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来源:百度信息    发布时间:2019年10月24日 13:38:33    编辑:admin         

Science and Technolgy科技infantile anaemia婴儿贫血Blood simple简单的输血A small change in how babies are delivered might abolish infantile anaemia分娩方式的简单改变可能帮助消灭婴儿贫血CHILDHOOD anaemia is a problem. Around the world, almost a quarter of under-fives suffer from it. And anaemia is not a trivial thing. A childs development, both physical and mental, is stifled by a lack of iron. The reason is that, besides its well-known role in haemoglobin, the oxygen-transporting molecule in the blood, iron is also involved in many aspects of brain development.儿童贫血症是一个全球性的问题,将近四分之一的五岁以下儿童忍受着该病的折磨,使得我们无法忽视它。儿童身体和智力的发育,都会受到铁元素匮乏的影响,因为除了在血液中的氧气运输分子——血红蛋白中发挥着众所周知的作用外,铁元素还在许多方面参与了大脑的发育。A study just published in the British Medical Journal by Ola Andersson, an obstetrician at the Hospital of Halland in Halmstad, Sweden, suggests that a simple change of medical procedure when a child is born may bring a big reduction in anaemia. That change is not to cut the umbilical cord linking the child with the placenta straight after birth—as is standard practice—but, rather, to give it time to transfer more of the placentas contents (particularly its blood) to the child it has been nurturing.来自瑞典哈尔姆斯塔德市哈兰医院的产科医生Ola Andersson刚刚在不列颠医学杂志上发表的一项研究表明,简单改变婴儿分娩的流程,也许就能显著降低贫血症的发生。这个改变是,不要像惯常操作那样,在胎儿出生后马上剪断连接胎儿与胎盘的脐带,而是等一等,让更多胎盘中的物质(特别是血液)流向胎儿。The argument in favour of rapid clamping is that too much blood may flow from the detached placenta to the newly born child, and that this can cause problems of its own. But that is unproven, and would be a strike against evolution because, in nature, the umbilicus of a mammal usually does remain attached to the infant for some time after birth. Only the modern technology of clamps and sharp scissors permits the slithery tube to be dealt with at speed.坚持快速钳住脐带(速钳法)的观点认为,让太多的血液从胎盘流向新生儿会带来其自身的问题,但这种观点其实从未被实,而且显然与进化论相抵触,因为在自然界中,哺乳动物的胎儿通常在出生后一段时间内仍然通过脐带与母体相连,只有钳子和剪子这种现代工具,才能迅速地处理光滑的脐带。To test her idea that extended post partum connection to the placenta is good for a childs health, Dr Andersson and her colleagues recruited 334 pregnant, non-smoking women whose fetuses appeared to be healthy. When these women came to term, their midwives followed one of two sets of instructions, chosen at random and given to them just before each birth. In 166 cases the newborns had their umbilical cords clamped within ten seconds of delivery. The other 168 had them clamped after at least three minutes had passed.为了实延长产后胎儿与胎盘的连接时间确实有益于儿童的健康,Andersson士和她的同事们招募了334个没有吸烟习惯的妇志愿者,她们肚中的胎儿看起来都很健康。在妇们临产时,助产士为她们从两种生产方式中随机选择一种。在166例中,脐带在新生儿出生后的十秒内被钳住,而在另一组168例中,这个时间至少超过三分钟。When the children were four months old, Dr Andersson re-examined them and took a blood sample. Those babies whose umbilical clamps had been applied after three minutes had, on average, iron levels 45% higher than those whose cords had been clamped immediately. Put another way, only 0.6% of them were anaemic, compared with 5.7% of the rapidly clamped.在这些儿童四个月时,Andersson士重新对他们进行检查并抽取血样。那些脐带在三分钟后才被钳住的儿童,体内的铁元素平均水平要比采用速钳法的儿童高出45%。从另一个角度看,相较于采用速钳法的儿童中5.7%的贫血症发生率,他们的这个比例只有0.6%。Rapid clamping of the umbilicus, then, seems to cause one child in 20 to become anaemic, at least in the early months of its life. Any experiment of this sort needs to be repeated, of course, to check it is correct. But if it is, then the burden of proof in the matter of when to cut the cord will have shifted from those who would cut late to those who would cut early. The cost of doing so would seem negligible; the benefit, great.看起来速钳法在每20个儿童中便导致一例在其出生后的最初几个月内发生贫血。当然,这类研究结果都需要通过重复实验来验可靠性。但如果这个结论确实正确,那么采用速钳法的人将更有义务来明为什么要迅速的剪断脐带,毕竟延长几分钟时间没有什么麻烦,而益处却是显而易见的。 /201210/204096。

