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来源:光明咨询    发布时间:2019年08月22日 12:46:21    编辑:admin         

HONG KONG — The ed States says it will expand air-quality monitoring at some overseas diplomatic missions, following several years of reporting pollution data in China.香港——在对中国污染数据进行报告数年后,美国表示将在部分海外外交代表团驻地增加空气质量监控。The goal is to increase awareness of the health risks of outdoor air pollution, which easily sps across borders, Secretary of State John Kerry said in announcing the program on Wednesday.国务卿约翰·克里(John Kerry)周三在宣布该项目时说,该项举措的目标是提高对户外空气污染带来的健康风险的认知,空气污染很容易跨境进入别国。The program is intended to help ed States citizens abroad reduce their exposure to pollution and to help other countries develop their own air-quality monitoring through training and exchanges with American experts, he said.他说,该项目旨在帮助身在海外的美国公民减少与污染的接触,并协助其他国家通过培训以及与美国专家的交流,发展自己的空气质量监测。“We’re hoping that this tool can also expand international cooperation when it comes to curbing air pollution,” Mr. Kerry said.“我们希望,该手段也可以在控制大气污染方面增加国际合作,”克里说。The program, run in conjunction with the Environmental Protection Agency, will begin to operate in India in a few months. New Delhi has some of the world’s worst air pollution, and residents there are becoming increasingly concerned about the dangers.这个项目将与美国国家环境保护局(Environmental Protection Agency)共同运作,于几个月后在印度上线。新德里是世界上大气污染最严重的城市之一,当地居民越来越关注污染的危险性。American diplomatic missions will also monitor air quality in Vietnam, Mongolia and elsewhere, Mr. Kerry said.克里表示,美国外交使团驻地也将监测越南、蒙古等国的空气质量。In 2008, the ed States Embassy in Beijing began monitoring levels of PM 2.5 — fine airborne particles that are particularly dangerous for human health — and posting hourly ings on Twitter.2008年,美国驻北京大使馆开始监测PM2.5(空气中危害人类健康的细微颗粒)值,并每小时在Twitter上发布实时数据。The move angered the Chinese government, which said the information could threaten social stability. But the step also helped pressure Chinese environmental officials to expand their monitoring of air pollution and begin publishing their own air-quality reports.中国政府对该举措表示愤怒,并表示信息可能会威胁社会稳定。但该举措也协助向中国环境官员施压,推动其增强空气质量监测,并开始发布自己的空气质量报告。 /201502/360782。

Civil drones are gaining popularity with expanded use from photo and shooting to delivery. Yet a team from a college in Shanghai has warned that these devices can be easily hijacked by hackers for malicious purposes.随着无人机的功能从拍摄照片、视频甚至扩展到可以快递,民用无人机越来越受到欢迎。然而一个来自于上海的大学生团队警示说,无人机设备很容易遭到黑客的恶意侵入。Chen Peng, a postgraduate student from Shanghai University of Science and Technology, showed how hacking takes place with the help of his professor Chen Hao.陈鹏,上海科技大学的一名研究生,在导师陈浩的帮助下展示了黑客如何入侵无人机。The 23-year-old connected a cellphone to his computer through Wi-Fi. As he input a series of instructions into the computer, the cellphone started to display the image captured by the controlled drone. He also managed to control the movement of the lens on the drone to select whatever angle he wanted.这名23岁的学生通过无线网连接了手机和电脑。在他将一系列程序输入电脑时,手机开始显示被无人机控制的画面。他努力控制无人机机翼按照他想要的角度运转。Chen Peng developed the hacking system as his graduation project for his bachelor degree. He said the loophole in drones can be used for both good and bad purposes. ;For example, if a popular figure wants to escape the paparazzi, my system can help them detect the drones around them and control the device to protect their own privacy.;陈鹏开发黑客系统来作为硕士毕业设计。他说无人机的漏洞不光有坏处,也有好处。“例如,如果名人想逃避仔队的烦扰,我的系统可以帮助他发现和控制他周围的无人机设备来保护他的个人隐私。”