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陕西省中医院胃病胃肠网上咨询西京医院消化内科医生十堰妇幼保健院胃肠科正规吗?怎么样 Zhuge Liang’s Northern Expeditions诸葛亮北伐At the end of Zhuge Liang’s southern campaign, the Wu-Shu alliance came to fruition and Shu was free to move against north.诸葛亮南征结束之时,吴国和蜀国已经结成联军,蜀国因此能够抗击北方。In 227 Zhuge Liang transferred his main Shu armies to Hanzhong, and opened up the battle for the northwest with Wei.227年,诸葛亮将他的主要部队转移至汉中,与西北部的魏国展开战争。The next year, he ordered the general Zhao Yun to attack from Ji Gorge as a diversion whilst Zhuge himself led the main force to Qishan.一年后,他命大将赵云从冀侠出击以分散敌人的注意力,而自己则带领主要部队在祁山。The vanguard Ma Su, however, suffered a tactical defeat at Jieting and the Shu army was forced to withdraw.然而,先锋军马谡在街亭被敌人用战术击败,蜀军被迫撤回。In the next six years Zhuge Liang attempted several more offensives, but supply problems limited the capacity for success.在接下来的六年里,诸葛亮开展了多次攻击,但是供给问题限制了成功的可能性。In 234 he led his last great northern offensive, reaching the Battle of Wuzhang Plains, south of the Wei River.234年,他领导了最后一次北伐,在渭河北部的五丈原展开战斗。Due to the death of Zhuge Liang (234 AD), however, the Shu army was forced once again to withdraw.因为诸葛亮在同年去世,蜀国部队再一次被迫撤军。Zhuge Liang had five attempts in the north, only one of which succeeded (Tianshui) where he gained Jiang Wei after a successful defection plot.诸葛亮曾五次北伐,只有一次获得了胜利(于天水),在一场成功的阴谋叛变之后诸葛亮收复了姜维。Zhuge Liang’s other attempts included Chencang, Mt. Qi, Jieting (supply campaign) and the Wuzhang Plains.诸葛亮的其他出战包括陈仓、祁山、街亭(供给作战)以及五丈原之役。There were also some other minor attempts to the north but they were considered as minor battles that had no major outcomes.还有一些小战斗因为没有取得重要的成果而被认为是次要的。After the death of Zhuge Liang, his assistant Jiang Wan took over.诸葛亮病逝后,他的副将蒋琬取而代之。 /201510/398246西安西京医院消化科专家电话地址官网

陕西省康复医院消化病地址在哪VANESSA AND HER SISTER. By Priya . (Ballantine, .) A novel of Virginia Woolf and Vanessa Bell, constructed around an invented diary and letters.《凡妮莎与她的姊》(Vanessa And Her Sister),普莱娅·帕尔曼(Priya Parmar)著(Ballantine出版社,26美元)。这部小说讲述弗吉尼亚·伍尔芙(Virginia Woolf)与凡妮莎·贝尔(Vanessa Bell)的故事,建立在虚构的日记与信件基础上。THE VISITING PRIVILEGE: New and Collected Stories. By Joy Williams. (Knopf, .) These tales, spanning a period of nearly 50 years, are marked by queasy humor and a wry nihilism.《前来拜访的特权:新旧短篇小说集》(The Visiting Privilege: New and Collected Stories),乔伊·威廉姆斯(Joy Williams)著(Knopf出版社,30美元)。这些故事时间跨度将近50年,有着令人反胃的幽默感与扭曲的虚无主义。THE WHITES. By Richard Price writing as Harry Brandt. (Holt, .) Most ers will never come close to a New York homicide investigation, but they will instinctively know that Price’s insightful crime novel has this world down right.《白》(The Whites),理查德·普莱斯(Richard Price),以哈利·勃兰特(Harry Brandt)为笔名出版(Holt出版社,28美元)。大多数读者永远不可能接近一起纽约谋杀案调查,但他们可以从普莱斯充满洞察力的犯罪小说里一窥这个世界的究竟。NONFICTION非虚构AMERICA’S BITTER PILL: Money, Politics, Backroom Deals, and the Fight to Fix Our Broken Healthcare System. By Steven Brill. (Random House, .) Brill’s fresh, curiosity makes him a superb guide to the maze of issues involved here.《美国的苦药:金钱、政治、后门交易,以及修复我们糟糕的医疗系统的斗争》(America’s Bitter Pill: Money, Politics, Backroom Deals, and the Fight to Fix Our Broken Healthcare System),史蒂文·布里尔(Steven Brill)著(Random House出版社,28美元)。布里尔清新的、局外人式的好奇心令他成为一个好导游,走进书名所涉及的题材所构成的迷宫。THE ARGONAUTS. By Maggie Nelson. (Graywolf, .) An exploration of the way our bodies define and limit us considers the author’s pregnancy and her partner’s own changes.《阿尔戈英雄》(The Argonauts),麦琪·尼尔逊(Maggie Nelson)(Graywolf出版社,23美元)。探索我们身体的构成,以及它如何限制我们,是在作者的怀经历与她伴侣自身的改变的基础之上写成。AUGUSTINE: Conversions to Confessions. By Robin Lane Fox. (Basic Books, .) This narrative of the first half of Augustine’s life conjures the intellectual and social milieu of the late Roman Empire with a Proustian relish for detail.