原标题: 佛山市顺德区人民医院专家预约泡泡知识
It#39;s not often that a lengthy economics book gets very much attention, but by now, many have heard of French economist Thomas Piketty#39;s Capital in the Twenty-First Century.The 685-page book has unexpectedly become a bestseller; Piketty analyzes hundreds of years of tax records throughout the world and arrives at a harsh reality: The rich are indeed getting richer.一部长篇经济学作品能赢得大量关注可不是件常见的事。不过现在,许多人都知道了法国经济学家托马斯o皮凯蒂的著作《21世纪资本论》(Capital in the Twenty-First Century)。这本685页的著作出人意料地成为了畅销书。皮凯蒂在书中分析了几百年来全球的税务记录,最终发现了一个残酷的现实:有钱人的确变得越来越有钱。A lot of attention has been paid to incomes, but as Piketty highlights, the divide is much wider when it comes to wealth. While he has broadened the debate about inequality, what#39;s often been missing from the discussion is what should we do about it?很多人关注收入差距问题,但正如皮凯蒂强调的,就财富而言,贫富鸿沟要宽得多。尽管他拓展了人们对于贫富差距的争论,但书中的讨论往往忽视了一点:我们应该如何解决这个问题?At least in the U.S., the prescriptions have overwhelmingly focused on raising incomes; hardly a day goes by when the media, a city mayor, or Washington lawmakers make the case for raising workers#39; minimum wage. While that might help equalize incomes, it does nothing to help Americans build wealth.至少在美国,人们普遍认为提高收入是出路。各路媒体几乎每天都有报道称,某市长或华盛顿的立法者正在努力提高工人的最低工资。然而,这或许能够让收入差距减小,却无助于帮助美国人积累财富。Piketty suggests levying a global wealth tax, but taxing the rich isn#39;t necessarily the answer. What could help average Americans, particularly low-income households, are policies that help them build wealth by helping people to save more. This is an approach recently articulated by my New America Foundation colleague, William Elliott. In his report, ;Harnessing Assets to Build an Economic Mobility System,; he argues that the richest Americans aly enjoy extensive government subsidies on their savings. This year, the top 20% of income earners will capture two-thirds of the 0 billion in subsidies for retirement, according to estimates by the Congressional Budget Office.皮凯蒂建议在全球征收财富税,不过向富人征税并不一定能够解决问题。能够帮助普通美国人、尤其是低收入家庭的,是那些能够协助人们增加储蓄从而积累财富的政策。这是近期由我在新美国基金会(New America Foundation)的同事威廉o埃利奥特提出的方法。他在他自己的报告《利用财产打造经济流动系统》中认为,最富有的美国人已经通过他们的储蓄享受了大量政府补贴。根据美国国会预算办公室(Congressional Budget Office)的估计,今年美国1,400亿美元的退休补贴中,有三分之二将由收入最多的那20%的人获得。Lower-income Americans don#39;t have this type of support. In fact, they#39;re explicitly discouraged from saving more if you look at rules over federal food and income assistance programs that can make families with less than ,000 in the bank ineligible to participate.收入较低的美国人则无法得到这种资助。实际上,如果去看看联邦食品和收入援助项目的规定,你就会发现,穷人实际上并不被鼓励存钱。存款不到1,000美元的家庭都没有资格参加这种项目。As a result, higher income families are rewarded for long-term planning and investment and low-income families are penalized for doing so. The point is that it takes money to make money, so how about making sure that everyone starts out with some?结果,收入更高的家庭从长期计划和投资中获得了好处,而低收入家庭这样做则有弊无利。问题的关键在于,钱生钱需要本钱,要如何保每个人都能有些钱来走上致富之路呢?There are multiple ways: Senator Ron Wyden (D-Ore.) has recently voiced his support for a universal savings accounts for children, modeled on the ASPIRE Act. ASPIRE would provide all children born in the U.S. with a 0 savings account that could be put toward the cost of college, buying a home, or retirement. Up to ,000 could be deposited into the account annually on a tax-free basis, and lower-income families would qualify for a federal match of up to 0 a year. Representative Joe Crowley (D-N.Y.) has supported a similar approach.解决方式有许多:俄勒冈州的参议院罗恩o怀登最近表示,持“立志法案”(ASPIRE Act,The America Saving for Personal Investment, Retirement, and Education Act)中提到的给全体儿童设立储蓄账户的提议。立志法案将为每位在美国出生的儿童提供500美元的储蓄账户,其中的资金可供上大学、买房或退休使用。人们每年可以向其中存入最多2,000美元而不用缴纳税款。低收入家庭也可以按照联邦标准,每年向其中最多存入500美元。纽约州的代表乔o克劳利也持类似的方式。There are certainly other measures that need to take place to make sure that an approach like that is successful, such as getting rid of asset limits that cast savings as a liability in the minds of low-income families, as well as helping families build a financial cushion in the form of flexible savings, as the Financial Security Credit would do.当然,还需要采用一些其他方法来保这种方式能够获得成功,比如取消资产限制,让低收入家庭将储蓄看作可靠的手段,同时帮助家庭以灵活的储蓄方式建立金融储备,比如新美国基金会推出的金融安全信用制度(Financial Security Credit)。As Piketty rightly observes, the continued consolidation of wealth is deeply problematic. This is true on a macro scale as well as in the day-to-day lives of families trying to make ends meet and get a few steps ahead. Replacing our flawed public policies that exacerbate this problem with a system that facilitates the creation of new wealth would go a long way toward allowing more Americans to share in such a powerful driver of economic success.皮凯蒂的观点很对,财富不断地滚雪球会带来深远的问题。无论是从宏观上看,还是从家庭精打细算过日子、努力往前奔,都是这样。取消我们那些加剧贫富差距、具有缺陷的公共政策,代之以能够促使新的财富生成的新体系,这将会让更多美国人分享到经济成功带来的巨大驱动力。 /201405/301279It is a rite of passage to gripe – and occasionally gloat – about Hong Kong property prices. Companies setting up in the territory have to accept they will pay some of the highest prices in the world for office space and possibly dole out equally large housing allowances.抱怨——或偶尔地得意于——香港的房地产价格,是香港人的必修课。在香港开展业务的公司必须接受这样的现实:它们必须付世界上数一数二高的办公室租金,可能还要付同样高的住房补贴。Likewise for retailers. Burberry, the British luxury brand, pays about m a month in rent for its store in Hong Kong’s Causeway Bay shopping district. Ralph Lauren is heading to Hollywood Road, traditionally home to purveyors of antiques, memorabilia and general tat rather than expensive US clothing.零售商也是如此。英国奢侈品牌柏利(Burberry)在香港铜锣湾(Causeway Bay)购物区的门店每月租金约为100万美元。Ralph Lauren正打算迁往荷里活道(Hollywood Road),那里过去是古董商、纪念品商店和普通饰店聚集的地方,而不是美国奢侈装品牌应该出现的地方。But it is not a uniform picture of sky-high rents, as those who took space during the bleak days of Sars, the infectious disease that swept through the territory in 2003, or the Asian financial crisis in 1997-98, can testify.但香港的租金并非一直高得离谱。2003年传染病非典(Sars)席卷香港期间,1997-98年亚洲金融危机期间,房地产价格都曾一落千丈,在那时买入房产的人可以明这一点。“Hong Kong doesn’t do stable,” says Craig Shute, a senior managing director at CBRE, the real estate services adviser. “It is rare that prices remain in a 10 per cent band on either side.”“香港楼市一直不稳定,”房地产务咨询公司世邦魏理仕(CBRE)资深董事总经理施怀德(Craig Shute)说,“价格上下波动幅度均保持在10%以内的情况十分罕见。”That is testament to the volatility attendant upon a spit of land that effectively has its interest rates set by the US – courtesy of the Hong Kong dollar currency peg – and its demand dictated to a large extent from across the border in mainland China.此言验了弹丸之地香港楼市波动之大。由于香港实行港元盯住美元的联系汇率制度,香港的利率实际上由美国设定,而香港的需求很大程度上则受中国内地控制。Land is in pitifully short supply and government policy on land sales has mostly kept it that way. During times of high inflation, property was seen as a classic hedge.土地供应严重短缺,而政府的卖地政策很大程度上在维持现状。在高通胀时期,房地产被视为典型的保值工具。