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福州那个医院治疗无精好医苑频道

2019年09月20日 16:35:09 | 作者:赶集媒体 | 来源:新华社
3.Newspapers3.报刊雏形The Romans were known to contribute to public discourse through the use of official texts detailing military, legal and civil issues. Known as Acta Diurna, or ;daily acts,; these early newspapers were written on metal or stone and then posted in heavily trafficked areas like the Roman Forum. Acta are believed to have first appeared around 131 B.C. and typically included details of Roman military victories, lists of games and gladiatorial bouts, birth and death notices and even human interest stories. There was also an Acta Senatus, which detailed the proceedings of the Roman senate. These were traditionally withheld from public view until 59 B.C., when Julius Caesar ordered their publication as part of the many populist reforms he instituted during his first consulship.古罗马会发布《罗马公报》(或称《每日纪闻》),里面会涉及到处理军事、法律和民事的问题,让民众通过文章了解这些事项的结果;这些内容,会写在金属或刻在石头上,放在诸如古罗马广场这样的闹市区,供民众浏览,这便是报纸雏形。据考,《罗马公报》最早出现于公元前131年,设及内容相当广泛,包括罗马军事捷报、比赛事项、格斗回合场次、出生喜讯和讣告等,甚至还会写些民众喜欢的故事。此外还有《元老院记事录》,用来记录罗马元老院会议的讨论和决议,虽然也算报纸雏形,但其内容保密,禁止公诸于众。直到公元前59年,古罗马执政官尤列乌斯·凯撒(Julius Caesar)在第一任期内实行民主改革,下令公布元老院及公民大会的议事记录,这些内容才得以流传开来。2.Concrete2.混凝土Many ancient Roman structures like the Pantheon, the Colosseum and the Roman Forum are still standing today thanks to the development of Roman cement and concrete. The Romans first began building with concrete over 2,100 years ago and used it throughout the Mediterranean basin in everything from aqueducts and buildings to bridges and monuments. Roman concrete was considerably weaker than its modern counterpart, but it has proved remarkably durable thanks to its unique recipe, which used slaked lime and a volcanic ash known as pozzolana to create a sticky paste. Combined with volcanic rocks called tuff, this ancient cement formed a concrete that could effectively endure chemical decay. Pozzolana helped Roman concrete set quickly even when submerged in seawater, enabling the construction of elaborate baths, piers and harbors.罗马混凝土的出现使得许多古罗马建筑,诸如万神庙、斗兽场、古罗马广场屹立至今。罗马人首次利用混凝土建造房屋大约源于2100年前,那时,混凝土被广泛应用于地中海地区所有的建筑中,包括引水渠、桥梁以及纪念碑等等。罗马混凝土在强度上远不如现代混凝土,但罗马混凝土独特的成分使其更加持久耐用。罗马混凝土是罗马人利用熟石灰和一种在维苏威火山地区发现的粉尘物(Pozzolana)与水混合制成的具有高粘性的糊状物。加入了火山凝灰岩的罗马混凝土具有超强的抗化学腐蚀性,而维苏威火山地区的粉尘物(Pozzolana)使得罗马混凝土即使在海水中也能够迅速凝结硬化,得益于此,罗马人精心建造了浴场、码头和港口。1.Aqueducts1.引水渠The Romans enjoyed many amenities for their day, including public toilets, underground sewage systems, fountains and ornate public baths. None of these aquatic innovations would have been possible without the Roman aqueduct. First developed around 312 B.C., these engineering marvels used gravity to transport water along stone, lead and concrete pipelines and into city centers. Aqueducts liberated Roman cities from a reliance on nearby water supplies and proved priceless in promoting public health and sanitation. While the Romans did not invent the aqueduct—primitive canals for irrigation and water transport existed earlier in Egypt, Assyria and Babylon—they used their mastery of civil engineering to perfect the process. Hundreds of aqueducts eventually sprang up throughout the empire, some of which transported water as far as 60 miles. Perhaps most impressive of all, Roman aqueducts were so well built that some are still in use to this day. Rome#39;s famous Trevi Fountain, for instance, is supplied by a restored version of the Aqua Virgo, one of ancient Rome#39;s 11 aqueducts.