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峡江县人民中医院祛疤多少钱百姓解答

2019年07月24日 09:07:04|来源:国际在线|编辑:69大夫

A few weeks ago I found myself on the eighteenth floor of the historic Merchandise Mart building in downtown Chicago, surrounded by dozens of anxious journalists awaiting a press conference for Motorola’s new phone. We were in a room splashed with vivid hues and packed with chairs of varying shapes and sizes, arranged in a semi-circle pattern. A nearby wall had a graffiti-like mural that , somewhat perplexingly, “We want more” and “Thank you.” At the front of the room was a makeshift stage flanked by two televisions. A giant Ma Batwings “M” was plastered on each display.几周前的一天,在芝加哥历史悠久的商业市场大厦18楼,我和其他几十位记者焦急等待着托罗拉(Motorola)新品发布会开幕。那间屋子的墙上涂满了各种鲜艳的颜色,形状大小各异的椅子围成一个半圆,簇拥着舞台。我旁边的一面墙上画着类似涂鸦的壁画,上面写着让人有些费解的两句话:“我们想要更多”和“谢谢你。”屋子前方搭着一个临时舞台,旁边摆着两台电视,上面各显示着一个像蝙蝠翅膀一样的“M”字母巨型Logo。Welcome to the new, soon-to-be Lenovo-owned Motorola—it’s surprisingly like the old one.欢迎来到焕然一新的托罗拉——它很快就将归入联想(Lenovo)旗下,虽然它像极了过去那个托罗拉。As I waited for the proceedings to begin, I reflected on how much Motorola, long a stalwart of the U.S. electronics industry, had impacted my life. Sure, most people associate the name with the pioneering radio giant it once was. But, owing to the nature of cellular technology and mobile phones, Motorola has played an integral part in many people’s daily lives. For example, in high school I had a job selling cell phones, and I recall Motorola’s StarTAC being a tough sell. (It had a steep price tag.) Still, I was able to move inventory, a sign of things to come. Years later, I worked for Verizon Wireless, where I found myself bewildered at how well the Motorola Razr still sold well a full two years—eons in technology—after it arrived on the market. For much of my life, Motorola was a giant in technology. That’s not quite the case today.趁着等待发布会开始的工夫,我回忆了一下作为美国电子行业一杆大旗的托罗拉公司多年来是怎样影响我的生活的。当然,一提起托罗拉这个品牌,大多数人马上会想起当年那个叱咤风云的无线电巨头。由于蜂窝技术和移动电话的特性,托罗拉曾是很多人生活中一个重要组成部分。比如在高中时,我曾干过一阵卖手机的工作,我记得当时托罗拉的StarTAC手机比较难卖(因为它的价格非常高)。不过最终我还是把存货都卖出去了,这是当时手机行业将迎来一个大发展的初步迹象。几年后,我进入美国无线运营商Verizon Wireless公司工作,我发现托罗拉的Razr手机在上市整整两年后依然卖得非常好,实在是令人费解——两年的时间在科技界可以说简直就像一个朝代那么久远。在我人生的大部分时间里,托罗拉都是当之无愧的科技巨头,但如今它早已不复当年的风光了。(In 2011, the company split into a mobile devices business, Motorola Mobility, and an infrastructure business, Motorola Solutions. They share only a name; Motorola Mobility, after a brief period under Google, will soon be owned by Lenovo.)2011年,托罗拉分裂成一家移动设备公司——托罗拉移动(Motorola Mobility),和一家基础设施公司——托罗拉解决方案(Motorola Solutions)。二者共享的只有“托罗拉”这个品牌。后来托罗拉移动被谷歌(Google)短暂收购,而今很快就将被联想控股。But back to the event at hand. Rick Osterloh, the newly-appointed president of Motorola Mobility, took the stage wearing a smart watch on his left wrist. “Choose to have the freedom to choose,” he declared. It would turn out to be the day’s theme. Osterloh and company went on to introduce two new phones, the Moto X and Moto G, that could be customized front to back. They introduced a highly-anticipated Google Android-based watch, theMoto 360, which came in different colors and with various bands. Finally, they showed off the Moto Hint, a futuristic Bluetooth headset, available in an assortment of colors and materials.