Car parking spaces have gone for .3m, enough to buy a street of houses in parts of England or the US. Hamp;M, the Swedish clothing retailer, shuttered its flagship store leaving its Central District location to Zara, its Spanish rival, to take up the keys and pay double the rent.停车位的售价已经达到130万美元,足以在英美一些地方买下一条街的房子。瑞典时装零售商Hamp;M关闭了位于中环(Central District)的旗舰店,其西班牙竞争对手Zara付双倍租金租下了原址店面。And there has been a veritable exodus of banks and businesses across the water to Kowloon, once viewed as a hinterland by many expat bankers.也确实有不少和企业逃离香港岛,迁往对岸的九龙(Kowloon)——这个一度被许多外派至香港的家视为乡下的地方。Recently, however, clouds have been appearing on the horizon. In February, the government took steps to cool the market, doubling stamp duty on properties worth more than HKm (8,000) and introducing a lower duty on cheaper homes.但最近,乌云开始笼罩地平线。今年2月,香港政府采取了一些旨在让楼市降温的措施,对超过2000万港元(合258万美元)的豪宅征收“双倍印花税”,并降低了普通住房的税率。At the same time, the Hong Kong Monetary Authority, the territory’s de facto central bank, cut the maximum loan-to-value ratio to 40 per cent for commercial and industrial spaces and introduced a similar ratio for parking spaces, the latest subject of speculative investment.与此同时,香港金管局(Hong Kong Monetary Authority)将商业和工业地产的贷款与估值比率(loan-to-value ratio)上限降至40%,并且对最新的投机目标——停车位——的这一比率做出了类似的限制。金管局相当于香港的央行。More recently, developers of big projects have been offering rebates and discounts which, in some cases, have served to lop 20 per cent off the price – although this “teaser” strategy has helped them to sell subsequent batches at higher prices. “Hong Kong seems to be at a crossroads,” says Mr Shute. “There are a lot of opinions on what will happen to pricing over the next 12 months or so.”大型项目的开发商近来推出了一些返现和打折活动,折扣幅度有时能达到20%,不过这种“诱惑性”策略帮助开发商将后续批次房产卖出了更高的价钱。“香港看上去正处于十字路口,”施怀德说,“再过12个月左右价格会发生怎样的变化,人们众说纷纭。”In one corner are the pessimists – or optimists, depending which side of the desk you are sitting on. Barclays, UBS and Merrill Lynch Bank of America foresee a downturn, with prices falling 30 per cent or more by the end of 2015 on the back of supply increases and stalling income growth.有一小部分人持“悲观”看法(对看空者而言,这种看法或许反而是“乐观”的)。巴克莱(Barclays)、瑞银(UBS)和美银美林(Merrill Lynch Bank of America)预测楼市将回落:随着房地产供应的增加和收入增长的停滞,房地产价格到2015年底将下滑30%乃至更多。“The magnitude of the fall is underestimated,” wrote Barclays’ analysts. “The property market is about to enter its first real downturn since 1998.” That was when Hong Kong was caught up in the sell-off triggered by the Asian financial crisis and homes lost two-thirds of their value over a six-year period.“人们对本轮回落的规模估计不足,”巴克莱的分析师写道,“楼市自1998年以来即将首次真正陷入衰退。”1998年,香港被卷入亚洲金融危机引发的抛售潮,房价在6年间损失了三分之二的价值。Several factors support their caution. The latest run-up in prices has been strong: the property market has more than doubled since the onset of the financial crisis in 2008.分析师的上述警告有几点理由。最近这一轮房价上涨势头强劲:自2008年金融危机爆发以来,楼市已上涨一倍以上。Buyers from the mainland, accounting for as much as a quarter of home sales at the peak in the fourth quarter of 2011, dropped to only 8 per cent in the first quarter of this year, according to Centaline, a property agency.香港房地产经纪公司中原地产(Centaline)表示,2011年四季度,内地购房客占香港住宅销售额的比例达到四分之一,为历史最高水平。但这一比例在今年一季度降至仅8%。CY Leung, Hong Kong’s chief executive, is on a mission to make housing more affordable for the territory’s 7m inhabitants, or at least to stem the upward spiral.香港特首梁振英(CY Leung)正在努力为700万香港居民提供更廉价的住房,或至少是遏制房价继续上涨的势头。This means increasing supply – a similar policy launched by one of his predecessors Tung Chee-hwa after he came to power in 1997 quickly damped exuberance.这意味着要增加住房供应。前任特首董建华(Tung Chee-hwa)在1997年上台后曾采取过类似的政策,当时很快便抑制住了房价的疯狂上涨。 /201312/268304One of China’s biggest oil companies signed a billion deal with BP PLC BP for liquefied natural gas deliveries, and announced a strategic partnership with Royal Dutch Shell PLC RD , in a flurry of activity marking a three-day visit to the UK by Chinese Premier Li Keqiang.中国总理李克强对英国进行为期三天的访问期间,中国最大的石油企业之一与英国石油公司(BP PLC)签订了一份价值200亿美元的液化天然气供应协议,同时还宣布与荷兰皇家壳牌石油公司(Royal Dutch Shell PLC)达成了战略伙伴关系。Li also repeated China’s interest in financing the construction of the next generation of nuclear power plants in the UK, although there were no firm deals struck due to the ongoing uncertainty over whether the government’s policy on new nuclear build breaks European Union law on state aid.另外,李克强总理再次提出中国有意向资助英国建设下一代核电站,尽管由于担心政府建设新型核能的政策有可能会违反欧盟有关政府救助的法律,双方并未签订正式的投资协议。The deal with BP is the latest in a series of mega-deals illustrating China’s insatiable demand for clean-burning gas, as pollution from coal-fired power plants and vehicle use threatens to reach crisis levels in many of its cities. Only last month, China signed a much larger 0 billion 30-year deal to import gas from Russia. That deal, ironically, was based in part on supplies of gas from fields in eastern Siberia which BP’s former joint venture in Russia had been squeezed out of as Vladimir Putin’s Kremlin assumed more direct control of the country’s mineral wealth.因为电厂燃煤和交通工具尾气导致很多城市空气重度污染,近年来中国对清洁能源的需求激增,与外国签订了大量订单,与英国石油公司的订单就是其中最新的一个。上个月,中国刚刚与俄国签订了一份为期30年、价值4,000亿美元的天然气供应协议。颇为讽刺的是,协议中部分天然气的供应来自于东西伯利亚油田。英国石油公司与俄国的合资企业就曾坐落于这个地区,但由于普京政府加强了对矿藏的直接控制,收购了这家合资公司中英国石油公司的股份。The Chinese deal is a welcome piece of good news for BP after repeated disappointments in the U.S. as it struggles with the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon disaster. It will see BP will deliver up to 1.5 million tons a year of LNG–equivalent to 72 billion cubic feet of gas–to China National Offshore Oil Company, or CNOOC, for 20 years from 2019 onwards. It’s not yet fixed where the gas will come from, but BP has a global portfolio of LNG assets, including the opportunity to export from terminals in the Gulf of Mexico. It aly supplies LNG to CNOOC from Indonesia.自从“深水地平线”钻井平台事故后,英国石油公司在美国屡次碰壁。因此,这次与中国成功达成协议对它来说确实是件好事。根据项目要求,从2019年开始,英国石油公司每年要向中国海洋石油总公司( China National Offshore Oil Company, 简称中海油)供应150万吨液化天然气,相当于720亿立方英尺的天然气,为期20年。协议虽然没有确定天然气供应地,但英国石油公司液化天然气供应地遍布全球,甚至包括墨西哥湾天然气管道终端。据称,它已经在从印度尼西亚向中海油供应液化天然气。The office of UK Prime Minister David Cameron, in an ostentatious display of coyness, made no mention of the deal in briefing notes on Li’s visit, focusing instead on a list of less controversial deals involving furniture and children’s TV programs.卡梅伦政府对这个项目态度暧昧,在李克强访英的简报中只字未提该石油协议,而把话题集中在其它不痛不痒的项目上,包括家具与儿童电视节目等。Li also confirmed that China would lift a ban on imports of beef from Britain that has been in place since contaminated feed triggered a widesp outbreak of Bovine spongiform encephalitis, or Mad Cow Disease.自牛脑海绵状病(疯牛病)大规模爆发以来,中国一直禁止从英国进口牛肉。李克强此行还明确表示中国会解除对进口英国牛肉的禁令。 /201406/307071