古罗马拥有大量的公共设施,诸如公厕、地下排污系统,喷泉和公共浴池等等,大大方便了罗马人的生活。但是如果没有罗马引水渠的发明,一切与水有关的创新设施都将无法实现。第一条引水渠建造于公元前312年,在重力作用下,以石管、铅管和陶管作为输水管道把水引入城区。引水渠解决了罗马城的用水问题,对城市公共健康和卫生设施的发展也发挥了极其重要的作用。在引水渠出现之前,埃及、巴比伦和亚述人用原始运河引水灌溉,而罗马人则利用土木工程技术对运河进行改进,从而发明了引水渠。罗马帝国时期,数百条引水渠遍布整个帝国,其中一些水渠甚至长达60英里。水渠的伟大之处在于其历经千年岿然不动,时至今日,部分水渠仍在发挥作用,令人叹为观止。罗马著名的特莱维喷泉(Trevi Fountain)正是位于古罗马十一条大型水渠之一的维戈水渠(Aqua Virgo)的水源所在地。审校:省略珺 橘子 /201507/387725Princess#39; first portrait photos英王室首发小公主照Britain#39;s royal family has released the first official photos of month-old Princess Charlotte, photographed by her mother in the arms of elder brother Prince George.英国王室日前公布了刚刚满月的夏洛特小公主首张官方照片,在这几张由妈妈亲自拍摄的照片上,小公主正和哥哥乔治王子亲密拥抱。Kensington Palace issued four images, taken by the Duchess of Cambridge in mid-May at Anmer Hall, the family#39;s home in eastern England.肯辛顿宫一共公布了4张照片,均由凯特王妃于5月中旬拍摄于英格兰东部的王室别墅安默堡。They show Charlotte propped on a pillow, cradled by George, who turns 2 in July.在照片上,夏洛特靠在一个枕头上,7月就满2岁的哥哥乔治正抱着她。Charlotte wears a white sweater, the prince a white top trimmed in blue.小夏洛特身穿一件白色毛衣,王子则穿着一件蓝边的上衣。Charlotte was born May 2 and is fourth in line to the throne.夏洛特出生于5月2日,是王室第4顺位继承人。 /201506/379311Reaching the end of a job interview ,到了工作面试的最后部分,the personnel recruitment officer asken a young engineer fresh out of Cambridge,人事招聘主管问一位刚从剑桥毕业的年轻工程师:; And what starting salary were you looking for?;“你想要起薪多少呢 ?”The engineer said,;In the neighborhood of 0,000 a year,depending on the benefits package .;工程师说 :“太约一年十四万左右吧,要视整体福利而定。”The interviewer said,;Well ,what would you say to a package of 5-weeks vacation,面试主管说:“嗯,五个礼拜的假期,14 paid holidays,full medical and dental,十四天带薪假,全额补助医疗和看牙科,company matching retirement fund to 50% of salary ,百分之五十薪资的公司相对退休基金,and a company car leased every 2 years ,say,a red sports Mercedes? ;每两年公司租用配车,比如说,红色的奔驰跑车,你觉得怎幺样呀?”The engineer sat up straight and said ,工程师挺直坐着说:;Wow!Are you kidding?;“哇!你在开玩笑吧?”And the interviewer replied,;Yeah,but you started it.;面试主管回答说 :“对呀。不过是你起头的呀。” /201503/361461

ARIES amp; ARIES:白羊-白羊:Temper tantrums are quite likely to erupt into major wars with this combination. Remember, only one party can win, and neither one will accept defeat.两个一模一样的白羊座在一起,必然是爆炸性的组合,时常有发生战争。相处下去很可能会两败俱伤哦。ARIES amp; TAURUS:白羊-金牛:The Bull has trouble with your free spirited attitude. With compromise, it can work. A little bit dull for you at times; however, it can be a stabilizing experience for you.热情英勇的白羊和略显迟纯的牛儿看上去并不是最理想的搭配。不过,只要彼此互相迁就,还是能相处得不错。有一点闷的牛儿有时会让你觉得无聊,但他觉得是个靠得住的人。ARIES amp; GEMINI:白羊-双子:Wonderful alliance. This is an exciting, sexual encounter that can last. Both you and Gemini are so spontaneous and full of life that there is no time for either of you to become bored.