The drone they used in experiments is made by a Shenzhen company, which ;Dominates 70 percent of China’s drone market;, according to Chen Hao. ;As we are studying Info-security and mobile technology, we want to find solutions to security loopholes in these daily-used devices.;陈浩教授介绍,他们用于实验的无人机由深圳一家公司制造,这款无人机占据了中国无人机市场的70%。“因为我们研究的是信息安全和移动技术,我们想找到这些日常设备安全漏洞的解决方法。”The team has briefed the drone company on the defects in their products and instructed them to improve safety measures. The company also plans to invite the team to the test its future products.这个小组已经向无人机生产公司介绍了他们产品的缺陷,并提示公司提供安全防范措施。无人机制造公司计划邀请陈鹏的小组加入到他们未来产品的检测队伍中。 /201512/414047。

The past year has brought significant disruption to China’s financial landscape, with internet heavyweights Alibaba and Tencent leading the charge into mobile payments, deposit-like savings products, and even fully fledged banking.过去一年中,中国金融行业版图发生了巨大变化。互联网巨头阿里巴巴(Alibaba)和腾讯(Tencent)带头进入了移动付、类似吸收存款的储蓄产品,乃至成熟的业务领域。Chinese policy makers have said that internet companies can play a positive role in enhancing customer service, spurring innovation and increasing competition in financial services.中国的政策制定者曾指出,互联网公司能够在金融务领域发挥提升客户务水平、激励创新以及促进竞争等积极作用。Competition began in mid-2013 with the launch of Yu’E Bao, an online money-market fund. Run by Alibaba, the financial services affiliate of ecommerce group, the fund offers cash on demand but also provides higher interest rates than those available on bank deposits.新竞争始于2013年年中在线货币市场基金——余额宝的问世。该基金由电子商务集团阿里巴巴旗下的金融务子公司运营,向客户提供所需的现金,同时利率也比存款高。Assets under management at Yu’E Bao reached Rmb599bn (bn) by the end of 2014, making it China’s largest money-market fund.截至2014年底,余额宝管理的资产达到了5990亿元人民币(合960亿美元),成为中国最大的货币市场基金。Tencent Holdings, the gaming and social networking group, and Baidu Inc, the search provider, have also launched similar products.中国游戏和社交媒体集团腾讯控股(Tencent Holdings)以及搜索务提供商百度(Baidu Inc)也推出了类似的产品。In addition to higher yields, the money-market products have lured depositors away from traditional banks by integrating them with these companies’ mobile-payment services.除了较高的收益率之外,货币市场产品还通过与各自运营商的移动付务结合在一起,将储户从传统吸引过来。Customers can use their Yu’E Bao credit to make purchases on Alibaba’s Taobao and Tmall ecommerce platforms, as well as for paying credit card and utility bills. Alipay, Alibaba’s mobile-payment service, is also increasingly accepted at food shops.用户可以使用自己的余额宝存款在阿里巴巴的电子商务平台淘宝(Taobao)和天猫(Tmall)购物,也可以用来进行信用卡还款,缴纳公用务费。阿里巴巴的移动付务——付宝(Alipay)也被越来越多的食品店接受。Last year, taxi-hailing apps became the locus of a fierce battle for mobile-payments market share. Alibaba-backed Kuaidi Dache has vied with Tencent-backed Didi Dache for pole position. Meanwhile, Baidu haspurchased a stake in US car-hailing company Uber.去年,打车应用成为各方争夺移动付市场份额的核心战场。阿里巴巴投资的快的打车(Kuaidi Dache)与腾讯投资的滴滴打车(Didi Dache)争夺领先地位。与此同时,百度入股了美国打车软件公司优步(Uber)。Both Alibaba and Tencent spent tens of millions of dollars on hefty rebates to riders and drivers for paying taxi fares with Alipay and Tenpay, respectively, instead of cash.阿里巴巴和腾讯分别向不用现金、而使用付宝和财付通(Tenpay)结算出租车费的乘客和司机返还了数千万美元。Meanwhile, Tencent, which until recently had a minimal presence in ecommerce, has enhanced its popular WeChat instant messaging app to allow brands to sell products directly through their WeChat accounts, with payments processed by Tenpay.与此同时,直到最近都在电子商务领域占极小份额的腾讯,已经升级了其广受欢迎的即时通讯应用微信(WeChat),允许商家通过自己的微信账号直接销售产品,并通过财付通完成付。The final frontier is banking. China’s banking regulators last year approved 10 privately owned companies, including Alibaba and Tencent, to establish regional banks.