One night last month, Lesley King received a Facebook message that reflected what she considers one of the finest qualities of Old Greenwich: a connected community.上个月的一天晚上,莱斯利·金(Lesley King)收到一条Facebook讯息,这件事体现出老格林威治(Old Greenwich)在她看来最好的一面:这是个很团结的社区。Her new business, Back 40 Mercantile, an upscale general store for the eco-conscious, had opened that day in the small commercial center called ;the village.; (Ms. King is an owner with family members.) She had closed up shop only a few hours before. The Facebook message arrived around 9: A man she barely knew wanted her to know that he had spotted a candle still burning in the shop.她新开的Back 40 Mercantile是一家高级杂货店,客户多为有环保意识的人群。这家商店那天刚刚在一个名为the village的小型商业中心开业(店主是金和她的家人)。她在几个小时前才刚刚结束营业,收到这条Facebook讯息的时候大约是9点:那是一个她不大认识的人。他就是想让她知道,他看见她的店里还点着一只蜡烛。A resident of Old Greenwich since 2001, Ms. King says that sort of neighborly outreach is the custom in a community where people#39;s yards don#39;t extend much beyond their houses.金从2001年起就成了老格林威治的居民。她说,在这样一个各家的屋外庭院都伸不出多远的社区里,那种从邻里间延伸出来的相互关照,已经成了一种风俗。At the home she shares with her husband, Bill, and their four children, the swing set sits in the front yard, an open invitation to youngsters walking by. That might not pass muster in the parts of Greenwich that take pride in pristine, gated isolation, but the culture of Old Greenwich is better expressed by the prevalence of front porches.在她与丈夫比尔(Bill)及四个孩子共同居住的家里,前院安装了一副秋千,这对于路过的孩子们来说就是个公开的邀请。那样的设施在格林威治一些以古朴守旧、门禁森严为傲的地方,可能是不合要求的;但在这里,随处可见的前院门廊却更好地体现了老格林威治的文化。;The best thing about Old Greenwich,; Ms. King said, ;is that everybody lives in houses close to each other.;“老格林威治最好的地方,”金说,“就是大家都住得很近。”A census-designated place with its own ZIP code, Old Greenwich occupies the southeastern edge of the town of Greenwich, bordering Stamford and extending into Long Island Sound. A summer beach resort in the 19th century, it takes in a large peninsula that tapers into a spit prized townwide as a public recreation area. Officially, the 147-acre site is called Greenwich Point Park; unofficially, it is known as Tod#39;s Point, after a banker who once had an estate there.老格林威治社区位于格林威治镇的西北部边缘,与斯坦福德(Stamford)交界,并伸入长岛湾(Long Island Sound),是一个有单独邮政编码的普查指定居民区。这里作为19世纪的夏季海滨度假地,下辖一座渐成细长岬角的大半岛,是全镇居民都钟爱有加的一处公共场所。这片占地147英亩(约60公顷)的地方,正式的名称是“格林威治岬角公园”(Greenwich Point Park);而私下里,人们则称之为“托德岬角”(Tod#39;s Point),名称取自一位曾在此地置业的家。If Old Greenwich feels less guarded than some other areas of town, it is hardly bohemian. Single-family homes in decent shape start at around million, with the occasional exception; new construction can run millions more. Private neighborhood associations maintain their own beach areas and put fence sections in their roads to slow traffic. Local tastes are reflected in the wares at Back 40 Mercantile like Himalayan pink salt and flip-flops.老格林威治虽然感觉上没有该镇其它区域那么戒备森严,但也不是很波西米亚。那些独门独户、打理得非常体面的房屋,起价大约为100万美元(约合人民币614万元),偶有例外;而新建的房屋则有可能高达数百万美元。一些民间社区协会维护着他们自己的海滩区域,并在道路上设置了一些路障来减慢车速。当地人的品味反映在诸如Back 40 Mercantile这样的小店里,比如喜马拉雅粉红岩盐,和价格64美元(约合人民币393元)的人字拖。The housing market is just now emerging from a nearly two-year slump induced by Hurricane Sandy. Flooding in low-lying areas and a wind-driven fire that destroyed three waterfront mansions ;left a bit of a scar,; said Gary Cunningham, a former stockbroker who now develops single-family homes in Old Greenwich and is the managing partner of Core Properties.这里的房地产市场经历了飓风桑迪(Hurricane Sandy)造成的将近两年的疲软,现在正慢慢复苏。低洼地带的洪涝灾害,与一场摧毁了三栋海滨豪宅的借风起势的大火,“给这里留下了一点伤疤,”曾担任股票经纪人、如今在老格林威治开发独栋房屋并担任Core Properties地产公司执行合伙人的盖里·坎宁安(Gary Cunningham)说。Uncertainty around the Federal Emergency Management Agency#39;s flood zone remapping and new insurance rates also caused buyers to temporarily back off. These fears appear to be easing, however, Mr. Cunningham said. And he is further encouraged by recent revisions to the town#39;s building regulations for flood zones.联邦紧急事务(Federal Emergency Management Agency)的洪水区域重新勘测工作仍未确定,而新的保险费率也导致买家们暂时退避三舍。然而,这些担忧似乎正在减轻,坎宁安说。而且该镇最近为洪水区修改的建筑规程,也让他愈发受到鼓舞。If the last three months are any indication, buyer confidence is back in a big way. Since June, at least four waterfront properties have traded above million; the most expensive, a 7,700-square-foot colonial on Greenwich Cove, closed at .05 million.如果最近三个月的情况是一种预兆的话,那么可以说,买家的信心正在大幅提升。自6月份起,至少有四栋海滨房产的交易金额超过600万美元(约合人民币3686万元);其中售价最贵的是一栋位于格林威治湾(Greenwich Cove)、面积7700平方英尺(约715平方米)的殖民地风格住宅,成交金额为1305万美元(约合人民币8017万元)。What You#39;ll Find这里有什么?The heart of Old Greenwich (population 6,600) is its business district on Sound Beach Avenue, the main thoroughfare. The look is small-town America: rows of shops beneath colorful awnings, benches for sitting, plentiful flowerpots. Most of the businesses are independently owned.老格林威治(人口6600人)的中心地带,是位于主干道桑德海滩大道(Sound Beach Avenue)的一片商业区。那里看上去是典型美国小镇的样子:一排排商店挂着五颜六色的雨棚,到处都是长椅可供坐下休息,还有大量的盆栽花卉。那些店面大多数是独立经营的。;People get very upset when they get a hint of national chains coming in,; said David Rafferty, the president of the Old Greenwich Association. The district has seen its share of empty storefronts over the years; maintaining enough support to keep businesses going is a challenge, Mr. Rafferty said. These days, however, more residents are opening businesses themselves. In addition to Back 40, the district has gained a dog groomer and a bakery and cafe, Sweet Pea#39;s Baking Company.“人们一旦得知有哪个全国连锁店要进驻,就会变得很不满,”老格林威治委员会(Old Greenwich Association)的主席戴维·拉弗蒂(David Rafferty)说。该区域这些年来一直存在一定比例的空置店面;维持足够的消费水平以保这些店面的运营是一项挑战,拉弗蒂说。但是近来,有更多居民开始自己营业了。除了那家Back 40商店之外,该区域还新增了一家爱犬美容店和一家烘焙食品与咖啡店Sweet Pea#39;s Baking Company。The area also has its own train station, which is listed on the National Register of Historic Places, and the privately run Perrot Memorial Library. Nearby is 32-acre Binney Park, a green oasis with a duck pond and footbridges.这个区域还有一座自己的火车站,已被列入国家史迹名录(National Register of Historic Places),另有一座私人运营的佩洛特纪念图书馆(Perrot Memorial Library)。附近还有一座面积32英亩(约13公顷)的宾尼公园(Binney Park),那里是一片绿洲,有一座鸭子池塘和几座人行小桥。Interstate 95 and Route 1 slice through Old Greenwich. Properties above Route 1 are generally less grand and less expensive than those below, which are closer to both shopping and the water.95号州际公路(Interstate 95)和1号线(Route 1)都贯穿了老格林威治。1号线下游的房产一般比上游的更贵、更豪华,因为那里更靠近购物区,离海边也更近。What You#39;ll Pay要花多少钱?Of the 2,260 housing units in Old Greenwich, about 2,000 are single-family detached houses, according to ed States census data. As of the end of July, 78 sales had closed year to date, down slightly from the same period last year, according to data provided by Charles Nedder, an agent with Coldwell Banker. The median sales price was up about 3 percent over the same period last year, at .379 million.据美国的普查数据,在老格林威治的2260栋房屋之中,大约有2000栋是单户式的独立住宅。而据科威国际不动产(Coldwell Banker)的一位经纪人查尔斯·内德(Charles Nedder)提供的数据,至7月底,今年上半年已经成交了78笔交易,比去年同期略有下降。而房屋销售的中间价格为137.9万美元(约合人民币847.2万元),比去年同期上涨了大约3%。North of Route 1, the postwar subdivision of Havemeyer Park retains many of its original Capes and colonials, though teardowns are increasing. Older homes start in the high 0,000s, Mr. Nedder said. Below Route 1, million is the more likely entry point for the four- or five-bedroom homes commonly sought by young families, said Rob Johnson, an agent with Halstead Property.