he just, sort of, grinded it out. If you ever one tennis book, this is probably the best.David Foster Wallace 的《网球拍弦理论(暂译)》。你知道,网球有点令人赞叹。其中包含有意思的选手与精采的球赛。你了解越多,你就越会赞叹那些在球界顶端的人。那需要极高的专注力。我喜爱他谈论他自己的网球职涯,以及被逼到网球场边围篱的经验,还有以谦虚的态度说自己付出。如果你要读一本网球书,这本大概是最棒的一本。Then a great company story, I would choose Shoe Dog by Phil Knight. It#39;s a really well-written story about Nike.It#39;s amazingly honest, and the company almost didn#39;t succeed. It points out the unusual characteristics of the key people who helped the company succeed. I think there#39;s tons of people who would find it an interesting story about how business really works and personnel management really works.接着是一个很棒的公司故事,我会选择 Phil Knight 的《跑出全世界的人:NIKE 创办人菲尔 奈特梦想路上的勇气与初心》。那是本关于 Nike 写得很好的故事。它惊人地诚实,而且这个公司曾经濒临失败边缘。它指出那些帮助公司成功的关键人物拥有的独特个性。我想许多人会发现它是个关于公司真正如何运作的有趣故事,以及人员管理运作的真实情况。A political book, Myth of the Strong Leader, by Archie Brown. It#39;s a really good book because it looks at styles of leadership. I think he#39;s right that there#39;s a big danger, both in the corporate world and government,about this individual who embodies all things and he#39;s just doing it largely himself. Leaders who don#39;t listen can get more and more isolated. Mandela in his own way was very collaborative, trying to draw people in. He understood that he was gonna step down, and so he wanted to build up the capacity for his successor.一本政治书,Archie Brown 的《强大领袖的神话(暂译)》。这是本非常好的书,因为它探讨了不同的领导风格。我想他是正确的,在公司界及政府都存在着一大危机,便是有这么一个人代表一切,且大多时候都自己完成事情。不愿倾听的领导者会变得越来越孤僻。曼德拉自己的风格是非常合作取向的,他试图拉更多人进来。他知道自己有一天会卸任,因此他希望能为他的接班人培养能力。A book called The Grid by Gretchen Bakke. She teaches us about the history of the grid, how it got built up piece by piece. She talks about how it#39;s becoming critical not only for reliability, but to deal with these intermittent energy sources that are in very different locations than the actual uses of the power. So the grid#39;s gonna have to be dramatically better in the future.一本由 Gretchen Bakke 撰写的《电网(暂译)》。她教导我们供电网络的历史,关于它如何被一步一步地建立起来。她描述到,电网不仅对电力稳定性变得重要,在处理间歇性能源方面也很关键,因为电力的来源可能和实际用电的地点相隔甚远。所以电网在未来必须要有巨幅改善。The Gene: An Intimate History by Siddhartha Mukherjee. He did such a good job on the history. He really tells you what the gene is. There#39;s three big domains that genetic technology helps, and one is plants, the other is livestock, and the third is humans.Some countries may be very liberal at letting parents edit genes related to beauty or intelligence. It#39;ll get people up to the point where they can participate in that debate, which will be fairly intense over the next 10 or 20 years.Siddhartha Mukherjee 的《基因:亲密历史(暂译)》。他非常善于描述历史。他确实地告诉你基因是甚么。基因科技有助于三大领域,一是植物,另一个是牲畜,而第三是人类。有些国家可能对于让父母编辑有关美貌或智慧的基因非常开明。这有天会走向全民皆可参与针对那的辩论,而这在未来的十或二十年会逐渐白热化。Loved ing these books, and I hope a few of them are books that you#39;ll enjoy.我爱阅读这些书,我也希望你们会喜欢其中几本。 Article/201703/498522。
  • Our next fat soluble vitamin下一个要说的脂溶性维生素is often called the sunshine vitamin: vitamin D.常被叫做阳光维生素:维生素DVitamin D is unique among vitamins在众多维生素中,维生素D之所以独特because it is produced naturally in the body是因为阳光照射皮肤时when skin is exposed to sunlight.身体能自然地合成维生素DSunlight transforms cholesterol日光将皮肤里存在的胆固醇which is present in the skin into vitamin D.转化为维生素DTheoretically then anyone exposed to sunlight所以理论上讲,任何一个晒过太阳的人should have adequate amounts of vitamin D.体内都应该有充足的维生素DHowever this is not the case.但实际情况并非如此Recent evidence suggests that most Americans最新的据表明大多数美国人are marginally deficient in vitamin D.都有轻度缺乏维生素DThis is probably so because most people这也许是可能因为大多数人do not receive regular amounts of sun exposure,没有接受到正常量的阳光照射especially during the winter.