楼主:千龙解答 时间:2019年11月16日 05:13:41 点击:0 回复:0
Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge南京长江大桥Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge in the north-west of the Yangtze River, connecting the urban areas with the Pukou District, is one of China#39;s own design and construction of double-lane highways, railways dual-use bridge, completed on December 29, 1968.南京长江大桥位于南京市西北长江上,连通市区与浦口区,是一座我国自己设计建造的双层双线公路、铁路两用桥,1968年12月29日竣工。Highway, on top of the bridge, is 4589 meters long with 15 meters wide carriageway, which can accommodate four large auto parallel. The two sides also have more than two meters wide sidewalks. The railway bridge is 6772 meters long, 14 meters wide, with the two-track shop. Two trains can be off at the same time. The bridge on surface of the river is 1577 meters long, and the remaining is for the highway bridge with the rich Chinese characteristics Double Arch Bridge hyperbolic form. 200 iron relieves are embedded into the highway bridge railings on both sides, besides, there are 150 pairs of magnolia flower-shaped lights on sidewalks. Each of two north-south ends of the bridge has a 70 meters high bridge tower. The lift in the tower will carry people reach the railroad bridge, the road bridge and the watch station on the tower. In front of each tower, it stands a 10-metre high sculpture of worker-peasant-soldier. Down the south tower, it is a beautiful park.上层的公路桥长4589米,车行道宽15米,可容4辆大型汽车并行,两侧还各有2米多宽的人行道;下层的铁路桥长6772米,宽14米,铺有双轨,两列火车可同时对开。其中江面上的正桥长1577米,其余为引桥,公路引桥采用富有中国特色的双孔双曲拱桥形式。公路正桥两边的栏杆上嵌着200幅铸铁浮雕,人行道旁还有150对白玉兰花形的路灯,南北两端各有两座高70米的桥头堡,堡内有电梯可通铁路桥、公路桥及桥头堡上的嘹望台。堡前还各有一座高十余米的工农兵雕塑。南堡下是一个风景秀丽的公园。On December 18, 1968, China#39;s own design and construction of the Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge was opened to traffic. It marks a leap of China#39;s bridge construction. Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge is recorded by Guinness World Revenue.The completion of the Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge, shortened one and a half hours by ferry from the river in the past to two minutes by train on the bridge, greatly facilitated cross-strait exchanges and the exchange of personnel, materials, promoting the economic development and people#39;s lives.1968年12月18日,中国自行设计和施工的南京长江大桥建成通车。它标志着中国桥梁建设的一个飞跃。南京长江大桥被收入世界吉尼斯纪录。南京长江大桥建成,使南来北往的火车由过去靠轮渡过江的一个半小时缩短为两分钟,大大方便了长江两岸的物资交流和人员来往,对促进经济发展和改善人民生活产生了积极的作用。 /201602/419393Moscow on Tuesday lifted a ban on the Russian-language version of Wikipedia less than a day after imposing it.俄罗斯官方周二解除了不到一天前实行的针对俄文版维基百科(Wikipedia)的禁令。Internet regulator Roskomnadzor said an article about Charas, a form of hashish, ruled illegal by a local court in June, had now been sufficiently edited on Russian Wikipedia to put the online encyclopedia in compliance with the ruling.互联网监管机构——联邦电信、信息技术和大众传媒监督局(Roskomnadzor)表示,俄文版维基百科上关于Charas(某种形式的印度大麻脂,6月份被俄罗斯一家法院裁定为非法)的条目已得到充分编辑,这个在线百科全书网站遵守了法院裁决。The webpage has therefore been excluded from its internet blacklist, it added.该机构称,相关网页因此已被剔除出其互联网黑名单。Several Russian internet service providers started blocking access to the Russian-language Wikipedia site after the regulator added it to its registry of forbidden information on Monday.该监管机构周一将俄文版维基百科列入封禁网站的名单后,俄罗斯几家互联网务提供商开始屏蔽这个网站。