《奥古斯汀:从皈依到忏悔》(Augustine: Conversions to Confessions),罗宾·莱恩·福克斯(Robin Lane Fox)著(Basic Books出版社,35美元)。这本书讲述了奥古斯汀的前半生,同时描绘了罗马帝国末期的智识与社会环境,有着普鲁斯特式的大量细节。BARBARIAN DAYS: A Surfing Life. By Finnegan. (Penguin Press, .95.) Generous yet unsparing portraits of competitive surf friendships are among the joys of Finnegan’s memoir.《野蛮的日子:冲浪生活》(Barbarian Days: A Surfing Life),威廉·芬尼根(William Fnnegan)著(Penguin出版社,27.95美元)。这本书毫不留情地详尽描写了冲浪界充满竞争的友谊关系,这是芬尼根回忆录带给读者的众多乐趣之一。BECOMING NICOLE: The Transformation of an American Family. By Amy Ellis Nutt. (Random House, .) A generous portrayal of a couple’s affirming response to their transgender child.《成为妮科尔:一个美国家庭的变形》(Becoming Nicole: The Transformation of an American Family),艾米·埃利斯·纳特(Amy Ellis Nutt)著(Random House出版社,27美元)。精地描写了一对伴侣如何坚定地持他们变性的孩子。BETWEEN THE WORLD AND ME. By Coates. (Spiegel amp; Grau, .) With brilliant insight, Coates warns his teenage son about the apparent permanence of racial injustice and the danger of believing one person can make a change.《在世界与我之间》(Between The World And ME),塔-奈西希·科特斯(Ta-Nehisi Coates)著(Spiegel amp; Grau出版社,24美元)。科特斯以绝佳的洞察力告诫自己十几岁的儿子,警惕明显的种族不公正现象,以及相信一个人可以改变的危险性。THE COMPLETE WORKS OF PRIMO LEVI. Edited by Ann Goldstein. (Liveright, three volumes, 0.) Twenty-eight years after Levi’s death, this collection of everything he published brings into focus the bth and coherence of his genius.《普里莫·莱维全集》(The Complete Works Of Primo Levi),安·戈德斯坦编辑(Liveright出版社,三卷本,100美元)。莱维去世38年后,这本他出版过的作品的全集让人们注意到他的才华有多么广泛,而且彼此关联。THE CRIME AND THE SILENCE: Confronting the Massacre of Jews in Wartime Jedwabne. By Anna Bikont. Translated by Alissa Valles. (Farrar, Straus amp; Giroux, .) A beautifully written and devastating reconstruction of mass murder and its 《犯罪与沉默:直面战时犹太大屠杀――耶德瓦布内》(The Crime And The Silence: Confronting the Massacre of Jews in Wartime Jedwabne),安娜·比科特(Anna Bikont)著,艾丽莎·瓦里斯(Alissa Valles)译(Farrar, Straus amp; Giroux出版社,30美元)。这本书可怕地重现了大屠杀时的情景,以及对它的否认,文笔优美。DAUGHTERS OF THE SAMURAI: A Journey From East to West and Back. By Janice P. Nimura. (Norton, .95.) In 1871, three clueless Japanese girls were sent to America, to learn how to educate their countrywomen in modern ways.《武士的女儿:从东到西,之后归来的旅行》(Daughters Of The Samurai: A Journey From East to West and Back),贾尼斯·P·尼姆拉(Janice P. Nimura)著,(Norton出版社,26.95美元)。1871年,三个毫无头绪的日本女孩被送到美国,学习如何以现代方式教育本国女性。DESTINY AND POWER: The American Odys of George Herbert Walker Bush. By Jon Meacham. (Random House, .) A judicious and balanced biography of the elder President Bush.《命运与权力:乔治·休伯特·沃尔克·布什的美国奥德赛之旅》(Destiny And Power: The American Odyssey of George Herbert Walker Bush),琼恩·米查姆(Jon Meacham)著(Random House出版社,35美元)。关于老布什总统公正公平、不偏不倚的传记。 /201512/412972庆阳市市中心医院胃病胃肠电话预约 Agriculture : In the Xia, lands belonged to the state and the people had to tribute.农业:夏朝实行土地国有制,臣民要向国家纳供。Since flooding had aly been under control and people could settle down, animal husbandry and agriculture developed further.自从洪水得到了控制,人民可以定居下来,畜牧业和农业生产得到了进一步的发展。Handicrafts: The handicraft industry also underwent fair development.手工业:夏朝的手工业已相当发达,开始使用青铜器。Bronze vessels came into use,which symbolized that Chinese history had finished its prim卜 five times and entered a civilized era.青铜器的出现标志着中国历史结束了野蛮时期,进入文明时期。 /201510/407411陕西省第二人民医院胃溃疡幽门螺杆菌反流性胃炎 糜烂性胃炎