再回到这次发布会上来。托罗拉移动新任首裁里克o奥斯特洛左手戴着一智能手表走上舞台。他喊出“自由选择你的选择”,这句口号也成了当天发布会的主题。奥斯特洛介绍了两款新手机Moto X和Moto G,这两款手机的所有组件都可以定制。另外托罗拉还发布了一款备受瞩目的安卓(Android)智能手表——Moto 360,用户可以选择不同颜色和多款表带。最后,托罗拉展示了一款名叫Moto Hint,极具未来主义风格的蓝牙耳机,它也可以选择不同的颜色和材质。The new Moto X, in particular, was notable because it was the company’s second shot at introducing a market-moving device. The first model of the phone, the company’s flagship model, launched in late 2013. It was Motorola’s attempt to lay claim to a new supremacy—the handset was competitive, customizable, affordable, and assembled in the ed States. Despite always-on voice commands and an all-day battery, the phone never gained traction, and always seemed to be on sale. When his presentation was over, I pressed Osterloh on why the phone’s price seemed to be in a constant flux. “We learned a lot about what it took to succeed in the premium smartphone business when we launched the Moto X,” he told me. “For us, we found the sweet spot was about one- to two-hundred dollars below Samsung and Apple.” As such, the new Moto X retails at 9 without contract, about 0 lower than comparable Apple or Samsung devices.新Moto X是托罗拉试图在手机市场力挽狂澜的第二次发力。作为托罗拉的旗舰手机,第一代的MotoX发布于2013年年底。这款具有竞争力,可以定制的手机价格低廉,而且是在美国组装的。尽管它可以随时使用语音控制功能,电池续航也可以持一整天,但它自始至终没什么市场吸引力,而且好像总是在降价。等到奥斯特洛的讲解完毕后,我问他为什么Moto X的价格总是在波动,他答道:“当我们推出Moto X的时候,我们做了大量工作,研究如何在高端智能手机市场获得成功。我们发现它的最佳价格点是低于三星(Samsung)或苹果(Apple)100到200美元。”因此新Moto X的裸机零售价为499美元,比苹果或三星的同级产品低了150美元左右。Another theme that echoed during the presentation was that of “Pure Android.” Awash in a sea of customized versions of Google’s Android mobile operating system, Motorola has chosen to take the foundation of code Google releases to its partners and leave it mostly untouched. The company sees it as a point of differentiation. It touts it as a “Vanilla Android” experience, perhaps the first time in the history of blinking, buzzing consumer electronics in which “plain” was equated with “preferred.” The result, it says, is a faster, leaner device that’s capable of receiving major software updates sooner than the more customized phones on offer by every other manufacturer.在这次讲解中,另一个获得广泛反响的主题是所谓的“纯净版安卓”。在安卓系统的机海大军中,各家厂商的订制安卓版本也是不计其数,托罗拉则选择了谷歌提供给各大厂商的原始代码,几乎原封未动。托罗拉似乎认为“原汁原味”也是一个差异点。它把安卓的这个版本称为“香草安卓”(Vanilla Android),这可能也是习惯耍酷炫,玩噱头的消费电子产业第一次把“原生版”与“更好”划等号。托罗拉表示,这个原生版系统能够比其他各大厂商的定制系统更快地获得重要软件更新。Steve Horowitz, Motorola’s senior vice president of software, was insistent that the company’s restrained tweaks to Android could not be matched by any competitor. “One of things that I like, frankly, are features that people don’t even know are features,” he told me. He’s referring to a new feature in which you merely wave your hand over the phone’s display to silence an alarm or incoming call, rather than press, tap, or swipe as on other phones. “It’s almost like a natural gesture—’Oh, stop it,’ and it just works,” he said. It’s a neat parlor trick.托罗拉高级软件副总裁史蒂夫o霍洛维茨坚称,托罗拉最大程度地保留了原装安卓系统,这是其他任何竞争对手所无法比拟的。他对我表示:“坦率地说,我最喜欢的一点是,这部手机上有一些人们甚至不知道是某种功能的功能。”比如Moto X的一项新功能是,当闹钟响起或者有来电时,你只要用手挥过显示屏上方就可以静音,而不用像其它手机一样需要又按又划的。