Science and Technology Policing The aftershocks of crime科技 治安 犯罪余震An idea borrowed from seismology may help to predict criminal activity从地震学上获取的灵感或许能预测犯罪行为LOS ANGELES is one of the most under-policed cities in America. With a mere 26 officers for every 10,000 residents (Chicago, by comparison, has 46), the Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) needs all the help it can get.洛杉矶是美国警力最不足的城市之一,每一万个市民只分配了26名警察(相比之下,芝加哥是46名),因此洛杉矶警局急需各方援。That help may be at hand, with a modification of technology used to predict another type of threat that the city is prone to: the aftershocks from earthquakes. Big earthquakes are unpredictable. Once they have happened, however, they are usually followed by further tremors, and the pattern of these is tractable.援也许就近在咫尺,只要将一项技术修改一下便可。这项技术原本是用来预测余震的——这个城市很容易受到的另一种灾难。大地震是无法预测的,但是大地震发生后随之而来的余震模式却是可以掌控的。George Mohler, a mathematician at Santa Clara University, in California, thinks something similar is true of crimes. There is often a pattern of ;aftercrimes; in the wake of an initial one. The similarity with earthquakes intrigued him and he wondered if the mathematical formulas that seismologists employ to predict aftershocks were applicable to aftercrimes, too.加利福尼亚州的圣克拉拉大学的数学家乔治·默赫勒(George Mohler)认为,余震和犯罪有着相似之处。在初始犯罪后,常会尾随一种;犯罪后效应;模式。这种和地震的相似性激起了他的兴趣,于是他想,如果地震学家应用的预测余震的数学公式应用到犯罪后效应中,又会如何呢?To test this idea, he and a team of researchers from the University of California, Los Angeles, adapted a computer program used by seismologists to calculate the likelihood of aftershocks. They then seeded it with actual LAPD data on 2,803 residential burglaries that occurred in an 18km-by-18km region of the San Fernando valley, one of the citys largest districts, during 2004. Using the seismological algorithms, the computer calculated which city blocks were likely to experience the highest number of burglaries the next day, and thus which 5% of homes within the area were at particular risk of being broken into. In one test the program accurately identified a high-risk portion of the city in which, had it been adequately patrolled, police could have prevented a quarter of the burglaries that took place in the whole area that day.为了测试这一想法,他和一队来自加利福尼亚大学的研究人员采用了一套地震学家用来计算余震可能性的电脑程序,输入了2004年,在圣费尔南多谷(洛杉矶最大的区之一)中面积为18*18km2的区域里发生的2803起住宅爆窃案的警方数据。通过地震学的运算法则,电脑计算出了哪些街区在第二天可能会遭到大批盗窃,因此区域内5%的住宅都冒有很大被盗的风险。在一项测试中,这个程序精确地辨识出了该市的一块高风险区,而如果巡逻充足,警方本可以在那一天阻止该地区四分之一的盗窃案。In addition to modelling burglary, Dr Mohler examined three gang rivalries in Los Angeles, using data from 1999 to 2002, and discovered that similar patterns emerge from gang violence as retaliations typically occur within days—and metres—of an initial attack. That, too, should help police deploy their limited resources more effectively. RoboCop move over, then. ComputerCop is coming.除了用盗窃案做模型,默赫勒用1999到2002年的数据,也检测了三起洛杉矶的帮派斗争,并发现了相同的模式:在最初的袭击之后,几天内会在邻近区域很典型地发生复仇暴力。这也能帮助警方更有效地部署有限的资源。机器战警(《机器战警》是一部1987年的科幻片——译注)已经过时,现在是电脑战警的时代了。 /201301/223231。