你们是完美的情侣组合,俩人相处地非常和协,一点儿也不觉得枯燥乏味。ARIES amp; CANCER:白羊-巨蟹:The Crab is far too sensitive and slow for your speedy and hot tempered nature. You will have difficulty listening to the Crab#39;s nagging and negativity. This is really a poor match up right from day one.天生敏感的蟹子根本受不了迅速热情的白羊。白羊也难以接受巨蟹的唠叨和消极。你们实在是不搭调的一对。AIRES amp; LEO:白羊-狮子:This is a most exhilarating combination. You both share the same likes and dislikes. You are both always on the go, craving excitement, love and fun. This is truly a link made in heaven.这绝对是令人艳羡的理想组合。你们互相欣赏对方,分享彼此的好厌。简直就是天造地设的一对嘛。ARIES amp; VIRGO:白羊-处女:Your impulsiveness is just too much for the Virgoan. Virgo#39;s practical, critical nature will drive you away rapidly. This is a relationship better left alone.在完美主义的处女座眼中,你的冲动是他/她最不能忍受的。分开可能对双方更有好处。ARIES amp; LIBRA:白羊-天秤:Although opposites attract, the Scales are just a little too lazy to keep up with you. You, on the other hand,lack the sophistication required to keep a Libran happy.尽管两个性格相差太大的你们走到了一起,天秤还是有点跟不上你的步伐。另一方面,你也缺少让天秤座的对象一直开心的经验。ARIES amp; SCORPIO:白羊-天蝎:You are both ruled by the catalyst Mars that makes this union hot and heavy. The possessive Scorpio will,however, clash with your free spirited nature.火星控制的羊儿一心想让这对组合变得热烈且稳固,但占有欲更强的蝎子总与你的想法背道而驰。ARIES amp; SITTARIUS:白羊-射手:This can be a good and lasting relationship. You are both fun-loving and quite oblivious to the faults that might drive most people crazy.这又是一对完美的组合,你们的关系可以长久维系。你俩都爱嬉笑玩乐,且宽宏大量、不计较对方的过失。ARIES amp; CAPRICORN:白羊-羯:Finances are the biggest detriment in this connection. You can spend it as fast as the hard working Goat can make it, and that drives the frugal Capricorn insane.经济问题是这对组合的最大障碍。白羊花钱的速度赶上羯赚钱的速度,这样一来,羯不疯才怪呢。ARIES amp; AQUARIUS:白羊-水瓶:This is not a bad connection. You are both inquisitive; however, at times you may find it difficult to contemplate what the Water-bearer will do next.这对组合并不太完美。你们都有强烈的好奇心,然而,有时白羊发现自己也很难预测水瓶下一步会出什么招。ARIES amp; PISCES:白羊-双鱼:Your temperaments are just so different that it does put a strain on the relationship. You could never handle the Fish#39;s emotional whims for any length of time.你们的性格太不一样,这很能让你们成为理想的伴侣。而且,你很难接受鱼儿过于理想化的感情观念。 /201507/385967

Many of us have turned to photo sharing on social media to exploit the opportunity to send a shameless selfie to a love interest.我们许多人都爱找各种机会在社交媒体上分享自拍照,以向暧昧对象传递暗示信息。But very few of us would be prepared to admit the hidden agenda in our snaps.但很少有人会勇敢承认自己发自拍时,葫芦里究竟卖的什么药。However, model Holly Carpenter, 23, from Dublin, has decided to address the subject head-on by revealing the secret meaning behind women#39;s Snapchat photos.然而,来自都柏林的23岁女模Holly Carpenter决定来点直接的,她在网络上揭示了女生发自拍的真正意义。Holly, who was the winner of Miss Ireland in 2011 and has since enjoyed a successful modelling career, has posted a series of images on her blog, with two pictures side by side - the one on the left with the original caption, and the caption on the right explaining what women really mean.Holly曾于2011年获得爱尔兰冠军,模特事业从此顺风顺水。她近日在客上传了一系列左右对比照,左边为发送在社交网站的原话,右边则是发照片时真正的意图。