尤其是在冬季The body#39;s ability to produce vitamin D人体合成维生素D的能力decreases with age and the use of sun screen随年龄增长而降低,而使用防晒霜also blocks vitamin D synthesis.也阻止了维生素D的合成Vitamin D is important in bone health because维生素D对于骨骼健康很重要it enhances calcium absorption in the intestine.因为它能提高肠道对钙的吸收Calcium is then the building blocks for bones而钙是骨骼生长的基石so adequate vitamin D is needed to因此人体需要足够的维生素Dproperly use calcium for bone mineralization.来促进骨质矿化Without adequate vitamin D and calcium如果体内没有充足的维生素D和钙risk of osteoporosis and bone factures can occur.就有患骨质疏松症的危险,容易骨折Recent research also suggests近期的研究也表明vitamin D may have a role in immune function,维生素D可能对免疫系统cancer prevention and cardiovascular health.癌症预防,及心血管健康有一定作用For the immune system vitamin D may aid对免疫系统来说,维生素D可能in the prevention of autoimmune diseases有助于预防自身免疫病where the immune system attacks这种病是由于免疫系统攻击the body#39;s own cells自身的细胞such as inflammatory bowel syndrome比如炎症性肠病and inflammatory arthritis.和发炎性关节炎Vitamin D also aids the immune system维生素D还通过by increasing the body#39;s ability to提高人体消灭致感染微生物的能力eliminate microbes which can cause infection.来增强免疫系统的功能Vitamin D has also been found to have roles人们还发现维生素D的其他作用in preventing cell differentiation那就是防止细胞分化and decreasing the production of damaged cells及减少可能发展为癌细胞的which could develop into cancer cells.不正常细胞的产生In this way recent research has suggested最近的研究显示vitamin D may be important维生素D可能对于in the prevention of cancer in the breast, prostate,预防乳腺癌,前列腺癌stomach, ovary, bladder, esophagus, kidney,胃癌,卵巢癌,膀胱癌,食道癌,肾癌lung, pancreas, uterus and other organs.肺癌,胰腺癌,子宫癌及其他器官的癌症十分重要The current recommendation for vitamin D当前对于50岁以下成年人for adults under the age of 50 is推荐的维生素D摄入量200 to 400 IUs or 5 to 10 micrograms.为200到400国际单位或5到10微克However a recent research suggests that但最近的一项研究表明these levels may not be adequate.这个摄入量可能不够The National Research Council is currently discussing美国国家研究委员会正在讨论whether to raise the vitamin D recommendations.是否提高维生素D的推荐摄入量Research suggests that recommended intake研究显示对于大多数成年人should be increased to 1300 IUs per day for most adults,推荐摄入量应该增加到每天1300国际单位especially those who are older尤其是对于年纪更大or live in a colder climate with a long winter season.或者生活在冬季较长,气候寒冷环境中的人There is no evidence that没有据表明increased intake at this level is harmful.增加到这一水平的摄入量有害Good food sources of vitamin D are very limited.好的维生素D的食物来源很有限Fish and fish oils are among鱼和鱼油是两种the most abundant sources of vitamin D.维生素D含量最充足的食物Because of the low availability of vitamin D in foods因为从食物获得维生素D较少fortification has been done.就需要有营养强化Milk and dairy foods with added vitamin D are添加了维生素D的牛奶和奶制品是among the most available sources最常见的食物来源as are fortified breakfast cereals.相同的还有强化早餐谷物Other sources of vitamin D include其他维生素D的来源有eggs but only in the yolk and then beef liver.鸡蛋,不过仅仅是蛋黄,还有牛肝To ensure adequate vitamin D,为了确保摄入足量的维生素Despecially in the absence of尤其是在没有规律地regular consumption of dairy foods,食用奶制品的情况下a dietary supplement may be recommended.也建议用一种膳食补充剂Look for supplements that contain找找那些维生素D含量no more than 200% of the RDA for vitamin D.不多于推荐日摄入量200%的补品You may also consider a supplement你也可以考虑that contains vitamin D and calcium.含有维生素D和钙的补品These are especially valuable for women这些对女性尤其有用because of the bone strengthening effects.因为有强健骨骼的效果Once again as reviewed during this presentation在这里再次回顾一下这堂课the fat soluble vitamins are vitamin A, vitamin K,脂溶性维生素有维生素A,维生素Kvitamin E and vitamin D维生素E和维生素D Article/201507/385720。
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