Business Bookselling Spine chilling商业 售书业前景 令人胆战心惊Mass-market retailing changed publishing before the e-bookE书时代近在眼前,纸书商改出版策略SNAZZY technology is a twist in a narrative aly several chapters long. Mass-market retailing has changed the publishing industry: these days books are as likely to be found beside steaks and saucepans as they are to be bought in specialist stores. The story turns on whether broader changes in bookselling will stifle literature. Dan Brown will survive. Would Dante?先进科技已经在小说故事中纠结了好几个章回。图书市场零售业改变了自己的出版业策略:现如今,人们在牛排、炖锅旁找到售书点的概率就如在专门店买到书的概率一样小。故事发展成售书业的变化日益扩大,它是否会扼杀文学这一问题。丹布朗能够幸免于难,但丁也会么?For most of the past century, governments across Europe protected book prices; many still do. Even in America, apart from dime-store romances, few titles were sold outside bookshops. But in the 1970s stores like Borders and Barnes amp; Noble applied a supermarket maxim to print: pile them high and watch them fly. Waterstones did the same thing in Britain and top titles started selling in the hundreds of thousands, even millions.在前一世纪大部分的时间里,欧洲的政府都在保护图书的价格,很多国家依然这么做。甚至在美国,除了小商品店里的言情小说,其他种类的图书在书店以外的地方几乎绝迹了。但在20世纪70年代,诸如鲍德斯、巴诺这样的书店却都奉行着超市售书箴言:只要把书摞高,人们就会抢光它。英国的华特史东书店也这样做,这使得畅销书开始了以成百上千甚至是百万册的数量销售的历史。Just as book superstores forced out many independents, so supermarkets and other mass retailers have since crowded the book chains (see chart). In Britain, when price regulation was disbanded in 1997, supermarkets rushed in and now sell a quarter of all books, according to the way that Nielsen, a market-research outfit, calculates it. Belgium and Finland mimicked this trend.就像超级书店独立出来很多自立门户的店铺一样。超市还有其他的零售商业也开了很多图书连锁店。(见图),根据市场调研机构Nielsen的统计,在英国,97年价格管制被撤消的时候,超市蜂拥而入并开始销售市场1/4的图书。比利时以及芬兰也纷纷效仿这一趋势。This has been good for ers: in Britain the average price of a book has fallen by 15% since 2003, reckons BML Bowker, a book-marketing consultancy. And demand has grown: consumers spend the same amount on books, so they must be buying more. Those independent bookshops that survived the chain war in America and Britain have held sales and prices steady. Meanwhile, mass retailers find books such a draw that they lure in customers by selling some titles at a loss.这对于读者来说是个好消息。图书市场顾问鲍克出版社的数据显示,03年英国图书的平均售价下降了15%。而图书需求量也上升了:消费者在图书上花费同样多的钱,图书的价格降了,这样他们购买的书更多了。那些在美国、英国连锁店之战中幸存的个体书店,久维持着图书的销量还有价格的稳定。同时,销售商发现一个赚钱的方法,他们以亏本地销售一些图书来吸引顾客购书。Higher turnover should also be positive for publishers. But mass retailers demand discounts of up to 60% for bulk orders, shrinking margins. All sides prosper when books sell quickly. But, unlike groceries, if books dont sell, retailers return them to the publisher—and do not pay. So, when a book with a large print run flops, publishers end up with an expensive pile of recycling. That is why some publishers have stopped doing new deals with the likes of Costco, an American warehouse retailer, which likes to order very large print runs.按理说出版商应该也得到更高的利润。但大批订货的商家向出版商索要高达60%的数量折扣,这反而使得利润减少了。只要书卖得快,各家都会得利。但是,与日常用品不同,如果书籍卖不出去的话,零售商就把书返回给出版商——并且不付返回的书费。这样,当一本大量印刷的书籍不好买,出版商就得最终以高价来回收它。这就是为什么一些出版商停止与类似于美国的科思科这样的连锁店做生意的原因。因为这些商店喜欢订购大宗的货物。