商洛第一人民医院肠胃科在哪个区Loss, nostalgia for a vanished past and “the unspeakable peril of the everyday” represented by “swimming pools, high-tension wires, lye under the sink, aspirin in the medicine cabinet” — these are the themes that have animated Joan Didion’s work, since “Slouching Towards Bethlehem” established her as one of America’s most distinctive and acute literary voices almost five decades ago.丧失、对逝去的时光的怀恋以及那些“司空见惯却又难以说清的危险”(比如游泳池、高压线、厨房水盆下存放的碱性洗涤剂、药柜里的阿司匹林等等)是琼·狄恩作品的一贯主题,也是令其作品绘声绘色、生命力持久的重要元素。自从50年前发表《缓缓走向伯利恒》(Slouching Towards Bethlehem)奠定了狄恩在美国文学的地位,这些主题一直赋予狄恩一个独特敏锐的文学声音。All her fears about the precariousness of life were horribly realized in December 2003, when her daughter, Quintana Roo, went into a New York hospital with an apparent case of flu and was soon lying unconscious in an intensive care unit, suffering from pneumonia and septic shock; days later, her husband of 40 years, John Gregory Dunne, sat down for dinner and collapsed, dead from a massive heart attack. Quintana would die about a year and a half later at the age of 39.她对于人生的重重险象及不稳定性的所有恐惧都在2003年12月不幸地兑现了:她的女儿,昆塔娜·璐,貌似患流感入住医院,却很快因肺炎及败血性休克躺在ICU病房昏迷不醒;几天后,她相濡以沫40年的丈夫格里高利·邓恩在餐桌前坐下准备用晚餐时突然瘫倒,死于大面积突发性心衰;一年半之后,昆塔娜也撒手人寰,时年只有39岁。Ms. Didion, now 80, chronicled these events in two books — “The Year of Magical Thinking” (2005), a shattering contemplation of loss and grief and sorrow, and “Blue Nights” (2011), a more elliptical meditation on her daughter’s life and death — much as she chronicled the rest of her life in her other work: her nervous collapses, her marital ups and downs, her anxieties, her illnesses, her craving for stability. In “The Last Love Song,” Tracy Daugherty — a fiction writer, and the author of critically acclaimed biographies of Donald Barthelme and Joseph Heller — unavoidably draws heavily upon Ms. Didion’s own writings while at the same time trying to draw distinctions between her real life and her literary persona, between her experiences as a daughter, writer, wife, and mother and what he astringently describes as her “working her brand.” He notes, for instance, that Ms. Didion wrote in “Blue Nights” about thinking of taking Quintana, then an infant, with her on assignment to Saigon, during the Vietnam War, implying that she was so unprepared to be a mother that the absurdity of such an undertaking never occurred to her. In fact, he writes, she was anything but clueless — “she was a steely professional, not about to let motherhood get in the way of her career.” What stopped her, Mr. Daugherty argues, was the simple fact that Quintana’s adoption had not yet been finalized and “she could not be transported out of state, much less out of the country.”现年已经80高龄的狄恩用两本书记录了她所承受的巨大损失与悲恸——《奇思幻想的一年》(The Year of Magical Thinking,2005),书中她直面丧夫之痛,对人生的失去与悲伤的反思直撼人心;《蓝色的夜》(Blue Nights,2011)是对女儿的生与死更加委婉含蓄的沉思。一如她的其他作品,两本书均对生活种种做了记录:从神经崩溃,婚姻的起起落落,到焦虑、病痛,以及对稳定生活的渴望,面面俱到。 小说家特雷西·多尔蒂(曾写过备受赞誉的唐纳德·巴塞尔姆和约瑟夫·海勒传记) 新近出版的《最后的恋歌》(The Last Love Song)无可避免地从狄恩自己的作品中提取了大量资料,同时又将生活中的狄恩与文坛上的狄恩区分开来,把她作为女儿、作家、妻子、母亲的多重角色以及多尔蒂所描述的狄恩的“自我品牌塑造”一一展现给读者。虽然狄恩在《蓝色的夜》中写到自己曾打算带上襁褓中的昆塔娜去西贡执行写作任务,尽管当时正值越战,这意味着她对于初为人母毫无思想准备,丝毫没有意识到带着一个婴儿奔赴战场采访的荒谬。多尔蒂却指出,事实上,狄恩并非对于做母亲的责任一无所知,“她是一个意志刚强的职业女性,不想让母亲的角色阻碍了她事业的发展”。多尔蒂认为,最终使她没能把昆塔娜带到西贡的原因是领养手续没有完成,“昆塔娜无法被带出州,遑论带出国”。The Didion who emerges from “The Last Love Song” is both a frail, angst-ridden outsider and a shrewd Hollywood and New York insider; a vulnerable witness to history and a hardheaded survivor; a writer drawn to theatricality and extremes, and a woman who prizes order and control. Mr. Daugherty — who did not get Ms. Didion’s cooperation — does an agile job here of examining how his subject’s life illuminated the eras she traversed (and vice versa). He uses her experiences, much as Ms. Didion did, as an index of the cultural convulsions that rocked the country during the 1960s and ’70s, while at the same time, using her literary methods and musical sense of language to chart her peregrinations between California and New York, and her intellectual evolution over the years.