最后的待开垦之地是业务领域。去年,中国业监管机构批准10家民营企业(包括阿里巴巴和腾讯)设立地区性。A joint venture led by Tencent this month became thefirst bank to start operations under the pilot. Premier Li Keqiang attended the opening ceremony for WeBank, named after WeChat.1月份,多方出资、腾讯牵头成立的深圳前海微众(WeBank,随微信之名)成为首家在上述试点计划下开业的。中国总理李克强出席了该行启动仪式。Alibaba will partner with Fosun International, one of China’s largest private conglomerates, to form Zhejiang Internet Commerce Bank this year. Other companies including an airline, a pharmaceuticals producer and an auto-parts manufacturer are also participating in the pilot project.今年,阿里巴巴将与中国最大的民营企业集团之一复星国际(Fosun International)合作筹建浙江网商(Zhejiang Internet Commerce Bank)。其他多家公司也参与了试点计划,其中包括一家航空公司、一家药企以及一家汽车零部件制造商。Policy makers want these companies to focus on lending to small, privately owned businesses and consumers, who have struggled to obtain loans from state-owned banks. There is also the potential for internet companies to draw on troves of user data to evaluate small borrowers’ credit risk.政策制定者希望,这些公司能专注贷款给那些难从国有获得贷款的小微民营企业和消费者。互联网公司还可以利用海量用户数据评估小额贷款人的信用风险。Even before the latest pilot, some lending had aly occurred. In September 2013, Alibaba’s microfinance arm sold 10 tranches of securitised loans to investors. The deal did not require a banking licence because microfinance companies, which do not collect deposits, are licensed separately.在这一最新试点计划启动之前,一些贷款业务已经开展。2013年9月,阿里巴巴旗下的小额贷款公司将10笔券化贷款出售给投资者。此类交易不需要执照,因为不吸收存款的小额贷款公司可以单独获得许可。 /201502/358697。

After witnessing growing interest in paid content in China, Amazon Kindle officially unveiled a new subscription service on Tuesday that offers all-you-can- digital books for 12 yuan (.84) per month.在见了中国对付内容产生日益浓厚兴趣之后,亚马逊Kindle官方于上周二正式推出一项新的订阅务,每月花12元即可畅读所有你能读的电子书。The service called Kindle Unlimited gives Chinese subscribers access to a collection of more than 40,000 Chinese language e-books and 3,500 English e-books, including best-sellers by popular Chinese and foreign authors such as Han Han, Yi Zhongtian and Higashino Keigo.这项务名叫Kindle Unlimited,订购该务的中国用户可以阅读超过4万本中文电子书、3500本英文电子书,韩寒、易中天、东野圭吾等受欢迎的中外作家所著畅销书均在其列。The service supports Kindle devices and smartphones, computers and tablets with Kindle apps.该务持Kindle设备,以及安装了Kindle应用程序的智能手机、电脑、平板电脑。The service is aimed to provide Chinese customers a more flexible way to and to foster China#39;s nascent e-book market, said Gu Fan, the head of Kindle content product management at Amazon China.在亚马逊中国负责Kindle内容产品管理的顾凡表示,该项务的目标是为中国客户提供更灵活的方式来阅读以及培育中国初生的电子书市场。Amazon launched its Kindle e-book store in China in December 2012. It saw the number of active paid ers per month shoot up about 37 times by the end of 2015.亚马逊于2012年12月在中国推出的Kindle电子书商店。截止2015年年底,活跃的付费用户的数字每月已经迅速增长到了最一开始的37倍。The Kindle Unlimited service was launched when China saw a drop in the number of books being by its people.随着中国人阅读书籍的数量持续下跌,Kindle Unlimited这项务应运而生。Zhu Ning, an economist, who recently published a book named The Guaranteed Bubble, said the number of books by Chinese people is ;embarrassingly low;.一位名叫朱宁的经济学家近日出版了一本名为The Guaranteed Bubble的书籍,在书中他就指出,中国人的阅读书籍的数量现在是;低得让人难堪;。However, for the sustainable development of the subscription service, Kindle needs to get more publishers and authors to participate.但是,为了让订阅务可持续发展,Kindle还需要让更多的出版商和作者加入进来。 /201602/428354。