他表示:“它简直就像一个自然而然的手势——‘噢,快停吧’,然后它就停下了。”显得非常有逼格。Whether such subtleties are enough to send the masses back to the store and pay a premium for a Motorola device remains to be seen. The company continues to be in transition, and that narrative has hijacked most everything related to the products it makes. Its new and highly touted Texas assembly plant is expected to close as final assembly moves to China, Lenovo’s home. The Midwestern company is still recovering from its whirlwind marriage to (and divorce from) that beacon of Silicon Valley, Google. And the Lenovo deal isn’t even expected to close until 2015, leaving it in limbo for the rest of the year. If its executive team can put all the corporate drama behind it and focus once again on making compelling devices—Droid, anyone?—they could very well take advantage of a lot of latent goodwill for the company, at least in the U.S.但是,这些别出心裁的功能能否吸引大批消费者回到托罗拉的柜台,并心甘情愿地花高价买一部托罗拉手机,还有待观察。托罗拉目前仍处于转型阶段,但这次艰难的转型也几乎“劫持”了它旗下生产的所有产品。随着托罗拉的最后一条组装线迁至联想的老家——中国,曾经被高调宣传的位于德克萨斯州的托罗拉新工厂也将关闭。另外,托罗拉现在还没有从跟硅谷大鳄谷歌的“闪婚闪离”中恢复元气。联想收购托的交易预计要到2015年才能完成,因此,从现在到年底这段时间,托罗拉都将处于进退两难的处境。如果公司的高管团队可以把收购大戏先放在一边,全力研发有吸引力的设备——比如新的Droid手机,那么至少在美国,它还可以利用深埋在人们心底的“情怀”再赚上一笔。Motorola has the freedom to choose. Now it just needs to do it.托罗拉拥有选择的自由。现在它只需要放开手做出选择。 /201410/331983

One of the first discoveries of the space age, made in 1958, was that the Earth is surrounded with a doughnut-shaped field of highly charged particles. It was named the Van Allen radiation belt, after its discoverer, U.S. space scientist James Van Allen.人类进入太空时代以来的首批探索成果之一,即是1958年对于地球周围高能电磁场的发现。该磁场随后被命名为范艾伦辐射带,以纪念其发现者、美国空间科学家詹姆斯·范·艾伦。But not much was known about it until NASA launched two probes in 2012. Scientists say the data they sent back to earth is very exciting.然而,在2012年美国航空航天局发射两颗专门探测器之前,人类对于此区域还知之甚少。科学家称,由探测器传回地面的数据,足以令人振奋。Space weather can be as unpredictable as the weather on earth. Periodic eruptions on the sun#39;s surface eject huge clouds of highly charged protons and electrons.宇宙气象与地面气象一样难以预测。太阳表面的周期性爆发,释放出大规模、高电荷的质子与电子。Some of them reach the earth and cause spectacular light displays like the Aurora Borealis or Northern Lights.其中有一些可以传送到地球,引起像北极光这样光影奇观。When the clouds of charged particles are unusually strong, they can knock out power grids, disrupt communications and even damage electronic equipment.当这些带电粒子异常强大之时,他们会影响电网、中断通信、甚至损坏电子设备。But most of the time they get trapped by the earth’s magnetic field in the so-called the Van Allen radiation belt.但大多数情况下,它们都会被地球自身的磁场所阻拦,而后者被人们称之为范艾伦辐射带。Nevertheless, they can still inflict damage, says NASA’s program scientist, Mona Kessel.不过,美国航空航天局的项目科学家莫娜·凯塞尔说,仍然会有一些破坏。;We also have a lot of satellites that fly through that area - communications satellites, navigation satellites - and so we need to understand what it is that the effects are, because the effects can be quite dramatic, ; said Kessel.凯塞尔说:“我们有许多卫星飞过那个区域,通讯卫星、导航卫星等。因此我们必须弄清楚影响是什么,因为这些影响可能会很大。”To learn more about space weather, NASA in 2012 launched a pair of satellites built by Applied Physics Laboratory. Called Van Allen Probes, they were to explore the mysterious belt. At first researchers expected only quantitative data, says project scientist Barry Mauk.