《最后的恋歌》呈现给我们的狄恩既是一个身体虚弱、充满焦虑的局外人又是一个精明锐敏的好莱坞和纽约的圈内人;既是易受伤害的历史见人又是精明务实的幸存者;既是追逐戏剧性和极端事件的作家,又是珍视秩序与掌控的女人。多尔蒂先生并没有得到狄恩的配合,但他对传主一生的审视却也机敏自如,使狄恩的人生与她所经历的时代辉映成趣。他以狄恩的个人经历作为上世纪六七十年代美国文化大震荡的指数,同时又以狄恩的创作手法及富有乐感的语言记录了她游走于加州和纽约之间的经历以及她心智上的发展。There are a few tasteless and superfluous lapses into gossip in this book — in one case, he even notes that a source’s observations “should be taken with heavy pitchers of salt.” And Mr. Daugherty dances nervously (though not as nervously as Ms. Didion has) around the subject of Quintana’s emotional difficulties and alcoholism, ing a close friend who says her depressions and drinking were “probably intertwined” with her final illness (acute pancreatitis, which Mr. Daugherty writes, is “usually caused in young people by prolonged drug or alcohol abuse”). For the most part, this thoughtful and ambitious biography remains focused on Ms. Didion’s writing, using her life to shed light on her highly autobiographical work. Mr. Daugherty reminds us of the pioneer past of Ms. Didion’s family — her mother was a descendant of Nancy Hardin Cornwall, who, with her husband, had followed the ill-fated Donner-Reed party west, but split from the group in Nevada — and how this indelibly shaped her vision of California, and how California, in turn, became, for her, a metaphor for the promises and betrayals of America.书中也有几处庸俗无聊的八卦闲话;有一处甚至多尔蒂自己都坦言可信度极低。对于昆塔娜的情感困扰和酗酒,多尔蒂和狄恩一样都是小心翼翼地旁敲侧击(尽管他比狄恩女士更放开一些)。借用一位关系密切的狄恩家庭朋友的话,多尔蒂告诉我们,昆塔娜的抑郁症和酗酒与她最终的病患——急性胰腺炎——很可能有着千丝万缕的联系(年轻人的急性胰腺炎“大多与长期滥用毒品和酗酒有关”,多尔蒂指出)。总之,这是一部深思熟虑、内容丰富的传记。它始终以狄恩的写作生涯为主线,探索了她的个人生活与她极富自传色的作品如何相得益彰;同时也让我们了解了狄恩家族的西部开拓者背景。她的母亲是南希·哈丁·康沃尔(Nancy Hardin Cornwall, 1811-1886)的后代,康沃尔夫妇曾经跟随时运不济的唐纳-瑞德大队西迁,在内华达州与大队分手;这一历史背景奠定了狄恩的加州观,同时对于狄恩,加州又成为美利坚的希望与背叛的隐喻。Over time, her nostalgia for a vanished frontier — the wagon-train mentality of its first settlers, the stoic individualism embodied by her beloved John Wayne — would mutate into something more ambivalent, an acknowledgment that selfishness and what she called a “mean scrambling for survival” had always lain beneath the romantic myths.随着时间的推移,她对逝去的那个边疆的怀恋——早期开拓者的大篷车心态、以她所喜爱的约翰·韦恩为代表的吃苦耐劳、坚忍不屈的个人主义——逐渐演变成某种矛盾的心理,一种认为自我利益及“为生存下去而抢夺”本就是浪漫传奇之内涵的观点。Although ers may not agree with all of Mr. Daugherty’s assessments of individual Didion books, his biography evinces a deep appreciation of her skills and idiosyncrasies, and an understanding of how writers like Conrad, Hemingway and her college professor Mark Schorer (who sharpened her awareness of textual nuances and the use of point of view) helped her forge her singular style. Mr. Daugherty expertly dissects Ms. Didion’s preoccupation with narratives — not just with the techniques of storytelling but also with the subtexts undergirding the personal and political story lines mapped in her work.读者未必赞同多尔蒂先生对狄恩每部作品的评价,但他的传记表现了对狄恩的写作技巧和独特风格的高度赞赏,揭示了康拉德、海明威等作家以及狄恩的大学教授马克·绍尔如何影响锻造了她的卓尔不凡的风格(是绍尔教授培养了狄恩对文字微妙差异和不同叙事视角的敏感)。多尔蒂先生详尽地分析了狄恩对叙事的专注——不仅仅是她讲故事的技巧,还有那些埋伏在字里行间的个人的和历史的故事线索。At the same time, Mr. Daugherty tries to tease out correspondences between Ms. Didion’s life and those of the heroines in her novels — most notably, anxiety over troubled or wayward daughters, from the emotionally impaired Kate in “Play It as It Lays” to Marin, the fugitive radical, in “A Book of Common Prayer” to the drug-addicted Jessie in “Democracy.” He suggests that Ms. Didion and Mr. Dunne’s focus on their own careers and self-absorption as writers sometimes sidelined Quintana when she was little (she was frequently parked with Ms. Didion’s parents, when they were traveling); that the Hollywood scene she knew as a teenager fueled her penchant for medicating her anxieties with alcohol and drugs; and that Ms. Didion was often in denial about Quintana’s problems. He is tough on Ms. Didion as a parent but arguably no tougher than Ms. Didion has been on herself (in print and in interviews) about her shortcomings as a mother, who missed or mis clues to Quintana’s unhappiness and screened off her worst worries and fears.