For example in one snap the model shares a photograph of herself posing in a onesie with a dog with the caption: #39;Pjs amp; puppy cuddles#39; which she reveals actually means #39;look how cute I am.#39;例如,有一张她穿着连体衫抱着的照片,配的原话是:“睡衣,小抱抱”,而她的实际意思是“快看我有多可爱!”In another photo, Holly poses in a revealing vest with the caption: #39;So hungover#39; which she then confesses in the caption on the photo on the right means: #39;Cleavage game is strong here...#39;在另一张照片里,她穿着一件比较暴露的背心,配的描述是:“宿醉好难受”,但她承认自己其实想表达的是:“此处有乳沟……”Holly says that she was inspired to create the blog post after witnessing other women creating tactical Snapchats.Holly表示,她是在目睹了其他女性的“战略性自拍”后才萌发了创作这篇文的想法。She told Buzzfeed that she had heard comments like: #39;I#39;m gonna story this selfie so he knows I#39;m out tonight and I#39;m looking well#39; and #39;I sent him a picture of my drink with the cocktail in the background so he knows where we are!#39;她说,她曾听到类似的言论:“我要给这张自拍编个故事,这样他就知道我今晚打扮的漂漂亮亮去参加活动了。”以及“我给他发了一张我喝酒的照片,背景里有鸡尾酒菜单,这样他就知道我们在哪了。”But the model admits that she is not exempt from sending flirtatious snaps.不过她坦言,自己也不例外,也会发自拍照来和别人调情。She continued: #39;If I#39;m having a good hair day and my make-up looks nice I#39;ll find any random excuse to send a snap to someone I fancy, like pick up a random coffee mug and write ;mmm coffee; …even though the mug is empty!#39;她继续说:“如果我今天发型不错,妆容也很美,那我会随便编个理由发自拍照给我喜欢的人,比如随便拿个咖啡杯拍一张,写一句‘嗯,咖啡’,但其实杯子是空的!”The post has picked a lot of hits for Holly being shared almost 4,000 times on Facebook and the model says that she believes this is because most women will be able to relate.她的这篇客给她增添了不少人气,在Facebook上已有4000多次转发。她说,这些转发肯定是因为女士们都觉得被看穿了。She added: #39;When I saw how many shares it was getting and how many people were tagging their friends, I knew it was relatable!#39;她接着说:“看到这么多人转发给朋友看,我就知道大家都被说中了!” /201506/381998

Could we be just two or three years away from curing cancer? Niven Narain, the president of Berg, a small Boston-based biotech firm, says that may very well be the case.我们是否真的在两三年之后,就能实现治愈癌症的愿景?波士顿小型生物科技公司Berg的总裁尼文o纳雷因表示,可能真是这样。With funding from billionaire real-estate tycoon Carl Berg as well as from Mitch Gray, Narain, a medical doctor by training, and his small army of scientists, technicians, and programmers, have spent the last six years perfecting and testing an artificial intelligence platform that he believes could soon crack the cancer code, in addition to discovering valuable information about a variety of other terrible diseases, including Parkinson’s.凭借亿万富翁、房地产业大鳄卡尔o伯格和米奇o格雷提供的资金,纳雷因和他带领的科学家、技术人员和编程人员团队耗时6年,完善并测试了一个人工智能平台,纳雷因认为,这个平台可能很快就会解开癌症的密码,同时为治疗包括帕金森症在内的一系列严重疾病提供有价值的信息。Thanks to partnerships formed with universities, hospitals, and even the U.S. Department of Defense, Berg and its supercomputers have been able to analyze thousands of patient records and tissue samples to find possible new drug targets and biomarkers.凭借着跟多所大学、医院甚至美国国防部建立的合作关系,伯格公司及其超级计算机系统已经分析了成千上万的病历和组织样本,以找到有可能全新的药物靶标和生物标志。