在1号线上游路段的哈夫迈耶公园(Havemeyer Park)战后住宅区,虽然遭到拆除的房屋数量还在不断增加,但也保留了许多原来的科德角(Capes)风格与殖民地风格的房屋。老式住宅的起售价接近80万美元(约合人民币491.5万元),内德说。而在1号线的下游路段,通常适合年轻家庭的那些四居室或五居室住宅,更有可能以200万美元(约合人民币1228.7万元)的价格起售,哈尔斯泰德地产公司(Halstead Property)的一位经纪人罗伯·约翰逊(Rob Johnson)说。New construction is another story. A quarter-acre lot with a teardown property goes for .2 million to .5 million, which means builders must price their properties at upward of million, Mr. Cunningham said.新开发的住宅则是另一种情况。一块四分之一英亩(约合1012平方米)的土地带一栋拆迁房,售价在120万美元(约合人民币737.2万元)至150万美元(约合人民币921.5万元)之间。这意味着承建商们必须将他们的房产价格抬高至300万美元(约合人民币1843万元),坎宁安说。Condominiums at Old Greenwich Gables range from one-bedrooms, generally priced in the 0,000s, to three-bedrooms in the 0,000s, according to Mr. Johnson. At the Common, a ‘70s-era complex, unrenovated alcove studios go for as low as 0,000, and renovated two-bedrooms go up to the high 0s, according to Peter Hoyt, an agent with William Raveis.在老格林威治的盖大厦(Old Greenwich Gables),共管公寓的一般价格从单卧室的50万美元(约合人民币307万元),至三卧室的90万美元(约合人民币553万元)不等,据约翰逊说。而在Common这栋70年代的综合大楼中,壁龛大小的未翻修单间公寓,售价可低至27万美元(约合人民币165.9万元),而翻修过的两居室公寓的售价要将近50万美元(约合人民币307.2万元),据William Raveis房地产公司的一位经纪人彼得·霍伊特(Peter Hoyt)说。What to Do可以做什么?Greenwich Point is the hub for outdoor activity. With panoramic views of the Sound, the park is used for swimming, fishing, sailing, picnicking, hiking and cycling. Seasonal park passes are available to town residents for ; for those without passes or for nonresidents, daily entry is a vehicle plus a person.格林威治岬角(Greenwich Point)是户外运动的集散地。这座公园拥有海湾的全景,被用于游泳、钓鱼、出海、野炊、徒步和骑行。镇上居民购买公园季票的价格为31美元(约合人民币190.5元);对于非本地居民或没有季票的人,一日的门票是25美元(约合人民币153.6元)/车,6美元(约合人民币36.9元)/人。格林威治岬角公园的海滩上。A seasonal farmers market is held Wednesday afternoons in the parking lot of the Presbyterian Church.每周三下午,在基督教长老会教堂(Presbyterian Church)的停车场会有当季的农贸市场。The private Innis Arden Golf Club has an 18-hole golf course, swimming pools and tennis. The Rocky Point Club, also members-only, offers swimming and sailing.私营的高尔夫俱乐部Innis Arden Golf Club,有一座18洞的高尔夫球场,还有几座游泳池和网球场。同样是会员制的“岩石岬角俱乐部”(Rocky Point Club)可供游泳与航海。The Commute通勤方式The Metro-North train ride to Grand Central Terminal takes about an hour. A monthly pass is 6 at the station. Parking permits at Old Greenwich station cost 7 annually. It takes two to three years for applicants to get to the top of the waiting list, according to a spokesman for the town#39;s department of parking services.地铁北线(Metro-North)的列车大约1小时可到达中央车站(Grand Central Terminal)。北线车站的月票售价为276美元(约合人民币1695.6元)。老格林威治车站的停车许可年费为407美元(约合人民币2500.4元),但据该镇停车务办的一位发言人说,申请者要花2至3年时间才能排入候选者清单的前列。The SchoolsAbout 370 students in kindergarten to Grade 5 attend the Old Greenwich School. Eastern Middle School, with about 780 students, serves Grades 6 through 8. Greenwich High School, with an enrollment of about 2,600, offers more than 300 courses, including 25 advanced placement classes, and fields 42 varsity teams.老格林威治学校(Old Greenwich School)从幼儿园至五年级有大约370名学生。中东学校(Eastern Middle School)提供6至8年级的教育,约有780名在校生。格林威治高中的在校生约为2600名,该校提供了超过300门课程,包括25个进阶选修课程,并成立了42校队。Mean SAT scores for the class of 2013 (the most recent year available) were 559 for ing, 585 for math, and 571 for writing, compared with the state means of 499, 503 and 504. Ninety percent of the class of 2013 went on to attend college, according to a spokesman for the school district.2013届学生的平均SAT成绩(目前可查的最新数据)是阅读559分,数学585分,写作571分,而这几项成绩的州平均分为499,503和504。据该校区的一位发言人说,2013届的学生有90%都进入了大学。The History历史沿革Old Greenwich, which was the original town of Greenwich, as it was the first area settled by Europeans, has undergone several name changes. According to the town historical society, in the mid-1800s, Greenwich was used to designate the central part of town, and the original Greenwich was renamed Greenwich, Old Town.老格林威治经历了几次名称变更,此地就是最初的格林威治镇,因为这里是第一处欧洲人定居地。据该镇历史协会(town historical society)的资料,在19世纪中期,“格林威治”常指的是小镇的中心地带,于是最早的格林威治就更名为了“格林威治老城区”(Greenwich, Old Town)。In 1872, to draw summer tourists to the shoreline inns, the area was called Sound Beach. But public access to the shoreline gradually diminished, and in 1931 the beach moniker was dropped in favor of Old Greenwich.到了1872年,为将夏季游客吸引到海边旅馆来,该地区被称为桑德海滩(Sound Beach)。但后来,公共海滩的面积逐渐减少,于是到了1931年,海滩的称号逐渐被“老格林威治”取代了。 /201409/325535NANCY LIU arrived in Sydney from China as a “skilled immigrant” with an economics degree 14 years ago. With her husband, she set up a business consultancy in the suburb of Hurstville, once an Anglo-Celtic working-class stronghold. Since then, Chinese investment has transformed it: most of its shop signs are now in Chinese. Last year, Ms Liu was elected Hurstville’s deputy mayor.据《经济学人》报道,14年前,作为一个拥有经济学学位的“专业技能型移民”,刘女士(南希)从中国奔赴至澳大利亚。她同她的丈夫一起在赫斯特维尔的郊区成立了一个商业咨询公司,而那里曾是凯尔特工作阶级的聚集地。之后,中国投资者改变了这一状态,现在,那里大多数的商店符号都是汉字。去年,刘女士选举成为赫斯特维尔副市长。Ms Liu was a forerunner of a new wave of Chinese immigrants to Australia’s oldest and biggest city. Hong Kong once supplied most of Australia’s Chinese settlers, but over the past few years the pattern has shifted. Now it is the rising middle classes from mainland China who go there, looking for a cleaner, more relaxed lifestyle. About 4% of Sydney’s 4.6m people were born in China. Hurstville’s China-born population is about a third of its total and almost half its residents claim Chinese ancestry.刘女士是新掀起的中国移民到澳大利亚古老大城市浪潮中的先行者。香港曾向澳大利亚提供了大部分的中国居民,但就过去几年来看,形势已经改变。现在,日益增长的中国大陆中产阶级为了更干净舒适的生活,移民至澳。悉尼460万人口中有4%是中国移民。赫斯特维尔的中国移民则占据了其总人口数的三分之一,而接近一半的居民有着中华血统。Sydney’s first Chinese immigrants arrived as farm workers in the 1840s. The gold rush a decade later drew more. “Celestial City: Sydney’s Chinese story”, an exhibition at the Museum of Sydney, shows what happened next. By the 1880s, political fears of a “Chinese invasion” sparked anti-Asian immigration laws known as the White Australia policy, which lasted well into the 20th century.悉尼的第一批中国移民是19世纪40年代来澳的农民。十年后的淘金热则吸引了更多的人前往。悉尼物馆开展了主题为“人间天堂:悉尼的中国人的故事”的展会,叙述了后续故事。到了19世纪80年代,政治上提出“中国式入侵”的恐惧论,触发了反亚洲移民政策,也就是白澳政策。这一政策直到20世纪才被取消。But China’s emergence as Australia’s biggest trading partner, and its largest source of foreign university students, has revolutionised the relationship. In the fiscal year 2011-12, more than 25,000 Chinese people obtained permanent residence in Australia. Most of them were from the new middle classes. Then in late 2012 Australia launched a “significant investor” visa, aimed at China’s super-rich. To get one, people need Am (.6m) to sink in “qualifying” investments. After investing for four years, successful applicants can apply for permanent residence.中国已新兴成为澳大利亚最大的贸易伙伴,以及最多来澳大学留学生的来源地,这一切都彻底改变了两国关系。在2011年至2012年的财政年度间,超过2.5万的中国人取得了澳大利亚的永久居住权。其中,大部分都是年轻的中产阶级。