多尔蒂先生还试图挖掘出狄恩女士和她小说里的女主人公的相应经历,其中最明显的就是对于任性的、有问题的女儿的担心与焦虑——这样的女儿遍布其小说作品,如《顺其自然》(Play It As It Lays)一书中有感情障碍的凯特;《祈祷书》(A Book of Common Prayer)里逃亡的激进分子马琳;《民主》(Democracy)中吸毒成性的杰茜等等。他认为狄恩女士和邓恩先生对事业的专注和各自写作的全身心投入往往使他们忽略了年幼的女儿(狄恩夫妇旅行时常常把女儿留在父母家里); 十几岁就近距离接触好莱坞文化的经历加剧了昆塔娜以酒精、毒品缓解焦虑的嗜好;而狄恩又常常拒绝承认女儿的问题。对于狄恩作为母亲的失职,对昆塔娜精神抑郁的种种端倪视而不见或误解,并一再屏蔽自己的担心与恐惧,多尔蒂都毫不留情地揭示出来,但他并没有比狄恩在书中或采访中的自我评判更严苛。After finishing “Blue Nights,” Mr. Daugherty reports, Ms. Didion felt increasingly “weary, listless,” less inclined to push herself, less invested in maintaining the momentum she’d once prized, uncertain whether she would write again. Even her commitment to the pioneer imperative of stoicism and survival, he writes, had begun to waver. He es her saying to a friend, “There’s something missing in survival as a reason for being, you know?”写完《蓝色的夜》之后,多尔蒂写道,狄恩女士越来越感到“疲惫,倦怠”,不再愿意发愤图强,不再有从前的动力,甚至不确定是否还会继续写作;连她一贯推崇与遵守的边疆开拓者的坚韧不屈、顽强活下去的精神都开始动摇了。多尔蒂引用狄恩自己对朋友说的话:“活下去作为存在的理由缺失了什么东西,你懂吗?” /201510/402131 The author, most recently, of “Nora Webster” and “Brooklyn,” soon to be adapted to film, wishes he were Leopold Bloom: “I envy all the fun he had when he went to Nighttown and got involved in gender-bendering.”科尔姆·托宾最近的作品是《诺拉·韦伯斯特》(Nora Webster)和即将改编成电影的《布鲁克林》(Brooklyn),这位作家希望自己是列奥波德·布鲁姆:“我羡慕他去“夜城”玩得那么开心,嫉妒他参与的变装游戏。”What books are currently on your night stand?问:你的床头柜上现在放着什么书?“Torpor,” by Chris Kraus; “Selected Poems of Fulke Greville,” edited by Thom Gunn; “A Journey With Two Maps,” by Eavan Boland; Toni Morrison’s “God Help the Child.” Tessa Hadley’s “Married Love,” Patrick McGrath’s “Constance” and Lynne Tillman’s “What Would Lynne Tillman Do?”答:克里斯·克劳斯(Chris Kraus)的《麻痹》(Torpor);托姆·冈恩(Thom Gunn)编的《福尔克·格雷维尔诗选》(Selected Poems of Fulke Greville);伊温·兰(Eavan Boland)的《带着两张地图的旅程》(A Journey With Two Maps);托妮·莫里森(Toni Morrison)的《上帝保佑孩子》(God Help the Child);特莎·哈德莉(Tessa Hadley)的《婚后的爱》(Married Love);帕特里克·麦克格拉斯(Patrick McGrath)的《康丝坦斯》(Constance)和琳恩·提尔曼(Lynne Tillman)的《琳恩·提尔曼怎么办?》(What Would Lynne Tillman Do?)。Who is your favorite novelist of all time?问:你一直以来最喜欢的小说家是谁?Henry James, for the range of his sympathy and the quality of his prose. For the way in which he dramatizes moral issues while all the time attending to sensuous and stylish questions. For his seriousness about form in his fiction and the way in which he refuses to allow the er to make easy judgments, for his insisting on nuance, half-light and suggestion, and for his deep understanding of the strangeness and the wavering nature of motive and feeling in human relationships.答:亨利·詹姆斯,因为他有宽广的同情心,卓越的文采。我喜欢他戏剧化地表现道德话题,但同时又关注感官和时髦的问题。我喜欢他对小说形式的严肃态度,以及他拒绝让读者妄下判断的方式。我喜欢他在写作中坚持微言大义、晦暗含蓄。我喜欢他对人类关系中动机和情感的奇特性、摇摆性的深刻理解。Whom do you consider the best writers — novelists, essayists, critics, journalists, poets — working today?问:你认为现在仍在写作的作家(小说家、散文家、批评家、新闻记者、诗人)中谁最好?Novelists: Laszlo Krasznahorkai, Don DeLillo, Marilynne Robinson, John Banville, Javier Marías.答:小说家是拉斯洛·卡撒兹纳霍凯(Laszlo Krasznahorkai)、唐·德里罗(Don DeLillo)、玛丽莲·罗宾逊(Marilynne Robinson)、约翰·班维尔(John Banville)、哈维尔·马里亚斯(Javier Marías)。Essayists: Richard Rodriguez, Joan Didion, Pankaj Mishra.散文家是理查德·罗德里格斯(Richard Rodriguez)、琼·迪迪恩(Joan Didion)、潘卡吉·米舍尔(Pankaj Mishra)。Critics: Denis Donoghue, Marjorie Perloff, Helen Vendler, Christopher Ricks, Stephen Burt.