为了更好地了解宇宙气象,美国航空航天局于2012年发射了一对名为范艾伦号的探测器。探测器由应用科学实验室所研制,用以探索这片神秘区域。参与此项目的科学家巴里·莫克说,一开始他们只想得到一些定量数据。“I was skeptical we would find anything surprising. In fact, we found tremendous surprise. We found new structures that we never anticipated, ; said Mauk.应用物理实验室项目科学家巴里·莫克说: “刚开始我对于我们是否能够有特殊发现持怀疑态度。实际上,我们后来有许多惊人的发现。我们发现了我们预料之外的结构形态。”The Van Allen Probes discovered that, instead of two layers, the belt has an occasional third layer of charged particles and that they sometimes form zones called ‘zebra stripes’. The probes also found how the electric and magnetic fields additionally energize the particles.范艾伦辐号探测器发现,除去已知的两层结构,该地带还偶有第三层带电粒子存在。而它们有时会形成所谓“斑马条纹”的区域。探测器还发现了电场和磁场是如何作用于这些粒子的。Mauk says measurements gathered by the two probes will help scientists develop computer models for creating space weather forecasts.莫克说两个探索器所收集的数据会帮助科学家开发出电脑模型,以预测宇宙气象的变化。“If I see something at the sun, some flare or something, and I can measure the magnetic field on the sun - there are remote ways of doing that - I can now predict how will the radiation belts respond to that, ; he said.莫克说: “如果我观察到太阳的活动,比如表面爆发,我就可以测量太阳上的磁场,这是远距离的测量方法。现在我可以预测辐射带对于太阳活动的反应。”And that, he says, may lead to sending the astronauts to their vaults or powering down the communication and navigation satellites while this effect passes by.他说,在此基础上,在这些影响来临之时,可以让宇航员返回座舱,或者是中断通信和导航卫星等。;And then we also just want to understand it because it#39;s a very dynamic part of our whole space, above the earth, our electromagnetic space, ; said Kessel.NASA项目科学家莫娜·凯塞尔说:“我们想了解这些是因为这是整个宇宙空间十分活跃的一部分,即在地球之上的,我们的电磁场空间。”Scientists say better understanding of the Van Allen radiation belt will help us prepare for potential surprises from our own sun.科学家称,对于范艾伦辐射带的更好了解有助于我们做好准备,预防太阳活动带来的潜在影响。 /201408/321140

Nothing captures how fashionable the startup has become quite like crowdfunding. The craze for raising contributions via websites like Kickstarter and Indiegogo is helping to launch companies from scooter manufacturers to lightbulb vendors to filmmakers.没有什么比众筹更能说明创业的火爆了。很多人疯狂地通过Kickstarter和Indiegogo等网站资助别人搞创业,接受资助的企业有中既有做脚踏车的,也有做电灯泡的,甚至还有拍电影的。Now, even nuclear fusion is game.现在,就连研究核聚变的都上了这条船。Yes, the Holy Grail of cheap, clean, safe, plentiful, low-carbon energy that has remained 40 years in the future since scientists proposed it over half a century ago has entered the crowdsourcing era. International government projects like ITER in France and the National Ignition Facility in California may have spent billions of dollars in pursuit of the technology, but that doesn’t mean there can’t be a little grassroots action, too.核能由于具有廉价、清洁、安全、低碳、用之不竭的特点而被喻为能源中的“圣杯”。自从半个多世纪前,科学家们提出利用核能的设想以来,有40多年的时间里,核能在我们眼中似乎都是未来才能享受到的福利。如今这种“高大上”的能源也终于进入了众包时代。虽然有些核能项目动辄要花费几十亿美元,比如法国的国际热核实验反应堆(ITER)和美国加州的美国国家点火装置(National Ignition Facility),但是这并不意味着在核能领域就完全没有草根阶层可以施展拳脚的空间。LPP Fusion, a tiny company based in Middlesex, N.J., launched in May an Indiegogo campaign to raise 0,000—loose change in this business—that it believes will help it reach a major fusion development milestone in a year and commercialize fusion reactors by 2020.