Few people will mourn publishers losses from increased price competition and new technology like e-ers. The question is whether these trends undermine the quality of books which are being published, by breaking a business model that has let firms focus on variety and range. Publishers have good reason to shiver at the decline of traditional bookshops. To fund the discovery and promotion of new authors, they have relied on books that sell steadily over a number of years. Yet mass retailers stock a few hundred new blockbusters.像e书读者一样,很少有人来吊唁出版商因日趋激烈的价格竞争以及日益发达的科技而导致的损失。问题是,这些趋势会不会扰乱商业模式——使出版商不再专注于扩大图书规模增加图书种类,从而降低出版的书籍的质量。在传统书店数量减少的情况下,出版商感到害怕是正常的。为了资助发掘和宣传新作家,出版商们依靠那些很多年来都销售平稳的书籍来维持运营。但是,零售书商们也储存着几百个新的畅销巨作。At first sight there is no reason for concern. New works are abundant—40% more titles came out in Britain in 2010 than in 2001. But this obscures a starker trend: ;mid-list; titles are selling in smaller numbers in America and Britain. This matters for cultural life, because most literary fiction and serious non-fiction falls into that bracket and much of it could become uneconomical to publish.乍一看,图书业没什么让人担心的问题——新作品很多——英国10年出版的新作品数量比01年高出了40%,但是它掩盖了一个严峻的趋势:;销售量居中;的图书,在美国和英国的销售量少了。这会影响到人们的文化生活,因为大部分的文学小说还有严肃类非小说作品都属于这一范畴,以至于很多这种书出版起来可能毫无利益可言。 /201301/222008。

China;Chinas economy;Not with a bang;中国;中国经济;不咋地;Chinas property prices and its local-government debt have started rising again. That may be a good thing中国的房地产价格和地方政府债务又开始上升了,这或许是件好事FangZhuang, a high-rise neighbourhood tucked inside Beijings third ring road, was one of Chinas first commercial housing projects. Its four divisions share a park, schools, a courthouse and a Carrefour supermarket. Characters in the divisions four names combine to mean “stars of the ancient world”. Back in 1990 Fangzhuang flats sold for about 1,500 yuan (234 Dollar at todays rate) per square metre, according to Credit Suisse, a bank. Since then, prices have reached for the stars of the modern world, exceeding 30,000 yuan in that part of Beijing.挤在北京三环内的高层住宅区——方庄,曾是中国第一个商业住宅项目。它的四个小区共用一个公园、学校、一个法院和一个福超市。将这四个小区名字中间的汉字连起来就是“古城群星”。根据瑞士信贷——一家(的消息),早在1990年,方庄公寓大概卖1500元(按今天的汇率合234美元)一平米。从那以后,价格就成了当世巨星,北京那一块的价格超过了3万元。Chinas unruly property market was once dubbed, with excusable hyperbole, the “most important sector in the entire global economy” by Jonathan Anderson, then at UBS, another Swiss bank. It remains the biggest fear hanging over the worlds second-biggest economy. Home prices began falling about a year ago. The declines have depressed investment and curtailed economic growth, which slowed to 7.6% in the second quarter, its slowest rate since .中国不规范的房地产市场曾被当时在瑞银信贷——另一家瑞士——的乔纳森安德森封为“整个全球经济中最重要的部分”,(这里)运用了适当的夸张。它还是悬在世界第二大经济体之上的最大担忧。住宅价格约一年前开始下跌。该下跌抑制了投资,还缩减了经济增长,二季度经济增长减缓至7.6%——年以来最慢的增长率。The only economic anxiety to rival property is local-government debt. Estimated at 10.7 trillion yuan at the end of 2010 by official auditors (and a lot higher by unofficial ones), much of it was held at one remove by so-called local-government financing vehicles. When one such, Yunnan Highway Development and Investment, told creditors in 2011 that it would not repay the principal on their loans, it was described (with equal hyperbole) as the “default heard around the world” by Business Insider, a news website.唯一能与房地产匹敌的经济上的忧虑就是地方政府债务了。2010年底官方审计部门估计有1.7万亿元(然而非官方估计要高出很多),其中很多(丛政府)隔离出来让所谓的地方政府融资平台持有。当这样的一家公司——云南高速公路开发投资公司,在2011年告诉债权人将不会归还他们贷款的本金时,这被一家新闻网站——《商业内幕》——形容(运用适当夸张)为“地球人都知道的违约”。