批评家是丹尼斯·多诺霍(Denis Donoghue)、玛乔瑞·帕洛夫(Marjorie Perloff)、海伦·文德勒(Helen Vendler)、克里斯托弗·里克斯(Christopher Ricks)和斯蒂芬·伯特(Stephen Burt)。Journalists: Perry Anderson, Jane Kramer, Fintan O’Toole.新闻记者是佩里·安德森(Perry Anderson)、简·克莱默(Jane Kramer)、芬坦·奥图尔(Fintan O’Toole)。Poets: John Ashbery, Yves Bonnefoy, Louise Glück, Adam Zagajewski, Paul Muldoon.诗人是约翰·阿什贝利(John Ashbery)、伊夫·纳富瓦(Yves Bonnefoy)、路易斯·格吕克(Louise Glück)、亚当·扎加耶夫斯基(Adam Zagajewski)、保罗·马尔登(Paul Muldoon)。What genres do you especially enjoy ing? And which do you avoid?问:你特别喜欢读什么体裁?不读什么样的书?I am normal. I poetry and fiction and biography and history and books about landscape and painting. I avoid crime novels and thrillers and spy books and books about philosophy (especially metaphysics and ethics), self-help books or books that might have happy endings, or books that are long-winded.答:我就是正常口味。我读诗歌、小说、传记、历史以及关于风景与绘画的书。我不读犯罪小说、惊悚小说、间谍小说、与哲学有关的书(尤其是形而上学和伦理学)、自学类书籍以及那些可能是大团圆结尾或唠唠叨叨的书。What’s the last book that made you laugh?问:上一本让你发笑的书是什么?In Princeton a few years ago I was lying in bed alone on a Monday night ing Leo Bersani’s “Is the Rectum a Grave?” Outside was the deep dark New Jersey night. It was winter. I gazed around my sublet bedroom; I looked at the title of the book. Then I stood up and went to the full-length mirror and peered into it. I thought: You are one sad man. And I laughed so much at that thought that I began to cry.答:几年前在普林斯顿,有个礼拜一的晚上,我躺在床上读里奥·萨尼(Leo Bersani)的《直肠是坟墓吗?》(Is the Rectum a Grave?)。屋外是新泽西沉沉的黑夜。那时是冬天。我环顾自己从别人手中转租的这间卧室;我看着书的标题。然后,我站起身,走向穿衣镜,照了照镜子。我当时想:你是一个悲伤的男人。然后,我就为这个想法而笑得哭了起来。The last book that made you cry?问:上一本让你哭的书?See above.答:参见上文。The last book that made you furious?问:上一本让你愤怒的书?I don’t do fury. (I mean, where would it end?) But I do wonder was George Eliot wise to spell out what happened later to the main characters in the afterword of her novel “Middlemarch.”答:我不会愤怒。(我的意思是,那样就没完没了了。)但是我确实有些怀疑乔治·艾略特在其小说《米德尔马契》后记中的做法是否明智,她将主要人物日后的遭遇都一一说了出来。Whom do you consider the most underrated or unappreciated writers, past and present?问:你认为过去和现在最被低估或最不受重视的作家是谁?George Moore from the past (“Esther Waters” is his masterpiece); Eugene McCabe from the present (“Death and Nightingales” is his masterpiece).答:过去是乔治·尔(George Moore),最好的作品是《伊斯特·沃特斯》(Esther Waters);现在是尤金·麦克卡比(Eugene McCabe),最好的作品是《死亡和夜莺》(Death and Nightingales)。Do you different kinds of books depending on where you are living at the time?问:你会因为居住在不同地方而读不同的书吗?In the summer I try and finish one long story or short novel a day, usually ones I have before. For example: Tolstoy’s “Hadji Murad,” James’s “The Turn of the Screw,” Conrad’s “Heart of Darkness,” Joyce’s “The Dead,” Samuel Beckett’s “Company,” Nadine Gordimer’s “The Late Bourgeois World,” Juan Goytisolo’s “The Blind Rider,” Philip Roth’s “Everyman,” John McGahern’s “The Country Funeral,” David Malouf’s “The Valley of Lagoons,” Tobias Wolff’s “Old School,” Richard Ford’s “Rock Springs,” Don DeLillo’s “Cosmopolis.”答:今年夏天我尝试每天读完一个长的短篇小说或短的长篇小说,通常都是我以前读过的。比如说:托尔斯泰的《哈吉穆拉特》(Hadji Murad)、詹姆斯的《螺丝在拧紧》、康拉德的《黑暗的心》、乔伊斯的《死者》、萨缪尔·贝克特的《陪伴》(Company)、纳丁·戈迪默(Nadine Gordimer)的《资产阶级世界的末日》(The Late Bourgeois Word)、胡安·戈伊蒂索洛(Juan Goytisolo)的《盲骑手》(The Blind Rider)、菲利普·罗斯的《凡人》(Everyman)、约翰·麦克葛汉(John McGahern)的《乡村葬礼》(The Country Funeral)、大卫·马洛夫(David Malouf)的《环礁湖河谷》(The Valley of Lagoons)、托拜厄斯·沃尔夫(Tobias Wolff)的《老学校》(Old School)、理查德·福特(Richard Ford)的《石泉城》(Rock Springs)和唐·德里罗的《大都会》(Cosmopolis)。Who are your favorite Irish writers? And what are the best books about Ireland?问:你最喜欢的爱尔兰作家是谁?