2012年年末,澳大利亚针对中国的顶级富豪发行了“重要投资者”签。申请此签的人需要在澳投资500万澳元才能获得资格。而在连续四年的投资之后,成功的投资者可以申请永久居住权。The visas are called “subclass 188” and “subclass 888”. As the number eight represents luck and prosperity in Chinese culture, the visa’s main target is obvious. More than 90% of 702 applicants so far have been Chinese.该签被称为188类别和888类别签。因为数字8在中国文化中代表着好运和发达,该签的目标人群就显而易见了。截至目前,702位申请者中有90%是中国人。Many of the émigrés are media-shy. But their influence is visible in Chatswood, another formerly Anglo-Australian suburb. Towers of apartments, many owned by Chinese immigrants, now overlook the Edwardian-era stone and timber bungalows. Shops on the main street are crammed with Chinese noodles and vegetables, and Mandarin is the chief language among shoppers. Stacks of Chinese newspapers outnumber English ones.许多移民者是躲避媒体的。但他们对查茨伍德区的影响却是引人注目的,而那里之前是英国侨民聚集地。中国移民居住的高层公寓现如今俯瞰着英国人的木质平房。主街上的商店里堆满了中国面条和蔬菜,普通话则成为了店员们的主要语言。成摞的中文报纸的数量远超出了英文报纸。Yan Zhang, who settled in Sydney after studying at Macquarie University, orders a lunch of pork dumplings at the New Shanghai restaurant. He reckons the new wave of middle-class Chinese immigrants, who arrive with residence aly granted, come to Australia for the same reasons he did. “They want to make life more enjoyable and more secure,” he says. “If I’d returned to China, I’d have had to be more selfish to survive.”张岩(音)在麦考瑞大学就读之后就定居在悉尼了。他在新上海餐馆订了一份猪肉水饺作为午饭。他认为新兴的中国中产阶级移民来澳的原因同他一致,他们在获得合法居住权后到来。“他们都希望更享受、更安全的生活,”他说。“如果回国的话,我可能会为了生存而变得更自私。” /201405/296724

At first glance, you might think these pictures are of people dozing at home, in their beds or on their sofas, and think nothing of it.乍看之下,你可能以为照片里的这些人是在家里的床上或沙发上打瞌睡,没什么大不了。But look again and you realise there are no personal photographs on the walls or half-drunken mugs of tea on the tables.但再看看你就会发现在照片里,墙上没挂私人照片,桌子上也没有喝了一半的茶杯。That is because they were snapped making the most of the show-room creature comforts in IKEA stores in China.因为其实这些照片是在中国的宜家拍摄的,照片里的这些顾客最大程度地利用着样品房间,悠然享受着家具带来的舒适。Far from being judged with shock and disbelief by other shoppers, it appears that this sort of behaviour is quite unremarkable in the eastern nation.其他顾客见到了既不惊讶也不会对他们有所指责,似乎这种举动在中国东部是稀松平常的一件事情。Shoppers#39; indifference to those who are seemingly sound asleep on the furniture they are examining, demonstrates just how different cultural norms in China are compared with in the UK.顾客在看家具的时候对那些好像已经在家具上睡着的人一点也不关心,显示出中国与英国截然不同的文化规范。Western onlookers however, reacted with complete confusion. One comment posted on news website said: #39;IKEA, I am really impressed by your tolerance!#39;不过看到这种情况,西方顾客就感到非常困惑了。新闻网站Chinahush.com上的一则说道,“宜家,我真佩你的忍耐力!”Perhaps UK shoppers might benefit from adopting this more relaxed approach to shopping, and taking the saying, #39;try before you buy#39; to new, more literal levels.英国顾客若是接受这种更加轻松的购物方式,说不定会受益良多,像俗话说的那样“买前需先试”,只不过“试”出了新高度,试得更真实罢了。Could we also wear clothing in a fashion store while we browse other railings before deciding whether it#39;s the right garment to buy?那在还没决定买什么衣前,我们是否也可以穿着时装店里的衣到处逛呢?What about buying a house: could we stay with the vendors for a week before making a decision? Or test drive a car for a couple of days to ensure it fulfills all our motor vehicle requirements before committing to it#39;s purchase?再说买房子,我们在做决定前是否能在房产商那里呆上一个星期呢?或者,为了确保汽车可以满足我们的所有要求,在决定购买之前我们是不是也可以试驾一两天呢?Either way, the image of people of all ages peacefully snoozing on beds and sofas around the shop can only be a good thing for the store - a real life advert that IKEA #39;s products are designed with comfort in mind.不管如何对宜家来说,照片里的这些老老少少安静地躺在店里各处的床和沙发上只会是一件好事——为宜家产品的舒适感打了活生生的广告。 /201407/311647The sound of 16,000 people chanting “Ali, Alibaba” fills the Yellow Dragon Stadium in Hangzhou, a city on China’s eastern coast. As the theme to The Lion King begins to blare over the sound system, a diminutive figure rises through the stage floor.在华东城市杭州的黄龙体育馆,16000人有节奏地反复喊着“阿里,阿里巴巴”。接着,《狮子王》的主题曲在音响系统中响起,一个瘦小的身影从舞台中升了起来。Dressed in leather and sporting a giant spiked Mohawk, black lipstick and a nose ring, Jack Ma begins to belt out an off-key rendition of Elton John’s “Can you Feel the Love Tonight” to his adoring employees.马云(Jack Ma)身穿皮衣,戴着一顶巨大而有尖顶的莫西干式假发,涂着黑色唇膏并穿了一个鼻环。他拉开嗓门,有点走调地向崇拜他的员工们演唱埃尔顿#8226;约翰(Elton John)的《今夜你能感觉到爱吗》(Can you Feel the Love Tonight)。It had been 10 years since Mr Ma founded Alibaba, the internet company that made him a billionaire, and it was time to celebrate. Soon, it will be time to celebrate again: Alibaba, the world’s most successful ecommerce company, is preparing to sell shares in a global initial public offering that is expected to be valued at well over 0bn.这是马云创立阿里巴巴10周年纪念会,这家互联网公司使他成为了亿万富翁,这是一个庆祝的时刻。不久,另一个值得庆祝的时刻又将到来:阿里巴巴这家全球最成功的电子商务公司正准备进行首次公开发行(IPO),预计其市值将远超1000亿美元。Mr Ma has been a cult figure in China for years. But he captured the attention of the world this year as excitement built around the impending IPO, which will let investors own a slice of the fastest-growing internet market on the planet.多年来,马云在中国一直是受人崇拜的偶像人物。但在今年,随着市场对阿里巴巴即将进行的IPO越来越感兴趣,他也吸引了世界的关注。上市将让投资者有机会在全球增长最快的互联网市场持有股份。Alibaba’s sales now exceed those of eBay and Amazon combined and make up about 2 per cent of China’s gross domestic product. Seventy per cent of all Chinese package deliveries come from Alibaba sales. Roughly 80 per cent of Chinese ecommerce transactions are conducted through Alibaba’s sites. And this is probably just the beginning, considering more than half of China is still offline. With 600m people using the internet and counting, China will soon overtake the US as the world’s biggest ecommerce market.阿里巴巴的销售额如今超过了eBay和亚马逊(Amazon)之和,占到了中国国内生产总值(GDP)的约2%。中国所有的快递包裹中约有70%来自于阿里巴巴的销售。中国的电商交易中大约有80%是通过阿里巴巴的网站进行的。而这很可能只是一个开始,因为仍有一半以上的中国人不上网。鉴于中国网民人数已经达到6亿,而且还在不断增加,中国将在不久超越美国,成为全球最大的电商市场。Mr Ma, godfather of China’s scrappy entrepreneurial spirit, is the FT’s 2013 Person of the Year because he personifies the Chinese internet – with all its potential and its contradictions.身为中国斗志旺盛的企业家精神“教父”的马云,被英国《金融时报》评为2013年度人物,因为他是中国互联网的化身——体现了中国互联网的全部潜力和矛盾。In a nation whose success has been built largely on business ideas developed elsewhere, Mr Ma is a true innovator. His contemporaries have mostly copied established business models to create “China’s Google”, “China’s Amazon” or “China’s Twitter”. But when Mr Ma started Alibaba in his apartment in 1999, this type of business-to-business ecommerce website did not exist.在中国,创业成功大多依赖于借鉴海外发展起来的商业理念,但马云是一位真正的创新者。与他同时代的人,大多复制成熟的商业模式,创立“中国的谷歌(Google)”,“中国的亚马逊(Amazon)”以及“中国的推特(Twitter)”。但当马云1999年在自己的公寓里创立阿里巴巴时,企业对企业(B2B)电子商务网站还不存在。Mr Ma is now setting his eyes on a new goal: shaking up Chinese finance. This has sent shockwaves through the staid, state-dominated financial sector and shows that his ambitions extend well beyond online retail.马云现已将目光投向新的目标:撼动中国的金融业。