Both worries have roots in the stimulus spree on which China embarked in November 2008. State-owned enterprises began bidding enthusiastically in land auctions, and local governments let their pet projects run wild. Ever since, the two problems have preoccupied Chinas central government. In April 2010 it put curbs on speculative homebuying and spent much of last year tidying up local finances. This spring, Wen Jiabao, the prime minister, boasted that local-government debt had grown by a mere 300m yuan in 2011.这些忧虑都源于中国2008年11月着手的经济刺激计划。国有企业开始在土地拍卖中狂热地竞标,而地方政府让他猛宠爱的项目撒野了。从此,这两个问题就困扰中国的中央政府了。在2010年4月,它开始限制投资性住房的买入,还用了去年大部分时间清理地方融资问题。今年春季,总理温家宝自豪地说,2011年地方政府债务只增长了3个亿。Signs, however, are growing that both property prices and local-government borrowing are rising again. Chinas National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) reports that new home prices rose in June in 25 of 70 cities it tracks. They fell in only 21. Sales volumes also strengthened. Prices are still lower, on average, than a year ago. But according to our weighted average of the (new and existing) home prices reported by the NBS, the pace of decline appears to be bottoming out (see chart). By next month (thanks to a lower base), prices may be rising again, year-on-year.不过,房地产价格和地方政府借款又再增加的迹象开始浮现了。中国国家统计局报告称,六月份它所追踪的70座城市中有25座的新房价格增长了。只有21座城市的下跌了,成交量也增加了。平均价格仍比一年以前便宜。不过,根据我们对统计局报告中(新房及二手)房屋价格的加权平均,下降的步伐貌似要见底回升了(见图)。到下个月(幸亏有个更低的垫底),与去年同期相比,价格可能又要涨了。Local governments meanwhile have been given leave from their debtors prison. Reports suggest that Chinas banking regulator has told banks to increase lending to “better qualified” financing vehicles. These vehicles have also increased their bond sales, issuing over 420 billion yuan-worth of paper aly this year.同时,地方政府也被放出了借款者的牢笼。报告称,中国也监管机构已经让各家对“更有资格”的融资平台增加贷款。这些融资平台也早就增发他们的债券,今年就已经发行了价值超过4200亿元的纸张了。These twin turnarounds might be good news—a sign that property prices have stabilised and local governments have restored their creditworthiness. But they could also be signs of desperation, evidence that the central government has lost its nerve in the face of falling growth.这一对转变可能是个好消息——标志着房地场价格已趋于平稳,而且地方政府也已重铸其贷款信誉。但这也可能是绝境的信号,明中央政府已经在下降的经济增长面前失去了勇气。The rise in local-government borrowing is something in between: a defensible response to a worrying slowdown. Chinas economy does need help, and its government has ample scope to provide it. Some local governments took on more debt than they could handle. But their liabilities never endangered the fiscal position of the country as a whole. The combined debts of Chinas central and local governments add up to about 50% of the countrys GDP (including bonds issued by the Ministry of Railways and Chinas policy banks, intended for state-directed lending). Even if local debts are understated, China has fiscal room for error. Local governments will also borrow less and invest better than they did in the previous stimulus effort, argues Peng Wensheng of China International Capital Corporation, a Chinese investment bank. “The pressure for policy easing is much less now than it was in November 2008,” he says.地方政府借款的增长介于两者之间:是对令人忧愁的增长减速的防御性反应。中国经济确实需要帮助,而且政府也有足够的能力提供帮助。一些地方政府承担的债务大到自己无法处理,但它们的债务还无法危及整个国家的财政状况。中国中央和地方政府的债务总合加起来差不多到国家GDP的50% (包括铁道部和国家政策性用作国家直接借款而发行的债券)。就算地方政府的债务被低估了,中国也有容纳误差的财政空间。地方政府也会少借点,并且比他们在以前努力刺激时期投资得好一些,中金公司的彭文生反驳道,中金公司是一家中国的投行。他说,“目前进行政策宽松的压力要比2008年11月时的小很多”。