All this data crunching has led to the development of Berg’s first drug, BPM 31510, which is in clinical trials. The drug acts by essentially reprogramming the metabolism of cancer cells, re-teaching them to undergo apoptosis, or cell death. In doing so, the cancer cells die off naturally, without the need for harmful and expensive chemotherapy.经过庞大的数据计算,伯格公司开发出第一款新药——BPM 31510,目前该药已经进入临床测试阶段。它可以重组癌细胞的新陈代谢,重新教会癌细胞如何死亡。在这个过程中,癌细胞就会自然死亡,使患者不必经历对身体伤害极大又十分昂贵的化疗过程。So far, Berg has concentrated most of its resources on prostate cancer, given the large amount of data available on the disease. But thanks to recently announced partnerships, the firm is now building a new modeltargeting pancreatic cancer, which is one of the deadliest forms of cancers with a survivorship rate of only 7%.到目前为止,伯格公司的主要资源都集中在前列腺癌上,因为目前有大量关于前列腺癌的数据可供研究。不过拜一项最新合作所赐,该公司现在已经开始构建针对胰腺癌的新模型了。胰腺癌也是最凶险的癌症之一,目前的存活率只有7%。Ambitious as that may be, it is really just the tip of the iceberg. In addition to mapping out prostate and pancreatic cancer, Berg hopes to analyze data from a whole host of other diseases, including breast cancer. Additionally, Berg thinks his company’s artificial intelligence platform can also revolutionize drug testing by creating individualized patient-specific treatment options, which he believes will ultimately reduce the risk of adverse drug interactions in clinical trials and hospitals by a significant degree.这个目标本身可谓雄心勃勃,但它还只是冰山的一角。除了治疗前列腺癌和胰腺癌之外,伯格公司还希望分析多种其它疾病的数据,包括乳腺癌。另外,伯格公司还认为,它的人工智能平台可以根据病人的特异性制定专门针对个别患者的治疗方案,从而将掀起一场药物测试的革命,并显著降低药物的负面作用在临床实验和医疗实践中的风险。I sat down with Berg and Narain to discuss how the company works and what they hope to accomplish in the next few years. The following interview has been edited for publication.我采访了卡尔o伯格和纳雷因,探讨了该公司的工作机制,以及他们在未来几年内的目标。以下是采访摘要。Fortune: Carl, why did you decide to move from real estate into healthcare and has it panned out like you thought it would?财富:卡尔,你为什么选择从房地产业转向医疗行业?它的进展是否符合你的预期?Carl Berg: I have been in the venture capital business for 40 years but I never once touched biotech because I was concerned about the risk associated with government approval – it’s bad enough when you’re doing venture capital but adding one more equation, like getting approval from the FDA [Food and Drug Administration] makes it a lot harder. But about eight years ago I said, instead of getting into a whole bunch of small companies, I am in a position now where I can do something really big in a hope that it changes the world. So that’s what motivated me, and then I met with Niven, and that’s what got it started.卡尔o伯格:我已经在风投界干了40年了,但我从来没有触碰过生物科技领域,因为我担心与政府审批有关的风险。做风投本身就不容易,又要多花一番工夫去获得美国食品药品监督的认,那就会更难。但大概8年前我曾说过,现在我不必再做一堆小公司了,而是有能力做一些影响力足够大甚至有希望改变世界的事。这个目标激励了我,然后我认识了尼文,我们就是这样开始这项事业的。Did Niven convince you to go into biotech or did you find Niven?是尼文说了你进入医疗行业,还是你找到了尼文?CB: I was considering a skin care product investment and I was introduced to Niven at the University of Miami. Niven was the project manager and about a couple months into work on this product, Niven called me and said “Carl, this skin care product appears to have an effect on cancer.” To which I said “Sure, whenever you cure somebody, let me know.”