Internet users in some Russian regions saw a notice from the registry instead of the Wikipedia page when trying to access it.俄罗斯某些地区的互联网用户在试图访问该网站的时候,会看到封禁网站登记机构的一份通知。Wikipedia said the outlawing of some information triggered a blacklisting of the entire service because the website uses the secure protocol HTTPS which prevents the filtering and censoring of its content from the outside.维基百科表示,某些信息被列为非法,连累整个务被列入黑名单,因为该网站使用HTTPS加密协议,使第三方无法从外部过滤和审查网站内容。Russian Wikipedia said the entry in question had aly been edited to rely only on public scientific and UN sources before Monday’s ban.俄文版维基百科表示,在周一遭遇封禁之前,相关条目已经过编辑,完全采用了公开科学和联合国资料来源。The lifting of the ban defuses what threatened to become the most serious fallout yet from growing Russian internet censorship on global internet services. So far, stricter internet regulations introduced over the past three years have mainly hit Russia’s online media.解除禁令化解了俄罗斯对全球互联网务不断强化审查本来有可能产生的最严重后果。到目前为止,过去三年更严格的互联网法规主要打击了俄罗斯的在线媒体。However, the shortlived ban demonstrated to a larger audience the impact stricter internet control rules introduced in early 2014 can have. Since then, the authorities have had the power to blacklist websites without a court order.然而,这一短暂的禁令向世人展示了2014年年初出台的更严格互联网控制规则可能产生的冲击。自那以来,当局有权在没有法庭命令授权的情况下将网站列入黑名单。Following these legal changes, the list of web pages blocked in Russia on orders of the prosecutor-general has quickly grown. Information on drugs tops the list of reasons given for blocking orders, but charges of extremism and threats to state security are also common.法律变化出炉后,根据俄罗斯总检察长的命令被封的网页列表迅速变长。封禁名单上给出的最常见理由是含有有关毒品的信息,但极端主义和威胁国家安全的罪名也很常见。 /201508/395600The development of computer programs that can beat humans at games has a long history — from the mastery of noughts and crosses in the 1950s to Deep Blue’s celebrated defeat of world chess champion Garry Kasparov in 1997. 能够在游戏中击败人类高手的计算机程序有着悠久的发展历史——从上世纪50年代掌握“井字棋”制胜之道,到1997年“深蓝”(Deep Blue;IBM研发的计算机——译者注)击败国际象棋世界冠军加里#8226;卡斯帕罗夫(Garry Kasparov)。 In recent years, however, the pace of advance has quickened. Data-crunching devices routinely notch up previously unthinkable victories. Computers can triumph in quiz games, as IBM’s Watson proved when it won the TV show Jeopardy in 2011. They also mimic human aptitudes with ever greater facility. For instance, machines play arcade games simply by observing the movement of objects on the screen. 然而,近年来进步速度加快了。能够运算海量数据的设备经常取得以往不可想象的胜利。计算机能够在智力竞赛中取胜,IBM的“沃森”(Watson)在2011年赢得电视节目《危险边缘》(Jeopardy)就是例。它们还能以越来越强大的“悟性”模仿人的天赋。例如,机器通过观察屏幕上物体的运动,就能学会玩街机游戏。 Even so, the triumph of the AlphaGo computer over the South Korean world champion Lee Se-dol in the first of a five-match series in the ancient Chinese board game of Go marks more than just a new notch on the computerised honours board. Mr Lee had been confident of victory and proclaimed himself “shocked” by his defeat. 即便如此,AlphaGo电脑在古老的中国棋盘游戏——围棋的对垒中击败韩国九段棋手李世石(Lee Sedol),在五局“人机对战”中首战告捷,不仅标志着电脑荣誉板上的一个新档次。赛前对胜利信心满满的李世石,在落败后坦承“震惊”。 Go is a little like a version of chess, only vastly more complicated. Indeed the possible moves within a game exceed the number of atoms within the universe. This is a challenge that would defeat traditional programmes. Indeed it can only be mastered by computers assembled into neural networks that teach themselves through observation and practice — abilities that remain at the frontiers of computer science. 