Plastics. Computers. Metamaterials?塑料。电脑。超材料?Almost half a century after Dustin Hoffman was taken aside in “The Graduate” and given the famous “one word” line about the future, it may be time to update the script again. And metamaterials appear to have the same potential to transform entire industries. Over the past 15 years or so, scientists have learned how to construct materials that bend light waves, as well as radar, radio, sound and even seismic waves, in ways that do not naturally occur.在电影《毕业生》(The Graduate)中,有人将达斯汀·霍夫曼(Dustin Hoffman)叫到一旁,对他说出了那句著名的“一个词”未来预言。现在距离电影上映已过去将近半个世纪,或许是时候更新剧本了。超材料似乎也具有那种可以改变整个产业的潜力。在过去大约15年的时间里,科学家已经学会如何制造能够以非自然的方式使光波、雷达波、无线电波、声波,甚至地震波弯曲的材料。First theorized in 1967 by the Russian physicist Victor Veselago and invented in 1999 by a group led by the physicist David R. Smith, the new design approach was first seen as a curiosity that hinted at science fiction applications like invisibility cloaks.俄罗斯物理学家维克托·韦谢拉戈(Victor Veselago)于1967年首次在理论上提出设想,物理学家戴维·R·史密斯(David R. Smith)领导的研究小组于1999年将理论转变为现实。这种新方法起初被视作科幻小说中提到的稀奇之物,比如隐形披风。But today, researchers have gained a better understanding of the science and are generating innovations in an array of fields, including radio antennas, radar, cosmetics, soundproofing and walls that help protect against earthquakes and tsunamis.但如今,研究人员已经更好地了解了这项技术,正在各个领域进行创新,制造产品,比如无线电天线、雷达、化妆品、隔音材料,以及能抵御地震和海啸的墙壁。Last year, the aircraft manufacturer Airbus announced that it was joining with Lamda Guard, a Canadian company, to test a metamaterial-based coating for cockpit windows to protect pilots in commercial aircraft from being blinded by laser pointers.去年,飞机制造商空客(Airbus)宣布将与加拿大Lamda Guard公司合作,测试一种由超材料制成的驾驶舱窗户保护层,以使商用飞机飞行员的视力免受激光指示器的影响。A key innovation behind metamaterials is that they are constructed with subcomponents that are smaller than the wavelength of the type of radiation they are designed to manipulate. The precise, often-microscopic patterns can then be used to manipulate the waves in unnatural ways.超材料背后的关键创新在于他们是由子部件制成的,这种子部件小于它们将会控制的放射线的波长。这种精密的、通常十分微小的子部件可以用来以非自然的方式控制波动。The implications of these new materials can be seen in two prototype radar antennas being designed at Echodyne, a start-up firm here that has been funded with backing from Bill Gates, a Microsoft co-founder, and Madrona Venture Group.可以从Echodyne正在设计的两种雷达天线原型机中看到这些新材料的影响,这家初创公司获得了微软(Microsoft)联合创始人比尔·盖茨(Bill Gates)及麦德罗纳风险投资集团(Madrona Venture Group)提供的资金。There are obvious markets for the technology in automotive safety and self-driving cars. Google’s advanced experimental vehicles use a costly mechanical laser-based device called a lidar to create an instantaneous high-resolution map of objects around the car. Based on a rapidly spinning laser, Google’s lidars still cost roughly ,000. The radars being designed by Echodyne may soon be able to create similar maps at a much lower cost.汽车安全及自动驾驶汽车方面的技术明显存在市场。谷歌先进的实验性汽车能够利用昂贵的激光机械设备——被称作激光雷达——创建一份有关车周围环境的即时高清地图。在快速旋转激光的基础上制成的谷歌激光雷达售价约为8000美元(约合4.97万元人民币)。Echodyne正在设计的雷达可能很快就会创建类似的地图,但成本会低很多。Echodyne is the third metamaterials company to be spun out of Intellectual Ventures, an investment and patent firm created by Nathan Myhrvold, a physicist who was Microsoft’s chief technology officer. Two other firms, Kymeta and Evolv Technology, are working on other metamaterial-based applications.Echodyne是高智发明(Intellectual Ventures)剥离出来的第三家超材料公司。高智发明是物理学家内森·梅尔沃德(Nathan Myhrvold)创办的投资和专利事务所,他曾在微软公司担任首席技术官。其他两家公司Kymeta和Evolv Technology正在研究超材料的其他应用方式。Evolv is pursuing higher-performance airport-security-scanning technology, and Kymeta recently announced a partnership with Intelsat to design land-based and satellite-based intelligent antennas that would greatly increase the capacity and speed of next-generation satellite Internet services.Evolv希望开发出性能更高的机场安全扫描技术。