The rebound in the property market is harder to interpret. It may also reflect a mising of government policy. Some local governments have eased property curbs surreptitiously, hoping to revive construction jobs and land sales (and thus their revenues). The central government is also keen to encourage first-time homebuyers. But it insists that it will still strictly enforce existing curbs on people, especially out-of-towners, buying more than one home. This week the State Council, Chinas cabinet, said it would send inspectors to 16 cities and provinces to curb backsliding.房地产市场的回弹则更难解释。它也可能反应出了对政府政策的误读。有些地方政府希望复苏建筑业的就业和土地出让(这就是他们的收入来源),已经偷偷放松了房地产的限制。中央政府也期望能够鼓励初次购房者。但它也坚持仍将严格实施目前的限制,尤其是对外地人和购买多套住房者。本周,中国的议会——国务院声明它将派出巡视员到16个省市去控制倒行逆施。Yet in most cities, says Jinsong Du of Credit Suisse, it is ever easier to circumvent the rules. He cites one high-profile launch in Shanghai where the flats went for 3m Dollar each. Even the estate agents on site admitted that most buyers aly owned several other properties.瑞士信贷的杜劲松说,但在大多数城市,很容易绕开这些规定。他以上海举了个印象深刻的例子,上海公寓达到了300万美元一套。就连房产中介都承认很多购买者已经拥有了好几处别的房地产。But surely if Chinas property market was a burst bubble, even a forthright relaxation of controls would not reflate it? After Americas property prices began falling in earnest, policymakers tried in vain for years to revive them. Japan has been trying to perk up prices for more than 20 years.不过毫无疑问,如果中国房地产市场是破裂的泡沫,就算是直接放松管制也不会让它再膨胀的。美国房地产价格开始下跌之后,政策制定者们试了好几年来重振它们都于事无补。日本试着恢复价格都已经试了20多年了。Chinas property dynamics may differ, however. In many asset bubbles, prices are pushed up by greedy investors, who borrow heavily to buy. When their creditors get nervous, they default or dump their assets. These fire sales quickly feed on themselves. But Chinas property-buyers are often wealthy firms and individuals looking for somewhere to park their savings. Certainly, they see property as an investment. But they do not necessarily expect prices to go through the roof. Give them any prospect of beating inflation in the long run, and they will buy. China, after all, offers few other options.不过,中国房地产动态可能不同。在很多资产泡沫中,价格被贪婪的投资者推高,他们借了很多去买的。当他们的债权人变得焦急时,他们就会违约或者倾售其资产。这些减价销售很快相互刺激恶化。但中国的房地产购买者常常是一些寻求存放其储蓄之处的富有公司和个人。当然,他们把房地产视为一种投资。不过他们当然没有预料到房价会飞涨。(只要)给他们任何预期能够在长期跑赢通胀的,他们都会买的。毕竟,中国没有提供别的(投资)选择。 /201302/227303。

Submission? A proposal for an orderly EuroZone exit; The prize £390,000 dollars. And today turns out we have a winner.The Wolfson Economics Prize has been awarded to Roger Bootle and his team fromCapital Economics, thats a UK research consultancy, for their submission. 提交书?一份井然有序退出欧盟的提议;奖金为390,000美元。今天公布了赢家。沃尔芬森经济奖号授予了罗杰;布托尔及其团队凯投宏观所提交的研究报告,这是一家英国经济咨询机构。Now after the Nobel Prize for Economics,what all we might hear is the second biggest cash prize awarded for this field.Roger Bootles proposal is called ;Leaving the Euro: A Practical Guide.;He told us how it might work and why he thinks that a real Euro Zone exit ismore likely now than its ever been.目前,在大家所听说的经济学家奖项中,沃尔芬森经济学奖号称是奖金额仅次于诺贝尔奖的经济学家奖项。罗杰;布托尔的提议名为《离开欧盟:一份实用手册》。他告诉我们,退出欧盟的方法,并且他认为此时,以往任何时候都更可能发生退出欧盟的情况。Well, I think the crisis has been buildingup gradually but continually, every so often you get an attempt to fix it orsomething, thats for traders, of fixing of it. And then it proves to beinadequate, which is just another one of those faces. I think the backgroundcrisis is actually intensifying, probably a breakup I would have mentioned: Isit anything more likely now than it was a few months ago? 