这在古板的、公有制为主体的中国金融行业激起了轩然,并表明马云的雄心远远超出了在线零售业。But there is another reason for choosing Mr Ma this year: his decision in May to step down as Alibaba’s chief executive at the age of 48 to devote himself to tackling some of China’s biggest problems – in particular its looming environmental disaster.但将马云评为今年的年度人物还有另一个原因:今年5月,他决定在年届48岁之际卸任阿里巴巴首席执行官职务,转而投身于应对中国一些最大的问题——尤其是中国日益迫近的环境灾难。He remains executive chairman of the company but his decision to focus less on the blind pursuit of riches and more on improving the state of the world reflects a profound shift in Chinese society – one that is being facilitated by the rise of the internet. After three decades of double-digit economic growth, the country’s growing and increasingly vocal middle class is no longer content with a myopic focus on GDP growth rates.马云仍是阿里巴巴的执行董事长,但他决定将更少的精力用于盲目追求财富,而将更多精力用于改善世界面貌,这反映了中国社会的深刻转变——互联网的崛起正使这种转型变得更加容易。在经历了30年的两位数经济增长后,中国不断壮大且越来越愿意表达自身诉求的中产阶层不再满足于短视地关注于GDP增长率。“In China, because of problems in water, air and food safety, in 10 or 20 years we will face a lot of health problems, like increased cancer. So that is one area where I will invest my money and time,” Mr Ma said in a telephone interview last week. “My second focus is people’s culture and education – if we don’t do this then young Chinese people will grow up with deep pockets but shallow minds.”马云上周在接受电话采访时表示:“在中国,因为水源、空气质量以及食品安全等方面的问题,10至20年后我们将面临大量健康问题,例如癌症发病率上升。因此我将在这个领域投入我的资金和时间。我的第二大关注领域是民众的文化和教育——如果我们无所作为,中国的年轻人将成长为富裕但浅薄的一代。”Mr Ma’s energy and optimism inspire many. But that does not mean he is a saint. Some former colleagues and confidants say his incredible success and the adulation it has brought has made him overconfident in his ability to change the world.马云的活力和乐观精神鼓舞了很多人。但这并不意味着他是个圣人。一些前同事和密友表示,马云惊人的成功以及由此带来的过度美誉,使他对自己改变世界的能力过于自信。In almost the same breath, he will say the internet is going to make China more open and transparent, while also vowing to hand over to the authorities information on any netizen who dares criticise the authoritarian Communist party.他会在几乎同一句话里表示,互联网将使中国变得更加开放透明,而他将继续向当局提供任何敢于批评威权的共产党的网民的信息。His own authoritarian tendencies, and his sometimes dizzying reversals in business strategy, have bred resentment among a minority at Alibaba. But his cult-like following ensures even disgruntled former employees do not dare criticise him openly.马云自己的专断倾向,以及他有时令人眩晕的商业战略逆转,使阿里巴巴的少数人产生反感。但他近乎偶像人物的光环意味着,即便是心怀不满的前员工也不敢公开批评他。“Anybody who wants to do anything in the Chinese tech industry in future has to be careful what they say about Jack Ma because he is just so powerful,” says a former employee who asks not to be named.一位要求匿名的前员工表示:“任何未来想在中国科技行业中做点什么的人,在谈到马云时都必须慎言,因为他的影响力太过强大。”“But even people like me who don’t buy into his cult of personality recognise that he epitomises the entrepreneurial new China, where a person from a very poor background can become huge through pure perseverance and by rallying people around him.”“但即便像我这种不吃他的个人崇拜那一套的人也承认,他是中国新一代企业家的代表,一个背景很穷的人通过坚持不懈和笼络人才成长为巨头。”Born in the southeastern Chinese city of Hangzhou in 1964, Ma Yun (his Chinese name) inherited a gift for showmanship from his parents, who earned their living as performers of “ping tan”, a traditional musical storytelling technique.马云1964年出生于杭州,他从父母那里继承了表演的天赋。马云的父母靠表演评弹(一种传统曲艺形式)为生。Mr Ma’s early life cannot have been easy: traditional ping tan was banned during the Cultural Revolution, the catastrophic decade-long political campaign launched by Mao Zedong in 1966 in which millions were persecuted, killed or banished to remote parts of the country.马云的早年生活肯定不容易:评弹在文化大革命期间遭禁,这场由毛泽东在1966年发动的灾难性政治运动持续了整整十年,其间数百万人受到迫害、被杀死或下放到中国的偏远地区。As a child, Mr Ma was bad at maths but fascinated by English. As China emerged from the trauma of Maoism and began opening up to the world, he decided he would devote himself to learning the language.马云小时候数学较差,但他对英语很有兴趣。随着中国渐渐抚平毛时代的创伤,开始向世界开放,他决定全身心投入英语学习。For nine years he got up early every morning and rode his bike to the Hangzhou Hotel, where he befriended foreign tourists and worked for free as a tour guide in order to practise English.有整整九年时间,他每天都早早起床,骑上他的自行车奔向杭州大酒店(Hangzhou Hotel),他在那里和外国游客交上朋友,免费充当导游,以练习自己的英语。After twice failing China’s national university entrance exam he was eventually admitted to Hangzhou Teacher’s Institute, where he graduated in 1988.在参加高考两次落第之后,他最终进入了杭州师范学院,并于1988年毕业。He worked as an English teacher at a local university making a month but in 1994 he started a translation business that took him to the US, where he was introduced to the internet. At the time, China’s state media were not allowed even to mention its existence.此后他在杭州当地的一所高校担任英语老师,每月的工资相当于12美元。但1994年他成立了一家翻译公司,这使他有机会去美国出差,在那里接触到了互联网。那时中国的官方媒体甚至不能提及互联网的存在。After a failed attempt to start an online Chinese version of the Yellow Pages, Mr Ma went to work for the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation, where one day he was assigned to take an American visitor on a tour of the Great Wall.在创办中国黄页(China Yellow Pages)失败之后,马云进入中国对外经济贸易部工作。有一天,他被指派陪同一位美国游客游览长城。The visitor was Jerry Yang, co-founder of Yahoo. The meeting would turn out to be transformative for both men.这位游客就是雅虎(Yahoo)的联合创始人杨致远(Jerry Yang)。事实明,这次的见面将成为两人事业生涯的转折点。Early in 1999, Mr Ma gathered 17 friends and founded Alibaba in his apartment in Hangzhou, giving rousing lectures that revealed his ambition, his vision and his fighting spirit.1999年初,马云联合17位朋友在他位于杭州的公寓里创建了阿里巴巴。他发表了励志演讲,展示了自己的雄心、愿景和战斗精神。“Chinese brains are just as good as theirs and this is the reason we dare to compete with Americans,” Mr Ma told his comrades in a speech that was caught on camera. “If we’re a good team and we know what we want to do then one of us can defeat 10 of them.”马云在这段被录制下来的演讲中向他的战友们表示:“中国人的大脑和美国人一样聪明,这正是我们敢于和他们竞争的原因。如果我们是一个优秀的团队,而且我们知道自己想要做什么,那么我们就能以一当十。”Alibaba’s model was simple: allow small and medium-sized Chinese companies to find global buyers they would otherwise only be able to meet at trade shows. It worked brilliantly.阿里巴巴的模式非常简单:帮助中国的中小企业找到原本只能在交易会上见到的全球买家。这种模式取得了极大的成功。In 2003, Alibaba made its first tiny profit and launched Taobao (“search for treasure”) to compete with US ecommerce group eBay, which then dominated in China with market share of about 80 per cent.2003年,阿里巴巴首次实现了小额盈利,同时为了与美国电子商务集团eBay竞争而创建了淘宝网,当时eBay在中国占据主导地位,拥有大约80%的市场份额。In a series of interviews with global media, Mr Ma announced he was “going to war” with eBay. At the time, it seemed like a comical mismatch.在接受全球媒体的一系列采访时,马云宣布与eBay“开战”。当时,这种宣战显得有些可笑,因为双方实力悬殊。By 2007, eBay’s market share in China had dropped to less than 8 per cent and it had in effect quit the market. Taobao’s share price had soared to 84 per cent, making Mr Ma the unrivalled king of Chinese ecommerce.到2007年,eBay在中国的市场份额降至不足8%,实际上已经退出了中国市场。淘宝的市场份额飙升至84%,这让马云成为了无可匹敌的中国电商之王。