Kymeta最近宣布与Intelsat公司合作,共同设计一种安装在地面和卫星上的智能天线,可以大大提高下一代卫星互联网务的容量和速度。Xiang Zhang, a professor of mechanical engineering at the University of California, Berkeley, runs a laboratory that has pioneered a number of applications for metamaterials, including so-called optical “superlenses” that may one day surpass the power of today’s microscopes.张翔是加州大学伯克利分校的机械工程教授,他领导的实验室在超材料的很多应用中处于前沿位置,其中包括光学“超级透镜”,有一天这种透镜的能力可能会超过目前的显微镜。Dr. Zhang says he hears from many military contractors and commercial companies that are interested in pursuing metamaterial applications.张翔说,很多军事承包商和商业公司都对超材料的应用很感兴趣。Several years ago, he said, he received several calls from what he thought was Loral Space amp; Communications, a military contractor. He then learned that the caller was the French cosmetics and beauty firm L’Oréal, which was interested in metamaterials that might be used to change appearance or to create a more effective sunblock.他说,数年前,他接到几个电话,本以为对方是军事承包商劳拉空间与通信公司(Loral Spaceamp; Communications),结果发现打电话的是法国化妆品公司欧莱雅(L’Oréal),该公司对超材料改变人体形象,或者调制出更有效的防晒霜的潜力很感兴趣。Dr. Zhang and others are pursuing applications that could drastically lower the cost and increase the performance of optical computer networks.张翔等人正在研究如何把超材料应用到大幅降低光学计算机网络的成本,并提高其性能上。In 2012, the Berkeley Nanosciences and Nanoengineering Institute published a paper with South Korean scientists describing a metamaterial-based electro-optical modulator made from a sheet of graphene just a single atom thick that was able to switch lightwaves at terahertz frequencies.2012年,伯克利纳米科学和纳米工程学研究所(Berkeley Nanosciences and Nanoengineering Institute)发表了一篇论文,韩国科学家在文中描述了一种超材料电光调节器,它使用了厚度只有一个原子直径的石墨烯片制作,可以用于太赫兹光波的开关。More recently, a group at City College of New York, led by the physicist Vinod Menon, demonstrated light emission from ultrafast-switching LEDs based on metamaterials. Together, such innovations could make possible optical computer networks far faster than today’s gigabit networks.近来,纽约市立学院(City College of New York)物理学家维诺德·梅农(Vinod Menon)率领的一个团队,展示了基于超材料的高速开关LED的发光。把这样的创新结合起来,就有可能研制出一种光学计算机网络,比现在的千兆网络远远更快。Indeed metamaterials are still finding their way into new fields. Papers have recently been published that explore the idea of using metamaterial-based “walls” to dampen the seismic waves in earthquakes or the effects of tsunamis.事实上,超材料还在陆续进入一些新的领域。最近发表的一些论文,探索了使用超材料“护墙”,在地震或海啸中衰减地震波影响的想法。In 2013, scientists at the French construction firm Menard published a paper on arxiv.org, an automated electronic archive for research articles, describing a test of a novel way of counteracting the effects of an earthquake from a metamaterial grid of empty cylindrical columns bored into soil. They reported that they were able to measure a significant dampening of a simulated earthquake with the array of columns.2013年,法国建筑公司梅纳尔(Menard)的科学家在自动化研究文献库arxiv.org上发表论文,描述了对一种新方法进行的测试。这种方法是把超材料制作的中空柱状栏杆插在土里,以抵消地震波的影响。论文称,他们的测量显示,在经过这些柱状栏杆后,一场模拟的地震出现了显著衰减。New applications for metamaterials are certain to emerge in coming years, Dr. Zhang said.张翔说,未来几年内,超材料一定会出现新的应用方式。“It’s beyond our imagination right now,” he said. “But we will push the frontiers.”“目前它是超出我们想象的,”他说。“但我们将继续推进它的研究。” /201503/366458。