卡尔o伯格:当时我正考虑投资一款护肤产品,然后我在迈阿密大学经人介绍认识了尼文。尼文当时是那个项目的经理,那个项目开始大约一两个月后,尼文给我打电话说:“卡尔,这款护肤产品似乎对治疗癌症有效。”我说:“好吧,如果你治好了谁,记得让我知道。”You didn’t sound very convinced.你听起来好像不太相信。CB: Everybody knows that every cancer is different, so how could this one thing work? That didn’t make any sense to me. And Niven said, “Can I fly out to California and show you my results?” And he came out, and we talked, and I got convinced that the technology he was using and the approach he was taking, could revolutionize the pharmaceutical market.卡尔o伯格:人人都知道,每种癌症都是不一样的,那么这个东西怎么会有效呢?在我看来根本就说不通。这时尼文说:“我能飞到加州向你展示一下我的成果吗?”然后他就来了,经过一番交流,我相信他使用的技术和方法真的有可能在医药市场掀起一场革命。Niven, what did you say to convince Carl Berg that your work on skin cream could possibly lead to a cure for cancer?尼文,你是怎样让卡尔o伯格相信,你那款护肤产品上有可能治愈癌症?Niven Narain: When I met with Carl we were aligned philosophically that there has to be a better way to create a more efficient healthcare system – one that really matches the right patients to the right drugs in a very precise manner. So Carl supported taking this concept to the next level. Instead of treating humans with chemicals, that are screened to become drugs, we actually started with human tissue samples and work to understand the biology and develop drugs based on that. Using AI [artificial intelligence] instead of hypotheses.尼文o纳雷因:当我见到卡尔时,我们原则上同意,肯定有办法建立一个更高效的医疗系统,它能够以非常精确的方式,将病人与正确的药物进行匹配。卡尔持我们将这个理念引向深入。我们不是利用筛选过的化学制品治疗病人,而是从人体的细胞样本入手去了解人体生物学,然后据此研发药物的。我们使用的是人工智能,而不是各种假设。How exactly does artificial intelligence come into play here?人工智能究竟在这个过程中起了什么样的作用?NN: When you start with a hypothesis, you are dismissing a lot of other areas that might actually have an impact on whatever you are trying to figure out. How many times do we see drugs get to late stage trials and fail because the early science either wasn’t robust enough or focused on the wrong target?尼文o纳雷因:如果你从一个假设入手,你就排除了很多其他可能产生真正效果的领域。有多少次药物在晚期测试的失败,是因为它的早期科研不够扎实,或是选择了错误的靶标?At Berg, we use AI to create over 14 trillion data points on only one tissue sample. It is actually humanly impossible to go through all this data and use the traditional hypothesis inference model to glean any value out of all of it. So early on when we built what we call an interrogative biology platform using AI to go through all that data. AI is actually able to take all the information from the patient’s biology, clinical samples, and demographics and really categorize which ones are similar and which ones are different and then stratify those in a way that helps us understand the difference between the healthy and diseased.在伯格公司,我们只针对一个组织样本就建立了超过14万亿个数据点。无论是使用人力,还是使用传统的推理假设模型,要想从所有这些数据中摘取有价值的信息,都是不可能的。所以当我们构建我们所称的疑问型生物平台时,我们使用了人工智能来分析所有数据。人工智能可以从病人的生物数据、临床样本和人口统计资料中摘取所有的信息,并且可以根据类似性和差异性进行分类和分层,从而帮助我们了解健康细胞和病变细胞之间的差异。Fourteen trillion data points sounds like information overload.14万亿个数据点听起来有点超负荷的感觉。