关于爱尔兰最好的书有哪些?I love Tim Robinson’s books on the Irish landscape and heritage — especially “Stones of Aran” and his trilogy of books about Connemara — for the depth of his knowledge and the way he makes sentences. The other books I would suggest to anyone who wanted to make sense of Ireland over the past hundred years or so are the poems of Paul Durcan, the plays of Tom Murphy, the novels of Anne Enright and Roy Foster’s two-volume biography of Yeats.答:我喜欢提姆·罗宾逊(Tim Robinson)写的关于爱尔兰风景和历史的书——尤其是《阿兰群岛的石头》(Stones of Aran),以及他关于康尼马拉(Connemara)的三部曲——因为他知识渊,句子优美。对那些想了解爱尔兰近百年历史的人,我推荐另一些书,它们是保罗·德尔坎(Paul Durcan)的诗,汤姆·墨菲(Tom Murphy)的戏剧,安妮·恩莱特(Anne Enright)的小说,以及罗伊·福斯特(Roy Foster)的两卷本叶芝传。Who’s your favorite fictional hero or heroine? Your favorite antihero or villain?问:你最喜欢的小说男女主人公是谁?你最喜欢的反英雄角色或坏人角色是谁?I wish I was Leopold Bloom, the man who wanders Dublin in “Ulysses.” I love the way he notices and registers things, his wit, his sensuous good humor. I envy all the fun he had when he went to Nighttown and got involved in gender-bendering. The villain I like best is Casaubon in “Middlemarch.” Since I am aging, solitary and bookish myself, I feel real sympathy for him and am sure that Dorothea, whom he marries, could not have been a bundle of laughs. Casaubon is given a raw deal in the book, and ers like to dislike him, but the older I get the more sympathy I have for him as he tries to finish an unfinishable book and then is brave enough to get married to a young woman. I feel sorry when he dies.答:我希望自己是列奥波德·布鲁姆,那个在《尤利西斯》中漫游都柏林的男人。我喜欢他留意和观察事物的方式,喜欢他的机智,以及他诱人的幽默感。我羡慕他去“夜城”玩得那么开心,嫉妒他参与的变装游戏。我最喜欢的反面角色是《米德尔马契》中的卡苏朋。因为我自己也上了年纪,是个孤单的书呆子,所以我挺同情他的,也确信他娶的多萝西娅不可能是个幽默风趣之人。卡苏朋在书里被描写得不太公正,读者都讨厌他,但当我年岁越大,就愈发同情他,因为他试图去完成一本不可能完成的书,然后又勇敢地和一个年轻女子结婚。我对他的死感到难受。What kind of er were you as a child? Which childhood books and authors stick with you most?问:你小时候是一个什么样的读者?你印象最深的童年读物和作家有哪些?I could not until I was 9, by which time I had developed a serious stammer. Although my mother once warned me that being a dimwit was likely to have dire consequences, my parents were sweet enough not to mention my stammer or my non-ing much and were smart enough not to seek professional help. They left me to myself. Thus I have no childhood books or authors, but I had plenty of time to think and also to study things and people. I did then learn to , and I think I disturbed the folks more when I became addicted to poetry and, as a teenager, learned Sylvia Plath’s “Daddy” by heart. It took me a bit longer to get rid of the stammer. Even still, in leading a mystery of the rosary, I have no problem with “Our Father” since it begins with a vowel, or “Hail Mary” since it starts with a soft H, but I have to do a hell of a lot of light and heavy breathing as I approach the hard consonant start of “Glory be to the Father.”答:我9岁才会阅读,那时我有严重的口吃。虽然我妈妈曾警告我,当个傻子可能会有严重的后果,但我父母人很好,并不是总提我口吃或阅读障碍这些事,而且他们很聪明的一点是,没有去寻求专业人士的帮助。他们就让我一个人呆着。所以,我没有喜欢的童年读物或作家,但我有很多时间去思考,去学习人和事。我后来才学会了阅读,可当我开始沉迷于诗歌,并且十几岁时就会背诵希薇亚·普拉斯(Sylvia Plath)的那首《爸爸》时,家人反而更替我担心了。我又花了更长一点的时间才克了口吃。即便如此,在领颂《玫瑰经的奥迹》时,我读“我们的天父”并不费力,因为第一个音节是元音,或者读“万福玛利亚”也没问题,因为它开头是一个轻读的/h/。但当我开始读那个需要硬辅音开头的“愿光荣归于父”时,就需要大动干戈地调整一番呼吸。If you had to name one book that made you who you are today, what would it be?问:如果让你说出一本书,正是它让你成为了现在的你,那会是哪本?“Hamlet” gave me permission to mourn my father’s death, to make smart remarks to teachers, to make fun of my betters, to procrastinate, to keep my best lines for my conversations with myself, to enjoy the theater, to do whatever I pleased, to view all forms of authority with sourness. I would never have been able to do any of these things with the same intensity had I not that book when I was 15.答:《哈姆莱特》让我可以去哀悼父亲的死,对老师做出俏皮的点评,揶揄那些比我好的人,拖延时间,把最好的台词留给与自己的对话,享受戏剧,做我任何喜欢的事情,蔑视一切的权威。假如我没有在15岁那年读这本书,就不可能如此激烈地做出所有这些事。If you could require the president to one book, what would it be? 