美国新泽西州米德尔塞克斯市的一家叫LPP Fusion的小公司今年五月在Indiegogo上发起了一项募集20万美金的活动。虽然20万美金在这个行业里微乎其微,但这家公司相信,这笔钱能帮助它在一年之内完成核聚变领域的一项具有里程碑意义的研究。这样,到2020年,它的研究成果就可以转化为核聚变反应堆。LPP (it stands for “Lawrenceville Plasma Physics“) is representative of a new class of companies emerging to address the world’s energy crisis: Nuclear startups. Dozens of small new reactor companies are either chasing the elusive fusion dream or pursuing fission designs that trump those on the market today. All are promising to deliver a knock-out blow to the carbon-intensive fossil fuels that bedevil the world with environmental impact and volatile geopolitics and economics. Many of these innovative firms are positioning their reactors not just for electricity, but also to provide clean heat for high temperature industrial processes and for water desalination.LPP公司(全名意为“劳伦斯维尔等离子物理公司”)代表了一群致力于解决全球能源问题的创业公司——即核能创业公司。现在有好几十家规模较小的新型反应堆公司要么在继续研究晦涩的聚变问题,要么在绞尽脑汁地设计优于市场现有方案的裂变反应堆。所有这些公司最终都想来一个“一鸣惊人”,彻底取代给人类造成了深重的环境影响和地缘政治冲突的化石能源。很多创业公司的新型反应堆不仅致力于提供电力,还致力于为各种高温工业流程提供清洁的热能,以及用于海水淡化等造福人类的事业。While LPP might be the only crowdfunded member of the group, it is determined like its young peers to shake up the staid nuclear industry. Reactor designs have not fundamentally changed since utilities first connected fission machines to the grid in the 1950s, marking a conservatism that has mired nuclear in the era of black-and-white television while colorful possibilities abound. The startups aim to brighten the palette.尽管LPP可能是核能创业公司中唯一一个靠众筹来拉资金的公司,但它也像它的小兄弟们一样,立志要把死气沉沉的核能行业搅得风生水起。自从上世纪50年代,科学家们第一次把裂变反应堆接入到输电网络时起,直到现在,核反应堆的设计都没有任何根本性的改良。这种保守主义做法就像在黑白电视时代的末期,尽管持色显像的技术已经四处开花,但厂商仍然抱着黑白电视拒绝进步一样。今天的这些核能创业公司就是要让核能板块“亮”起来。For LPP, that would mean not only delivering fusion—melding atoms together rather than fission’s waste-creating process of splitting them apart—but it would also eliminate the time-honored need for costly turbines and generators. Nuclear power, including most fusion concepts, functions mechanically the same way fossil fuel plants do by creating heat to produce steam to drive a turbine. LPP is working on a type of fusion called “aneutronic” that emits charged particles for electricity.对于LPP公司来说,这意味着它不仅仅要研究出可控核聚变方案(而不是产生有害废物的核裂变反应),还要取消这个过程中历来对于汽轮机和发电机的需求——核能(包括大多数核聚变方案)的基本原理与化石燃料发电厂的原理是一致的,都是先产生热能,然后产生蒸汽,然后驱动汽轮机发电。而LPP公司研究的一种核聚变形式又叫做“无中子核聚变”,可以释放带电粒子来发电。“The nuclear industry is stuck using the same method for making electricity that utilities have used since the days of Thomas Edison—generate heat to make steam to drive a turbine and generator,” says Eric Lerner, president of LPP Fusion. “We can change all that. We can convert energy directly into electricity and slash costs.”LPP Fusion公司总裁埃里克o勒那说:“核能行业的发电方法还停留在爱迪生那个时代——通过发热产生蒸汽来驱动汽轮机和发电机。而我们可以改变这一点,我们可以把能源直接转变为电能,同时大量削减成本。”First, he’ll need the 0,000 he seeks on Indiegogo (he has until July 5 to raise it), which would buy him some fancy new beryllium electrodes that would withstand rigors far better than the copper variety that LPP has been using. He hopes to install them by the end of this year in his experimental fusion reactor, which Lerner operates at the Friendly Storage premises in Middlesex, a place otherwise full of surplus boxes and furniture.