NN: So there are two components: the upfront biological and there is something called omics. We go much deeper than just analyzing the genome, we look at all the genes in that tissue sample, all the proteins, metabolites, lipids, patients records, demographics, age, sex, gender, etc. We combine the 30,000 genes in the body with about 60,000 proteins and a few hundred lipids, metabolites. Then we take those components and subject them to high order mathematic algorithm that essentially learns, uses machine learning, to learn the various associations and correlations.尼文o纳雷因:所以它有两个组成部分:首先是生物信息,然后还有所谓的“组学”。我们不仅仅是分析基因组,而是研究一个组织样本的所有基因、蛋白质、代谢分子、脂质、病历记录、人口统计学资料、年龄、性别等等信息。我们把人体的3万个基因与6万种蛋白蛋和几千种脂质、代谢分子的信息综合起来,然后把这些成分用具有机器学习功能的高阶数学算法进行计算,以了解它们的各种关联性和相关性。Omics – it’s a fairly new term. It means you’re going beyond just the genome. It means all the omics – proteomics, metabolomics, and proteins. So we may be born with 30,000 genes, and those genes were born with certain mutations, but that’s not the end of the story. You live in New York City, you are exposed to different things in the environment, your diet is different than someone who lives in Alabama and your sleeping habits are different from some who lives in Utah. We believe all of these things have to be put together to tell the whole story of your omics – the full profile of you.组学是一个相对较新的术语,它意味着你不能仅仅盯着基因组,而是所有的“组”——比如蛋白质组、代谢组等等。虽然可能我们出生就带着3万个基因,而且这些基因可能还有某些天生的突变,但这并不是故事的结尾。你住在纽约市,暴露在环境中的不同物质里,你的饮食与阿拉巴马州的某个人不一样,你的睡眠习惯也与犹他州的某个人不一样。所以我们认为,这些东西应该综合起来,才能完整描绘你的“组学”,即你的整体资料。But how does all of this get us to a cure for anything? Seems like a bunch of number crunching.但是这些东西怎样让我们治病?看起来只是一堆数据分析而已。NN: I know you cover the airline industry pretty intently, so you are probably familiar with those airline route maps that show all the connections between hubs cities and destinations. So with the interrogative biology platform, the result of all that number crunching looks similar to a 3D version of those maps. But instead of those connections going between cities, they are going between genes and proteins. We then focus in on the big hubs and see what, if anything, is wrong. For example, in a system, if Dallas is in Oklahoma, obviously we know something is wrong, so the AI helps to push Dallas back into North Texas, and analyze what events happened in the biology to make that a normal process again. This is what we focus in on. The elements within the biology, the genes and proteins that made that a healthy process again.尼文o纳雷因:我知道你经常报道航空业,你可能很熟悉航空公司的路线图了,它们展示了各个枢纽城市和目的地之间的联系。在我们的疑问型生物平台上,所有这些数据分析的结果看起来就像3D版的航空路线图。但这些联系并不是城市与城市之间的,而是基因与蛋白质之间。然后我们把重点放在那些大的枢纽上,看看是否出了什么问题。比如如果达拉斯市是在俄克拉荷马州境内,我们都知道肯定有问题,这时人工智能就会把达拉斯推回北德克萨斯州,然后分析生物学中的哪些事件可以让人体重启正常的流程。这就是我们的研究重点,即生物的基本元素,以及能让健康流程重启的基因和蛋白质。Have you had any success using this platform in a real world situation?在真实世界中,你利用该平台取得过成功吗?NN: We are in clinical trials for a drug, BPM 31510, which we developed using the interrogative platform. The results we have seen so far have been very encouraging. The platform predicted that the more metabolic, the better the treatment will work. And that is exactly what we are seeing in patients for certain types of cancer. For example, we tested this on a patient who had bladder cancer. It was a very aggressive cancer, which failed to respond to all other therapies. We then put him on BPM 31510, which targeted the metabolism of the cancer cell, and by week 18, the tumor was completely gone.