问:假如你能让总统读一本书,你想是哪一本?Anyone in power, including the president, would benefit from Jaroslav Hasek’s “The Good Soldier Svejk,” which is set during the First World War in Austria-Hungary. First because it would make them laugh, and then because it is the best antiwar novel I know, hilariously dramatizing the pointlessness of empires and the foolishness of military goals and the sheer absurdity and cruelty of people waging war on each other.答:任何当权者,包括总统,都会从雅洛斯拉夫·哈谢克(Jaroslav Hasek)写的《好兵帅克》中受益。这本书背景是第一次世界大战期间的奥匈帝国。首先,这本书会逗乐他们,而且这是我所知道的最佳反战小说,风趣幽默地表现了帝国的无意义,军事目标的愚蠢,以及交战各方纯粹的荒谬和残忍。You’re hosting a literary dinner party. Which three writers are invited?问:假如你要举办一个文学晚餐派对。会邀请哪三个作家?James Baldwin, Robert Louis Stevenson, Christopher Marlowe. After dinner we would do a spliced ing of Baldwin’s “Giovanni’s Room,” Stevenson’s “Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde” and Marlowe’s “Edward II.” We would also have fun, I hope, making sly and suggestive comments to Stevenson about his sexuality. I would also enjoy listening to Marlowe ing aloud his poem “Hero and Leander,” which is one of my favorite poems. And I bet Baldwin would enjoy the ing too, not to speak of Stevenson.答:詹姆斯·鲍德温(James Baldwin)、罗伯特·路易斯·史蒂文森(Robert Louis Stevenson)、克里斯托弗·马洛(Christopher Marlowe)。晚餐之后,我们会做一次串读,读鲍德温的《乔万尼的房间》(Giovanni’s Room),史蒂文森的《化身士》(Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde)和马洛的《爱德华二世》(Edward II)。我希望能含沙射影谈谈史蒂文森的性取向,让大伙儿逗逗乐。我还会喜欢听马洛高声朗读他的诗《希洛与勒安得耳》(Hero and Leander),这是我最喜欢的一首诗。我相信鲍德温也会喜欢这种朗读活动,史蒂文森就更不用说了。Disappointing, overrated, just not good: What book did you feel you were supposed to like, and didn’t? Do you remember the last book you put down without finishing?问:令人失望,评价过高,根本就不好:什么书是你觉得应该喜欢,但却并不喜欢的?你还记得上一本无法卒读的书吗?Oh yes, I do remember the last book I put down without finishing it. It was the Old Testament. I wonder if I am alone in thinking it slightly overrated, or “just not good,” as you phrase it? Some of it is nice, but very little of it seems to be true, at least to me, and much of it is repetitive and overwritten, and some of it is plain dumb and quite foolish and offensive. (I like the New Testament, however, or most of it, especially St. John’s Gospel, and finish it regularly.) 答:哦,是的,我的确记得上一本没读完就放下的书。那是《旧约》。我怀疑是不是只有我一个人觉得这本书有些被抬得太高了,或者正如你说的,它“根本就不好”?这本书有些地方还行,但大部分都不足信,至少对我而言是如此,很多地方重复、夸张,有些地方干脆就又傻又蠢,让人不舒。(但是我喜欢《新约》,或者说,大部分章节都喜欢,尤其是《约翰福音》,我经常会重读。)Whom would you want to write your life story?问:你想让谁来写你的传记?Lyndall Gordon or maybe Janet Malcolm.答:林德尔·戈登(Lyndall Gordon),或者珍妮特·马尔科姆(Janet Malcolm)也可以。What books do you find yourself returning to again and again?问:有哪些书是你会不断重读的?At Columbia, I teach books that I care about, and always re them in the week before the class. This means that every year I get to revisit 19th-century novels such as “Pride and Prejudice,” “The Portrait of a Lady” and “Middlemarch,” and then Irish classics such as “The Tain,” “Dubliners,” Elizabeth Bowen’s “The Last September,” Flann O’Brien’s “At Swim-Two-Birds” and Beckett’s “Molloy.”答:我在哥伦比亚教的都是我喜欢的书,并且在上课前一周总会重读一遍。这意味着每年我都会重返那些19世纪的小说,比如《傲慢与偏见》、《贵妇画像》、《米德尔马契》,然后就是爱尔兰文学经典,比如《夺牛记》(The Tain)、《都柏林人》(Dubliners)、伊丽莎白·鲍恩(Elizabeth Bowen)的《最后的九月》(The Last September)、弗兰恩·奥布莱恩(Flann O’Brien)的《双鸟戏水》(At Swim-Two-Birds)、贝克特的《莫洛伊》(Molloy)。What books are you embarrassed not to have yet?问:你为自己尚未读过哪些书而感到难为情?I still have not Thomas Mann’s tetralogy “Joseph and His Brothers.”答:我还没读过托马斯·曼的四部曲《约瑟夫和他的兄弟们》。What do you plan to next?问:你接下来打算读什么?Gary Indiana’s new memoir, “I Can Give You Anything but Love.”答:嘉里·印迪安纳(Gary Indiana)的最新自传,《我能给你除了爱的一切》(I Can Give You Anything but Love)。 /201510/402409运城市中心医院消化内科专家西安胃康医院咋样



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