首先,勒那需要在Indiegogo上募集到20万美元,用来购买比LPP正在使用的铜电极更能经受极端情况考验的铍电极。勒那希望在年底前将铍电极安装在LPP那台试验性的聚变反应堆上,这个反应堆设置在米德尔塞克斯市的一处库房里,那个地方原本堆满了箱子和家具。Lerner is boldly confident that the beryllium would by the middle of next year enable his lab to overcome the problem that has vexed fusion projects forever: It would harness more energy out of its reactor than what goes into it. Additional financing might then rush in. LPP will need million in total, virtually nothing next to the nearly billion that ITER has budgeted for only the next 10 years of an expected 30 years of construction and development of a 20-story “tokamak” facility.勒那相信,在铍电极的帮助下,到明年中旬,他的实验室将克一个长久以来一直困扰着核聚变研究的难题,让我们从核聚变反应堆中获得的能源超过我们投入的用于点燃反应堆的能源。如果试验成功的话,届时可能会有大量资金涌入。LPP的研究总共要花费5000万美金,听起来倒是不少,但相比之下ITER的核聚变项目预计需要30年的建设时间,光是头10年的预算就高达180亿美元,还要建筑一个20层楼“托卡马克”装置。这样看来,LPP的5000万美金简直太便宜了。With the financing, Lerner believes that by 2020 he could license the mass-production of small 0,000-to-0,000 fusion machines—each the size of a one-car garage—with a capacity of 5 megawatts, enough to power 3,000 houses.勒那相信,凭借这笔资金,到2020年的时候,他的公司将能够量产单价在30万到50万美元之间的小型核聚变发电机。每台这种发电机的尺寸只有一个停车位那么大,发电量达到500万瓦特,足够持3000个家庭的用电量。If only he had the wherewithal of rival fusion startup Tri-Alpha Energy, which has rounded up over 0 million from Goldman Sachs, Microsoft co-founder Paul Allen, and Russian state-owned company Rusnano, among others. Like LPP, Irvine, Calif.-based Tri-Alpha hopes to develop an aneutronic machine that delivers electricity without using turbines.可惜LPP的后盾远远不及竞争对手Tri-Alpha能源公司。这家公司已经从高盛(Goldman Sachs)、微软(Microsoft)共同创始人保罗o艾伦、俄罗斯国有企业Rusnano等投资人处融到了1.4亿美元资金。像LPP一样,这家位于加州尔湾市的核能创业公司也希望开发出一台无中子核聚变发电机,从而不需要借助汽轮机也能发电。ITER and NIF, the government groups, are taking a more “conventional” fusion approach, aspiring to drive turbines with heat released by fusing isotopes of hydrogen. (In contrast, an aneutronic process tends to fuse standard hydrogen and boron.) So, too, are a number of startups that believe they can crack fusion long before the big science projects do by developing smaller machines (NIF’s facility is 3 football fields long and 10 stories tall) and deploying different technologies.ITER和NIF这两大政府机构则采取了更加“传统”的核聚变方案,也就是通过融合氢的同位素氘和氚和释放热量,从而驱动汽轮机发电。(相比之下,无中子核聚变倾向于将标准的氢与硼进行融合)。此外还有一大批创业公司相信,他们可以比这些举倾国之力的大科学项目提前研究出可控核聚变技术,并且开发出小型的核聚变发电机(NIF的核聚变设施有3个足球场那么大,10层楼高)。“We liken it to the Human Genome Project or SpaceX, where large government programs were ultimately outrun by more nimble and more practical innovation in the private sector,” notes Nathan Gilliland, CEO of General Fusion near Vancouver, Canada. General Fusion has raised million from sources including the Canadian oil company Cenovus and Jeff Bezos, Amazon’s chief executive.总部位于加拿大温哥华附近的通用聚变(General Fusion)公司的CEO南森o吉利兰德指出:“我们可以把它与人类基因组计划或太空探索技术公司(Space X)做一下比较,因为在后两者的领域中,大型政府性项目最终也是被私人领域的更灵活、更实用的创新超越了。”通用聚变公司从加拿大石油公司Cenovus和亚马逊(Amazon)CEO杰夫o贝佐斯等投资人那里融得3200万美元资金。As intriguing as fusion is, there is probably more startup activity in fission, where novel approaches promise great improvements over the industry’s addiction to fissioning solid uranium fuel rods then cooling and moderating them with water.