尼文o纳雷因:我们正在测试一款名叫BPM 31510的药物,它就是我们利用疑问型平台研发的。目前显示的结果非常令人鼓舞。该平台显示,新陈代谢越多,治疗就会越有效。根据我们对患有某些癌症的病人的观察,的确是这样。比如我们在一名患有膀胱癌的病人身上测试了这款药物,膀胱癌是一种非常凶险的癌症,几乎对所有疗法都没有反应。我们在他身上使用了BPM 31510,该药以癌细胞的新陈代谢为靶向,到了第18周,他的肿瘤已经完全消失了。Is this a patented process?这种疗法取得专利了吗?NN: We spent the lion’s share of the first six years building the platform, developing it into various areas of focus, getting our early drugs into clinical trials and diversifying the use of the technology. And we have filed over 500 patents around the world that govern this specific elevated biology. So we have patents on the biological process, on the mathematics, the informatics, on each individual candidate biomarker, and drug targets. It is a very robust IP portfolio.尼文o纳雷因:我们把前六年的大部分时间花在构建平台、研究各个重点领域、对早期药物进行临床实验和实现技术使用的多样化上。我们在全球已经注册了500多个专利。所以我们在生物学、数学、信息学上都有专利,对每个个体生物指标和药物靶标也都有专利。总之我们有着非常坚实的知识产权资产。Who are your competitors and where are you versus them in taking this process to the next level?你们的竞争对手是谁?与他们相比,你们在今后的发展中处于何种地位?NN: We get asked that fairly often. There are folks and entities that do pieces of what Berg does. They’re leading companies focused on proteins or analytics, but there isn’t one company we can identify or know of that has taken the biology, the omics, the clinical capability and put it all into an interrogative platform to really allow for a robust understanding of the biology to discover drugs in a different way. Also, we are allowing the data to generate hypotheses instead of hypotheses generating data, so it’s a really different approach. We are fairly unique in that respect – both from a technology, but also from a commercial standpoint.尼文o纳雷因:我们经常会被问到这个问题。也有一些人和机构在做我们正在做的事。他们是一些蛋白质和分析学上的顶尖公司,但我们目前还没有发现哪家公司把有关的生物学、组学研究和临床能力整合到一个疑问型平台上,来对人体产生坚实的理解,并以一种新的方式开发药物。另外,我们是用数据产生假设,而不是用假设产生数据,所以它是一种不同的方法。我们在这方面还是挺独特的——无论是在技术上还是商业上。Carl, for the last few years, you and Mitch Gray have been the only investors in Berg. How come?卡尔,过去几年里,你和米奇o格雷一直是伯格公司的唯一投资人,为什么会这样?CB: I’ve learned that if you get too many people in the early stages of these things, especially within something as risky as this was, basically you have failed because people get upset and they get worried when anything goes wrong. Through all the years that I have been doing this I can kind of roll with the punches. If something goes haywire it doesn’t upset me that much. I know that’s what you’re going to expect.卡尔o伯格:如果你在这些东西的早期阶段就让太多人进入,尤其是这个项目又有比较高的风险,那么你基本上肯定会失败,因为只要有什么事情出了差错,人们就会感到沮丧和担心。凭借多年的风投经历,我基本上已经处变不惊了。就算出了大乱子,我也不会那么沮丧。我知道那就是你需要预料到的。Are you y to open things up now?你们现在打算开放融资了吗?CB: We are definitely planning on doing some other things and bringing in other investors, but we thought we ought to get to a certain point before we did that. I think we are now very close to that point.卡尔o伯格:我们当然希望做些其他事情,并且引入新的投资人。但我们希望在此之前先达到某一个点。我认为我们离那个点已经非常近了。 /201505/375632

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