我认为这一危机是逐渐累积的,但是也是连续的。经常地,你尝试地做一些修改或者为贸易者来说的一些修改。不过,这样的修修补补最后被明是不够的,只不是同一修改的不同表现而已。我认为这一危机的背景确实业已强化,或者是我提到过的另一个词,已被破坏:难道此时不比几个月前更可能发生些什么吗?Our plan envisages a country preparing insecret, a small group of officials. And then, enacting that plan very quickly,essentially overnight, announcing to the populous that domestic monetaryamounts have beenredenominated into a new currency,lets call it the drachma, at one for one. So a given amount in Euros becomesthe same amount in drachmas. Meanwhile, on the exchanges, on the foreignexchanges, the drachma depreciates sharply. Perhaps it would be one up to 1.7,2 to 1, we dont know. Thats not a problem. That is the essence of thesolution.我们预想:一个国家的一小组官员悄然着手准备,然后,极其快速地实施这一退出计划,比较理想的是在一夜之间,向公众宣布,国内货币额已经开始采取一种新的货币形式,让我们先举例称之为德国克马。因此给定的欧元货币额,此时为相同数量的德国克马货币额。同时,兑换时,及进行外汇兑换时,德国克马急剧贬值。可能会是1至1.7,2比1,我们无法得知。不过,那不是问题,反而是问题解决的根本之所在。The country then redenominates all itsdebts, its domestic debt, into this currency. It establishes a newpolicyregime, bans wageindexation, establishes tightcontrols on fiscal policy. And then lies back and hopes, I think correctly,that before very long, that much lower exchange rate will bring renewedeconomic growth.这个国家然后以这一货币形式重新表现了所有负债,国内负债。此时,它建立一种新的政策体制,禁止工资指数化,并对财政政策建立严格控制。到那时,该国可以休息一下,展开期待,我认为很可能地,经历很长的一段时间,极低的外汇汇率将重新带来经济增长。201209/201819。

What would you say is the deadliest animal on earth—the most dangerous, brutal, destructive? The wolf? The tiger? The great white shark? Nope. The best answer is the species known as Homo sapiens—human beings.你认为世界上最致命的物种是什么——最危险,最残暴,最具毁灭性的物种?狼?老虎?大白鲨?全都不是。最正确的是被称为智人种的人类。Not only do we kill members of other species at a rate unparalleled in the history of the planet, but we do something which is singular in the animal world: we make a point of killing each other, too.人类不仅以前所未有的速度杀害其它物种,而且也自相残杀,这种所作所为在动物界中堪称独一无二。That is, this kind of behavior was thought to be singular until just a few decades ago. It was 1974 when the first hard evidence of intra-species murder was documented in animals other than man—that is, animals going out of their way to find a member of their own species and kill it without immediate provocation.直到几十年以前,这种行为仍被认为是独特的。1974年第一起据确凿的种内谋杀案件被记录在案,这次案件的凶手是动物而不是人。换而言之,动物用自己的方式寻找同类敌人,在没有直接挑衅的情况下杀掉它。The species witnessed committing these murders was the chimpanzee, a close relative to human beings. Further observation of primate behavior has discovered that not only is intra-species murder common, so are such brutalities as rape, battering of females and infanticide.那些被目睹犯下谋杀罪行的物种便是猩猩,一个人类的近亲物种。更进一步地观察灵长类动物的行为,就会发现在这个种群里内不仅种内谋杀很常见,连强奸,重伤雌性猩猩,杀婴这类暴行也时有发生。It seems that the worst traits in human behavior started developing long before human beings per se existed; as primates we have a very nasty evolutionary inheritance. Does this mean that war, crime and violence among humans is unavoidable?这似乎说明在人类开始进化很久以前,这种最糟糕的特质本就存在:作为灵长类动物,我们进化遗传了这种丑恶的特质。那么这意味着人类发起战争,犯罪还有暴力事件是不可避免的吗?It would not be fair to go that far; but the evidence of violence in those species most closely linked to our own does suggest that humanity will have to work very hard indeed at overcoming its genetic inheritance, if we are going to live in peace—or continue to live.事态还没有严重到这种地步;但这种与每个人都戚戚相关的暴力据暗示着人们,要想和平相处,继续活下去的话,就得非常努力地克自身的基因缺陷。原文译文属!201210/203337。