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2020年01月20日 22:25:21来源:周大夫

American Utopianism美式乌托邦Short-lived, much loved短命的狂热How American idealists withdrew from the mainstream to create their own paradise美国理想主义者退避俗世,自建天堂。UTOPIANISM in politics gets a bad press. The case against the grand-scale, state-directed kind is well known and overwhelming. Utopia, the perfect society, is unattainable, for there is no such thing. Remaking society in pursuit of an illusion not only fails, it leads swiftly to mass murder and moral ruin. So recent history grimly attests.乌托邦主义在政治上不是个好词,现在的主流观点是反对大规模、政府主导的事物。乌托邦这个完美的社会,则是可望不可及的海市蜃楼。强行让社会追求一个虚无缥缈的幻觉不只会以失败告终,也会很快走向大规模屠杀和道德崩溃,这已经被近代历史实了。Although true, that is just half the story. Not all modern Utopians aim to seize the state in order to cudgel the rest of the world back to paradise. Plenty of gentler ones want no more than to withdraw from the mainstream and create their own micro-paradise with a few like-minded idealists. Small experiments in collective living swept America, for example, early in the 19th century and again late in the 20th.尽管这是事实,但并不全面。并不是所有的现代乌托邦都致力于夺取政权,并用暴力把世界改造成伊甸园。很多温和派乌托邦主义者充其量只希望退隐俗世,和一群志同道合者建造一个属于自己的微型天堂。从19世纪初到20世纪末,美国各地都有这些群居者的身影。Most failed or fell short. None lasted. All were laughed at. Yet in this intelligent, sympathetic history, Chris Jennings makes a good case for remembering them well. Politics stultifies, he thinks, when people stop dreaming up alternative ways of life and putting them to small-scale test.这种实践大都是失败的或者受人嘲笑。 Chris Jennings在他的书《现世天堂:美国乌托邦发展史》(《Paradise Now: The Story of American Utopianism.》)中记录了这段凝聚着前人智慧的而又令人同情的历史。他认为,如果人们停止对于另一种生活方式的梦想并不再付诸于实践,则是政治的停滞。Though with occasional glances forward, Mr Jennings focuses largely on the 19th century. At least 100 experimental communes sprang up across the young American republic in the mid-1800s. Mr Jennings writes about five exemplary communities: the devout Shakers, Robert Owens New Harmony, the Fourierist collective at Brook Farm, Massachusetts, the Icarians at Nauvoo, Illinois, inspired by a French proto-communist, Etienne Cabet, and the Oneida Community in New York state practising “Bible communism” and “complex marriage”.尽管书中偶尔会展望未来,Jennings把大部分笔墨放在了19世纪。19世纪中期,至少有100个实验性的公社在年轻的美利坚合众国中,如雨后春笋般萌芽般诞生。Jennings描述了其中5个典型的社区:虔诚的震教徒(一个基督教的分教派——译者注),罗伯特·欧文的新和谐村,傅里叶空想社会主义者在布鲁克农场和马萨诸塞州的公社,继承了法国共产主义者Etienne Cabet的伊卡洛斯派在纳府和伊利诺伊的公社,以及纽约的奥奈达社区(实践了“圣经共产主义”和“群婚”模式)。The Shakers founder was a Manchester Quaker, Ann Lee, a devout mother worn out by bearing dead or dying children. In 1774 she left for the New World, determined to forswear sex and create a following to share her belief. An optimistic faith in human betterment, hard work and a reputation for honest trading helped the Shakers thrive. At their peak in the early 19th century, they had perhaps 5,000 members scattered in some 20 villages across eight states. They counselled celibacy, to spare women the dangers of child-bearing, made spare, slim furniture, now treasured in museums, and practised a wild, shaking dance that was taken as a sign of benign possession by the Holy Spirit.震教徒派创始人是一位名叫Ann Lee的曼彻斯特贵格会教徒,她虔诚却饱受丧子之痛。1774年,她决定开创一个新世界,她誓言禁欲并找到了志同道合的信徒。对于人类进步的乐观信心、努力工作、以及诚实交易使得震教徒派得以发展壮大。到了19世纪早期,教派发展到了鼎盛时期,在美国8个州的20个村子里散布着约5000名信徒。他们提倡独身禁欲,向妇女劝导生孩子的危险,制作现已被收藏于物馆的细长家具,并跳一种狂野而颤抖的舞蹈,这被看作是圣灵良性附身的征兆。译文属译生译世 /201603/429087。

  • The Fuehrer received it,but immediately gave it back to me un.元首收到您的文章,但没有看,直接递给我。He intends to give a major speech on this issue at the next Party rally and therefore, does not want his thinking to be influenced by anybody in any way.他会在下次党派集会上做此议题演讲,所以不希望自己的想法被其他人以任何方式影响。Hitler was thought infallible.希特勒被认为是不会犯错的领袖。When a decision has to be taken,none of us count more than the stones on which we are standing.在要作决定时,我们像脚下的石头般无足轻重。It is the Fuehrer alone who decides.只有元首才有权决定。And in late 1937, in the isolation of his bedroom,the Fuehrer was thinking about this.Austria.1937年末,希特勒独自在卧室里行思坐想着这片土地,奥地利。