Moveable Type Printig活字印刷The block printing technology in our country was probably invented in the seventh century, and reached its climax in the tenth century in the Song Dynasty. With the block printing technology, such procedures as writing samples,carving blocks, spraying the ink and printing were involved in the process of publishing a book, and it was always time-consuming and costly in the use of the material resources and manpower to print a work of great length. The procedures would have to be repeated if other books were to be published; hence our ancestors conducted active explorations and strived for improvements, which led to the eventual invention of the moveable clay-type printing technology by an ordinary man called Bi Sheng during the period of Qingli of the Northern Song Dynasty, as can be proved by the account of the book Dream Pool Essays by Bi Sheng#39;s contemporary,Shen Kuo. From then on, the moveable type printing technology was applied, and it was 400 years earlier than that used in Europe when the German Gutenburg, for the first time, printed the Holy Bible with this very technology.During the period of Dade of the Yuan Dynasty, Wang Zhen learned to use the moveable wood types to print books, of which none has come down to the present day. The oldest moveable-type printed book in existence in China is Yushice in the Yuan Dynasty, which is now collected in the National Library of China. There are, because of the differences of the times and materials, different names for the moveable type printing,such as the moveable clay-type printing, magnetic printing, moveable wood-type plate, moveable copper-type printing, moveable lead-type printing and moveable zinc-type printing. In the years of Hongzhi of the Ming Dynasty, the moveable cop-per-type printing became prevalent in Wuxi, Suzhou, Changshu and Nanjing, Jian-gsu Province, but in the years between Tianqi and Congzhen of the Ming Dynasty when a social and economic decline was pervasive, lapsed into a low ebb due to its great economic cost, the corollary of which was that there were few moveable copper-type printed books handed down to the present day. There are over 100 kinds of books in existence which were printed with the cheap moveable wood types in the Ming Dynasty. In the late Ming Dynasty, the moveable wood-type printing gradually replaced the copper-type printing for the printing of the books.People at the time also learned to use the moveable zinc types to print books; un-fortunately, there was not any book of this kind left to the present day. The moveable wood-type printing was the mainstream in the Qing Dynasty, and a great number of books of this kind have been properly preserved. After the Opium War, the moveable zinc-type printing technology originating in the west was introduced into China. The new printing technology, given its great advantages over the traditional block printing and moveable type printing, replaced them gradually as the major type of printing books, and has been used to the modern times. 我国雕版印刷技术大约发明于公元7世纪,到了10世纪的宋代达到鼎盛。使用这种技术出版一套书籍须经过写样刻版、涂墨印刷等多道工序,如果是要印一部大著作,往往要花费大量的物力、人力和时间。假如要再出版其他书籍,这些工序又得重新来过,因此我们的祖先积极探索,力求改进,终于在北宋庆历年间,平民毕异发明了用胶泥活字印刷技术。此事记载于与毕异同时期的沈括的《梦溪笔谈》一书中,从此活字印刷术开始使用了。它比欧洲最先用活字印《圣经》的德国谷腾堡要早400年。到了元代大德年间,王桢发明了用木活字印书,可惜这些都没有传本,国内现存最早的活字印刷实物是国家图书馆藏元朝的《御试策》。活字版因时代、材料不同而有不同的名称,有“泥活字版”、“磁板”、“木活字版”、“铜活字版”、“铅活字版”、“锡活字版”等等。明代弘治年间,在江苏的无锡、苏州、常熟、南京一带,铜活字印刷开始流行起来。到了天启、崇祯时期,由于社会经济的衰落,铜活字印刷因经济成本太大进入低潮,很少有传本面世了。明代用木活字这种成本价廉的印刷方式印制的书籍现存有100多种,到了明代晚期,木活字逐步取代了铜活字印书。同时在明代还发明了用锡活字印书,可惜无实物传世。木活字是清代活字印刷的主流,且有大量的木活字书籍保存下来。鸦片战争以后,西方的铅活字印刷术传人我国,这种新型的印刷术比传统的雕版印刷和活字印刷有着较大的优势,逐步取代了雕版印刷和活字印刷的地位,成为印刷书籍的最主要的方式,并一直沿用到现代。 /201601/419343。