虽然核聚变的前景非常诱人,但更多的创业公司可能活跃在核裂变领域,他们研究的一些新方法比行业现有的对铀燃料棒进行裂变然后用水冷却、稳定的方法要先进得多。A host of startups are experimenting with different approaches including the use of liquid fuel, the use of solid fuel with different shapes (such as bricks or pebbles), and the use of alternative coolants and moderators such as salts and gases. Many of the designs draw on ideas that politics suppressed decades ago. Some, like Bill Gates-chaired TerraPower in Bellevue, Wash., are designing “fast reactors” that don’t moderate neutrons. Some envision using the element thorium instead of uranium.很多公司正在围绕新型的核裂变方法展开试验,比如使用液态燃料,或是使用不同形状的固态燃料(如砖型或卵型),以及使用盐或气体作为冷却剂与缓和剂等等。许多设计都吸收了几十年前不被政府允许的理念。比如由比尔o盖茨任董事长的泰拉能源公司(TerraPower)正在设计一种不需要对中子进行缓和的“快速反应堆”。有些公司则设想利用钍元素来代替铀作为裂变燃料。Between them, they portend leaps in safety, cut way down on nuclear waste, use “waste” as fuel, minimize weapons proliferation risks, slash costs and tremendously boost efficiencies. Many fit the “small modular” form that enables mass production and affordable incremental power. (Oregon startup NuScale Power recently secured 7 million in federal funds to develop a small but comparatively conventional reactor.)很多创业公司的方案在提高核裂变安全性、大大减少核废料、变“废物”为燃料、最大程度降低武器化风险、降低成本和提高效率方面都具有广阔的前景。许多方案都具有“小型模块化”的特征,能够满足量产和经济性发电的需要。(俄勒冈州的创业公司NuScale能源公司最近获得了2.17亿美元的联邦基金,用于研发一种小型的、但相对传统的核反应堆。)“There is a growing market pull for innovation in the nuclear space, so you’re beginning to see a blossoming of startup companies doing different things in nuclear,” says Simon Irish, CEO of startup Terrestrial Energy, Mississauga, Canada, which is developing a “molten salt” reactor (MSR) based on liquid fuel.加拿大米西索加市创业公司Terrestrial Energy的CEO西蒙o艾里什指出:“市场对核能领域创新的拉动力越来越强。所以我们开始看到,很多在核能领域从事不同研究的创业公司如雨后春笋般涌现出来。”艾里什的公司正在研发一种基于液态燃料的“熔盐”反应堆(MSA)。In the U.S., Russ Wilcox, CEO of Cambridge, Mass.-based MSR developer Transatomic Power, implores the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to broaden its focus beyond conventional reactor safety, which he says “freezes progress.”在美国,总部位于马萨诸塞州剑桥市的MSR开发公司Transatomic Power首席执行官拉斯o威尔克斯正在请求美国核管理委员会(the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission)放宽对传统核反应域安全的限制,称这种限制“冻结了进步”。Many observers believe that countries other than the U.S., such as Canada and China, will deploy first. Beijing is funding innovative Chinese fission projects, with collaboration from the U.S. DOE. Meanwhile, Western companies seek funds. Like Cenovus at General Fusion, more oil companies might pony up, because they want clean heat to process petroleum. As Fortune reported last month, a lack of industry funding appears to have slowed progress in DOE’s mission to develop an advanced reactor.许多观察人士认为,除了美国之外,加拿大和中国等国有望成为第一批部署新型核能技术的国家。中国政府正在美国能源部的协助下大力投资新型核裂变项目。同时像Cenovus公司在通用聚变公司所扮演的角色一样,更多石油公司可能会投资核能项目,因为他们也需要清洁的热能来进行石油加工。正如《财富》杂志上月报道的那样,由于缺乏行业投资的缘故,美国能源部开发一个先进的核反应堆的计划似乎已经放缓。LPP Fusion doesn’t seem to be worried. For the young company, the next financing stage could simply be a matter of warming up the crowd.LPP的核聚变研究则似乎不用担心钱的事。这家年轻公司的下一轮融资可能很容易就点燃大众的热情。 /201407/312875

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