围棋有点像国际象棋的变体,只是复杂程度高得多。的确,其棋局的变数比宇宙中的原子数量还要多。这个挑战会挫败传统的程序。事实上,只有多台计算机组成神经网络,通过观察和实践来“自学”(这些能力仍处于计算机科学的前沿),才能驾驭这种高难度挑战。 Demis Hassabis and his team at DeepMind, the UK-based artificial intelligence (AI) arm of Alphabet, deserve credit for the speed at which they have mastered this undertaking. True, AlphaGo, a formidable piece of IT, could be described as a computerised sledgehammer aimed at a recreational nut. Its victory, however, is a reminder of how fast the world is overcoming the obstacles in the way of AI, and its deployment in the world about us. 杰米斯#8226;哈萨比斯(Demis Hassabis)以及他在DeepMind(Alphabet旗下英国人工智能部门)的团队以如此快的速度掌握围棋制胜之道,这一点值得赞赏。没错,作为一件具有强大能力的信息技术设备,AlphaGo可以被形容为一把计算机化的大锤,其用途是敲开一个消遣的坚果。然而,它的胜利提醒世人,世界正在快速攻克人工智能及其实际部署所面临的障碍。 That is largely due to the huge amount of cash being poured into AI research by US and Chinese companies. These are poaching some of the brightest computer scientists from universities, giving them the capacity and tools to pursue their heart’s desire. 这在很大程度上归功于美国和中国企业对人工智能研究的巨大投入。这些企业从高校挖走一些最优秀的计算机科学家,并提供资源和工具,让这些科学家从事内心渴望的研究。 According to a recent survey, half of the world’s AI experts believe human level machine intelligence will be achieved by 2040. This opens up huge possibilities for the enrichment of mankind, from tackling climate change and treating disease to labour-saving devices. It also raises ethical questions every bit as profound as those posed by genetics. AI experts talk about the possibility of the human brain being reverse-engineered. Physicist Stephen Hawking last year warned that unless we take care, board games might be the least of it: AI could ultimately “outsmart us all”. 根据最近的一项调查,全球半数人工智能专家相信,人类水平的机器智能到2040年就能成为现实。这为增进人类福祉开启巨大可能性——从应对气候变化、治疗疾病,到节省劳动力的设备。这也引发种种道德问题,其深刻性丝毫不亚于遗传学所构成的道德问题。人工智能专家谈到人脑被“逆向工程”的可能性。物理学家史蒂芬#8226;霍金(Stephen Hawking)去年曾警告,除非我们小心,否则棋盘游戏可能是最无关紧要的问题:人工智能最终可能“比我们所有人更聪明”。 One does not have to believe in some future tech dystopia to believe that governments and wider society should take the implications of these developments seriously. Google, Facebook and other companies rushing into AI point out that they are establishing ethics panels to consider appropriate uses for these technologies. These are unlikely to be immune from commercial interests or indeed from the gung-ho enthusiasm of the researchers. 人们不一定非要相信未来将出现某种科技“敌托邦”才会认为,政府和整个社会应该认真对待这些发展的潜在影响。竞相进军人工智能领域的谷歌(Google)、Facebook等公司指出,他们正在成立伦理小组以考量这些技术的适当用途。这些小组不太可能对商业利益以及研究人员的热忱无动于衷。 Some external scrutiny akin to that supplied in the case of genetics by the UK’s Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority is needed to protect the public from developments that may threaten more than the amour-propre of a South Korean Go champion. Granted, there may yet be no evidence that computers will ever shrug off their human masters but we should still treat these developments with the humility and caution they deserve. 需要进行一些外部监督,类似于遗传学领域的英国人类受精和胚胎学(HFEA),以保护公众免受相关发展的威胁,这些威胁所牵涉的不只是韩国围棋高手的自尊。当然,目前也许还没有据表明计算机有朝一日将踢开他们的人类主人,但我们仍应该对这些发展给予应有的谦卑和审慎。 /201603/431097

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