He struck a landmark deal with his old friend Mr Yang in 2005, with Yahoo paying bn for a 40 per cent stake in Alibaba and handing its China operations over to Mr Ma to run.2005年,他与自己的老朋友杨致远达成了里程碑式的协议:雅虎付10亿美元收购阿里巴巴40%的股权,并将其中国业务交给马云运营。In taking over Yahoo China, Alibaba inherited a scandal that would cast a shadow over Mr Ma’s reputation in the west but cement his image as a safe pair of hands in the eyes of the Chinese government.阿里巴巴接管雅虎中国(Yahoo China)的同时也继承了一桩丑闻,这将为马云在西方的形象带来阴影,但巩固了其在中国政府眼里办事可靠的形象。Yahoo’s earlier decision to hand over private email information to the Chinese authorities had led to at least two Chinese journalists and democracy advocates being thrown in prison for subversion.此前,雅虎将私人邮件信息移交给中国有关部门的决定,导致了至少两名中国记者和民主人士因颠覆罪被捕入狱。When asked how he would handle such a situation now that he was in charge of Yahoo’s China operations, Mr Ma’s reply was unambiguous.当时有记者问马云,既然你现在负责雅虎中国业务,你将如何处理这种局面,他的回答相当干脆。“We create value for the shareholders and the shareholders don’t want us to oppose the government and go bankrupt,” he told reporters at the time. “Whatever [government officials] say, we’ll do it.”马云向记者表示:“我们为股东创造价值,股东不希望我们与政府作对,走上破产之路。无论(政府官员)说什么,我们都会配合。”When asked last week in the interview about the challenges of dealing with the Chinese government, Mr Ma pointed out that there had never been an organisation in China or perhaps anywhere that is as large as Alibaba. It boasts more than 600m registered accounts and welcomes about 100m shoppers a day.在上周采访中被问及与中国政府打交道的种种挑战时,马云指出,中国(或许全世界)从来没有阿里巴巴这么大的企业。阿里巴巴号称有6亿多注册账户,每天有大约1亿人通过其平台购物。“At the beginning I thought the government would worry,” Mr Ma said. “[But] we focus on business and the creation of jobs. The government seems to feel more comfortable now.”马云说道:“起初我以为政府会感到不安。(但)我们致力于商业和创造就业。政府现在似乎放心多了。”To his employees he has often said that Alibaba should “be in love with the government but never marry it”. Over the years he has repeatedly turned down offers to establish joint ventures with the state.在公司内部,他经常对员工表示,阿里巴巴应该“跟政府谈恋爱但不要嫁给他们”。多年来,他一再拒绝了与政府建立合资企业的提议。Apart from the Chinese government, Mr Ma seems willing to pick a public fight with almost anyone.除了中国政府以外,马云似乎愿意与几乎所有人公开作对。That includes Alibaba investors such as Yahoo and, most recently, the Hong Kong Stock Exchange, which this year refused to change its listing rules to accommodate the corporate structure Alibaba would like to use for its forthcoming IPO.这包括雅虎等阿里巴巴投资者,最近还有香港交易所(Hong Kong Stock Exchange)。香港交易所今年拒绝为了配合阿里巴巴希望采用的股权结构而修改上市规则。Within Alibaba, this fighting spirit is celebrated constantly and employees – or “Alipeople” as they are called – assume nicknames taken from characters in the kung fu novels that Mr Ma loved to as a young man.在阿里巴巴内部,这种战斗精神不断得到赞扬,而员工们(他们被称为“阿里人”)几乎都有一个来自马云年轻时非常喜欢阅读的武侠小说的化名。This is more than a gimmick for Mr Ma, whose own nickname – “Feng Qingyang” – comes from a reclusive swordsman character who was unpredictable and aggressive.对马云来说,这不只是一种噱头。马云自己的绰号是“风清扬”,它来自一个隐居山中的剑侠角色,行事不可预测而且非常好斗。“People don’t realise how much martial arts and kung fu novels influence Jack and his strategy for business,” says a former confidant. “They also helped shape his idealism because they are all about upholding the righteous way.”马云以前的一位密友表示:“人们没有意识到武术和武侠小说对马云及其企业战略的影响有多大。它们还帮助塑造了马云的理想主义,因为它们的要义都是弘扬正义。”Outside the ruling Communist party it is hard to find anyone today in China who has had a bigger impact on the lives of ordinary people than Mr Ma.在执政的共产党以外,在当今中国很难找到另一个人像马云一样,对普通人的生活影响如此之大。His decision to address some of the biggest problems facing China shows that his ambition extends far beyond changing the way people do their shopping. In an essay published this year, he laid out the scope of his vision.他决定应对中国一些最大的问题,这表明他的雄心远不止改变人们的购物方式。在今年发表的一篇文章中,他阐述了自己的愿景。“Just as the internet is revolutionising retail,” Mr Ma wrote, “we at Alibaba believe it will eventually do the same to fundamentally information-driven industries such as finance, education and healthcare. Once this change happens – once we are all connected – I believe the spirit of equality and transparency at the heart of the internet will make it possible for Chinese society to leapfrog in its development of a stronger institutional and social infrastructure.”马云写道:“就像互联网正在改写零售业那样,在阿里巴巴,我们相信它最终也将转变那些根本上由信息驱动的行业,比如金融、教育和医疗。一旦发生这种变化,一旦我们全面实现互联互通,我相信,互联网核心的平等与透明精神,将让中国社会有可能在发展更强大的制度和社会基础设施方面实现飞跃。”But he also included a warning: “Our water has become undrinkable, our food inedible, our milk poisonous and worst of all the air in our cities is so polluted that we often cannot see the sun,” he wrote. “Twenty years ago, people in China were focusing on economic survival. Now, people have better living conditions and big dreams for the future. But these dreams will be hollow if we cannot see the sun.”但他也提出了警告:“现在我们的水不能喝了,食物不能吃了,牛奶有毒,最糟糕的是,我们的城市空气污染如此严重,以至于我们经常看不到太阳。20年前,中国人只想着经济生存。现在人们的生活条件变好了,对未来有更远大的梦想。但如果我们看不到太阳,这些梦想将是空洞的。” /201312/268904

On Tuesday, HP announced the sudden resignation of interim board chair Ralph Whitworth effective Wednesday. The activist investor is also taking a leave of absence from the company he co-founded, Relational Investors, for health reasons.上周二,惠普公司(HP)宣布,董事会临时主席拉尔夫o惠特沃斯突然辞职,从周三起生效。此外,在其联合创建的Relational Investors公司,这位激进投资者也因健康原因开始休假。This is not good news for CEO Meg Whitman, who joined HP’s HPQ -1.12% board in January 2011 and became CEO that same year in September. Despite the nearly billion write-down of HP’s Autonomy purchase in November 2012 and lingering concerns about HP’s business model and strategy on her watch, Whitman has survived atop HP much longer than her predecessor Leo Apotheker did. (He served less than a full year.)对于惠普CEO梅格o惠特曼来说,这绝非好消息。惠特曼于2011年1月加入惠普董事会,并在同年九月份出任惠普CEO。2012年11月,惠普收购英国软件公司Autonomy的交易巨亏90亿美元,而且,外界对于惠特曼上台之后惠普的业务模式和战略也一直存在担忧。尽管如此,惠特曼担任惠普CEO的时间,已经远远超过了其前任李艾科(李艾科担任CEO不足一年。)Her survival has been aided in large part by Whitworth’s evident patience and support since he joined the board in November 2011 and then became interim chair in April of last year. Whitman has benefited from the respect other shareholders have for Whitworth—and his presence and optimism have reassured HP shareholders about the company’s course, keeping them at bay. The mutual respect between the CEO and chair was evident in their statements in the tech giant’s press release announcing Whitworth’s departure.而她之所以能够幸存下来,很大程度上得益于惠特沃斯显而易见的耐心和持。惠特沃斯于2011年11月加入惠普公司董事会,次年4月成为临时主席。股东对惠特沃斯的尊敬,给惠特曼带来了极大的帮助,他的存在以及他的乐观精神,让惠普股东消除了有关公司发展的疑虑,并稳定了股东情绪。在宣布惠特沃斯辞职的新闻发布会上,从发言中可以明显感受到CEO与董事会主席之间的相互尊重。Former J.C. Penney JCP -1.61% CEO Ron Johnson likely wishes he’d had Whitman’s situation. In his case, shareholder activist Bill Ackman, who served on the J.C. Penney board, had recommended the former Apple executive for the top spot at the retailer. But Johnson was out the door in less than two years. Patience had run out.