This place would be the first test of Hitlers desire to occupy land that was not part of Germany.这是希特勒对外军事侵略的首次尝试。The first test of how others would react to his willingness to use brute force to subjugate another country.他想用武力吞并其他国家,意在试探其他国家的反应。Hitler had been born in Austria and passionately wanted this German-speaking country to be under his control.希特勒出生在奥地利,他一心要掌控这个讲德语的国家。On 5th November 1937,Hitler told his military leaders that hed decided to occupy Austria,and then wanted later to eliminate Czechoslovakia.1937年11月5日,希特勒告诉军队统帅决定出兵奥地利之后要拿下捷克斯洛伐克。But his generals were worried that Hitler would start another war.他的将军们担心会挑起新一轮战争。It wasnt the reaction Hitler had expected.这并不是希特勒期望的反应。He wanted his generals to be like this.他希望将军们像这样。 译文属201512/417873。
  • The British government has promised to pay the French utility company up to 92.50 per megawatt hour (three times the current wholesale price) for its output.英国政府答应付法国电力集团高达92.5英镑/兆瓦小时的电力价格(这是现有电力批发价格的三倍)。Despite this generous ocer EDF could still lose out as it is liable for cost overruns.尽管英国政府开出如此优厚的条件,但是法国电力集团仍可能亏本,因为该公司还得承担超出预算部分的造价。A vigorous campaign by officials in China to slow the flow of money leaving the country seems to be working.一项由中国政府发起、旨在减缓人民币流失速率的行动似乎已取得初步成效。Foreign-exchange reserves dropped by billion in February to .2 trillion, a sharply lower monthly amount than the 0 billion that has been the norm recently.2月,中国外汇储备降至3.2万亿美元,减少了290亿美元。月降低数额明显低于近期设定的1000亿美元。Meanwhile, new figures showed that Chinas exports plunged by 25% in February compared with the same month last year and imports fell by 14%.同时,新数据显示,2月中国出口量同比下降25%,进口量下降14%。News that an investor had accumulated a 5% stake in Burberry prompted speculation that the British luxury-goods company may become a takeover target.巴宝莉(Burberry )5%的股份被一匿名投资者收购,这一新闻引发了大众对该英国奢侈品公司面临收购的猜测。The identity of the investor was not known, but Burberry asked HS, which is the custodian of the stake, who it was.目前,买主身份尚不清楚,但巴宝莉公司已要求其股权托管查清持股人士。The bank was reportedly said to be holding it on behalf of multiple investors.据称,汇丰(HS)代表多位投资者共同持有巴宝莉股份。Three years after the country was bailed out, euro-zone officials confirmed that Cyprus will conclude its 10 billion (11 billion) rescue programme at the end of this month.三年前塞浦路斯(Cyprus)接受欧盟救助摆脱困境,如今欧盟官方实,塞浦路斯将于本月底退出为期三年的100亿欧元(约合110亿美元)经济救助计划。Supercell, the Finnish mobile-gaming firm behind Clash of Clans and three other blockbuster games, reported a 37% rise in sales last year to 2.1 billion (.3 billion).手机网游部落冲突及其他三款重磅游戏的芬兰研发公司Supercell日前发布的2015财报数据显示,其营业收入上涨37%,达21亿欧元(约合23亿美元)。Owned by Softbank, a Japanese conglomerate, Supercell also announced that for the first time 100m users were playing its games on a daily basis.Supercell是日本企业软银旗下企业,同时宣布在线玩家首次过亿。Its games are played in every country of the world, bar Tuvalu.除图瓦卢外,世界各国都在使用该公司的游戏产品。Corporate sponsors reacted swiftly to the revelation that Maria Sharapova, a five-time Grand Slam tennis champion, had failed a doping test earlier this year.五次蝉联网球大满贯的玛利亚·莎拉波娃被曝今年年初未能通过兴奋剂检测。对此,赞助公司迅速作出回应。At least three sponsors either cut or suspended their ties with the worlds highest-paid female athlete.至少有三家赞助商已削减或延迟对这位全球广告收入第一女运动员的赞助。Ms Sharapova tested positive for meldonium, which she said was prescribed to her for medical conditions.莎拉波娃的米屈肼检测呈阳性,但据她称这是因伤药的缘故。It was banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency only at the start of the year.米屈肼今年年初才被世界反兴奋剂机构列入禁止药物类型。In another crack at shedding its cheap image in order to appeal to business travellers,Ryanair, Europes biggest low-cost airline, started hiring out a customised Boeing 737 with 60 business-class seats for flights.为了吸引商务旅行者的光顾,欧洲最大的廉价航空瑞安航空公司一直努力摆脱廉航的形象,日前居然将波音737客机转变为公务机,配置60个商务座。The chartered corporate jet will provide fine dining, a far cry from the hot chips, chicken nuggets, hot dogs…snack boxes and more! offered in economy class (if passengers can get a meal at all).同时,瑞安航空还将为(含餐)经济舱提供美味飞行餐,一改先前只有热薯条、鸡块、热…小吃盒等飞行餐的面貌。 译文属译生译世201603/432674。
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