原彭尼百货公司(J.C. Penney)CEO罗恩o约翰逊肯定希望自己能有惠特曼的好运。彭尼百货公司董事会成员、激进投资者比尔o阿克曼,推荐前苹果公司(Apple)高管约翰逊执掌公司。但不到两年之后,约翰逊便被逐出门外。因为,董事会已经失去了耐心。“Ralph was a big asset to corporate governance at HP,” says John M. Nash, founder and president emeritus of the National Association of Corporate Directors. When Whitworth was president of the ed Shareholders Association, Nash and Whitworth used to spar on TV about governance issues, Nash says. “We agreed to disagree and we always respected each others’ opinions,” Nash told me. (Full disclosure: Nash has worked with my company.)美国公司董事联合会(National Association of Corporate Directors)创始人兼荣誉主席约翰oMo纳什表示:“对于惠普公司的治理,拉尔夫是一项宝贵的资产。”惠特沃斯担任美国股东协会(ed Shareholders Association)主席时,曾就公司治理问题在电视上与纳什展开激辩。纳什表示:“我们会求同存异,始终尊重彼此的意见。”(披露:纳什在我在同一家公司工作。)HP’s latest voting materials described some of the firm’s accomplishments during Whitworth’s tenure. The company was one of the first to allow shareholder nominated directors, under certain conditions, to be included in the company’s official voting materials. In July 2013, the company hired three new directors. And the board expanded its outreach to shareholders on Whitworth’s watch.惠普最近的股东投票材料中描述了公司在惠特曼领导下取得的部分成就。在特定情况下,某些公司允许在公司官方投票材料中提名股东为董事,惠普是其中一家。2013年7月,公司新聘请了三位董事。惠特沃斯任职期间,惠普董事会加大了与股东的联系。HP had a lot to do to rehabilitate its governance image. Today, HP is no longer the laughing stock it once was in the corporate director community.为了恢复在公司治理方面的形象,惠普要做很多事情。如今,惠普不再是公司董事会团体里的笑柄。It will be difficult for HP’s board to continue effectively in Whitworth’s absence. When Whitworth was appointed as interim chair in April 2013, I wrote that, “Whitworth has pledged that the board will recruit a chair presumably outside the ranks of existing members.” In July 2013, three new directors joined the board. But none have governance running through their veins, like Whitworth has, and none would provide the shield from shareholders that CEO Whitman has enjoyed. As of February 2014, the board reported that it was still searching for a suitable chair candidate.没有惠特沃斯,惠普董事会很难继续保持有效运行。2013年4月,惠特沃斯被任命为临时主席时,我曾写道:“惠特沃斯承诺,董事会将在现有成员之外招聘一位主席。”2013年7月,有三位新董事加入董事会。但没有人像惠特沃斯一样,具备公司治理方面的经验,也没有人能为CEO惠特曼提供庇护,使其免受股东们的责难。2014年2月,惠普董事会表示仍在寻找一位合适的主席人选。Giving the chair role to Whitman now would be a big mistake for HP, the board, and Whitman herself. But it’s possible the board will make that mistake. While the shareholder voting materials earlier this year said that, “The Board’s preferred governance structure is to separate the roles of Chairman and CEO because it allows our CEO to focus primarily on our business strategy and operations,” later on, the same document equivocates. “This reflects the Board’s preferred governance structure of a separate Chairman and CEO, but the Board’s leadership structure may vary in the future as circumstances warrant.”现在,任命惠特曼兼任董事会主席,不论对惠普、董事会还是惠特曼自己来说,都将是一个巨大的错误。但惠普董事会很可能会犯这样的错误。虽然今年年初的股东投票材料中写道:“公司更倾向于董事会主席与CEO的职责分离的治理结构,因为这种结构将使公司CEO致力于商业策略与运营。”但文件下文却变得模棱两可。“这反映出董事会首选的是董事会主席与CEO职责分离这种治理结构,但在特殊情况下,未来董事会的领导结构可能发生变化。”HP has many challenges ahead. At the end of June, HP had good news on the Autonomy front when it reached settlements in three shareholder lawsuits, the Wall Street Journal reported. But, as the Journal pointed out, regulatory inquiries are ongoing. Apple’s AAPL -1.78% new partnership with IBM IBM 0.07% is just one example of a host of competitive struggles the company faces.惠普面临诸多挑战。《华尔街日报》(Wall Street Journal )报道称,在六月底,惠普收购的Autonomy公司传来好消息,公司在三起股东诉讼中均已达成和解。但《华尔街日报》指出,监管调查仍在继续。对惠普来说,苹果与IBM最近达成的合作,只是它所面临的竞争中的一笔。Relational, Whitworth’s firm, has been a major owner in HP stock. If the board is smart, they will consider extending an offer to Dave Batchelder, Relational’s other co-founder, to join the board and take the interim chair spot until a permanent chair is selected. Batchelder, like Whitworth, is respected in both the shareholder and board member communities. He could stabilize the board and help ensure HP finds the right permanent chair.惠特沃斯的公司Relational是惠普的主要股东。如果董事会足够聪明,应该考虑邀请Relational另外一位联合创始人贝奇德加入公司董事会,并在选出常驻主席之前,担任临时主席。与惠特沃斯一样,贝奇德也深受股东和董事会成员的尊敬。他能够稳定军心,帮助确保惠普找到合适的常驻董事会主席。Such a move would also give Whitman more time to focus on her responsibilities as CEO of HP. I’m thinking she could use it.而且,这种做法也可以给惠特曼更多时间,致力于履行惠普CEO的职责。我认为,她会充分利用这段宝贵的时间。Eleanor Bloxham is CEO of The Value Alliance and Corporate Governance Alliance, a board education and advisory firm.本文作者爱丽诺·布洛斯罕是董事会咨询机构价值联盟和公司治理联盟(The Value Alliance and Corporate Governance Alliance,首席执行官。 /201407/313371Ticket prices for tourist attractions in Beijing will remain stable despite an expected glut of visitors during the upcoming Mid-Autumn Festival and National Day holiday, according to an official at Beijing#39;s tourism authority.根据北京旅游局相关工作人员表示:即使已经预料到大批游客将会在即将到来的;双节;--中秋节和国庆节,来到北京,但是北京各大旅游胜地的票价仍将会保持不变.We support the suggestions from the China National Tourism Administration and will not raise the ticket prices at scenic spots during the coming holidays,; said Zhao Guangchao, a member of the Beijing Tourism Development Commission. ;Besides, ticket prices of Beijing#39;s attractions are comparably cheap.;北京旅游发展委员会的赵广超称:“我们持中国国家旅游局的建议,并且在即将到来的节假日,我们不会提高旅游景点的票价。除此之外,北京市内的各大景点的票价相对更便宜”According to the tourism research center at the China Academy of Social Sciences, the average ticket price at all 186 top-level attractions in China was 112 yuan (.50) at the end of 2014. However, the ticket price at scenic spots in Beijing is relatively cheap. A ticket for the Palace Museum, for example, only costs 60 yuan, despite being a top attraction.根据中国社会科学院旅游调查中心的研究表示:在2014年末,中国186个5A级旅游景区的普遍票价为112元(17.5美元),相比较之下,北京各大风景名胜的票价更便宜.例如即使作为最顶级的景点的故宫,票价仅收取60元Zhao said that related government departments would check ticket prices at tourist sites during the National Day holiday and impose financial penalties if necessary.赵广超还表示,在国庆节期间,相关政府部门将在旅游景点监管票价,并且必要时加强罚款措施During the coming holidays, Beijing is expected to see another increase in visitor numbers. According to an estimate from Beijing#39;s transportation authority, the number of visits will reach 160 million from Oct 1 to 7. At tourist attractions, Oct 2 and 3 will see a great increase in visitors, the authority said.在即将来临的节假日里,预计北京将会再一次出现游客数量上涨的现象.根据北京交通部门的预估,从10月1日到10月7日游客数量将会达到1亿6000万.该部门还表示,从10月2日到3日,游客数量将会达到顶峰Song Yu, head of the Beijing Tourism Development Commission, said Beijing would collect information about the capacity of tourist attractions to avoid overcrowding.宋宇,北京旅游开发委员会会长表示,他们将会及时收集各旅游景点的相关信息以此来避免拥挤;For those that have reached their maximum capacity, scenic spots should stop selling tickets and inform other tourists immediately,; added Song.宋宇补充道:“那些已经达到最大容量的景点,应该停止售票并且立即通知其他游客” /201509/400180

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