安徽池州妇幼保健院做孕检多少钱度活动

明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年12月11日 19:33:32
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Silkworms have been bred over thousands of years to behave quite unlike their caterpillarcousins in the wild.蚕这种动物已经被人类豢养了上千年,这使得它们的行为远远异于野外的毛毛虫同类们。Thats because people purposely breed silkworms to fit this job description:因为人类故意培养蚕,使得它们能够适应这样的工作岗位:WANTED–Superlative silk producers.诚聘:招优秀的产丝工。Benefits include housing, unlimited food and protection fromall predators.福利包括住房、包吃包喝、不受天敌威胁。Wanderlust greatly discouraged. No opportunity for travel.不欢迎旅游迷。没有出差机会。Obviously, what makes a good silk producer in captivity is very different from what helps a caterpillar survive in the wild.很明显,造就人工饲养的产丝能手的条件跟让野生毛毛虫在野外生存的能力会非常不同。Commercial silkworms are dynamos at silk production, andcompared to their wild relatives, rather sluggish about everything else.跟它们的野生同类相比,商用蚕在产丝方面是能手,但在其他任何方面的行动都很迟缓。Outdoors, youve probably seen caterpillars crawling to find food or hide from birds, butcommercial silkworm caterpillars hardly move.在户外,你可能见过毛毛虫爬来爬去寻找食物或躲避鸟类,但是商用蚕幼虫很少活动。For silk production, theyre kept on open traysbecause theyre content to stay put, as long as they have a steady supply of mulberry leaves.为了产丝,这些蚕就被放在敞口的匾上,因为只要有充足的桑叶供应,它们就会满足于一动不动地呆着。Even when they reach the moth stage, commercial silkworms are surprisingly immobile.即使商用蚕蜕变成蛾子,它们的活动力也惊人地弱。Wildmoths fly to evade predators and to lay their eggs in different areas.野生的蛾子会到处飞,以躲避天敌并且把卵产在不同的地方。However, commercial silkworm moths havent needed to do these things for thousands of years.但是,从上千年前开始,商用蚕的蛾子就不用做这些事情了。Theyve completelylost the ability to fly, even though they still have wings!即使它们仍然有翅膀,它们也已对完全丧失了飞行的能力。Heres another difference.还有一处不同。In the wild, moths are often very particular about where theyll lay eggs.野外的蛾子通常对产卵地点很挑剔。This ensures that baby caterpillars can chomp their favorite leaves as soon as they hatch.这可以保它们的幼虫一孵化就能吃到喜欢吃的树叶。Commercial silkworm moths have lost that instinct too.商用蚕的蛾子连这种本能也丧失了。Theyll even lay eggs on a sheet of paper,where its easy for humans to keep track of them.它们甚至会在纸张上产卵,对于人类来说可以很方便的找到它们。 /201404/289950

Science and technology科学技术The origins of war战争的起源Old soldiers?古老的战士?The latest research suggests humans are not warriors in their genes, after all最新研究发现人类骨子里有的不是杀伐EDWARD WILSON, the inventor of the field of sociobiology, once wrote that war is embedded in our very nature.艾德华·威尔森是生物社会学领域的创始人。他曾经写道战争深植于我们的骨子里。This is a belief commonly held not just by sociobiologists but also by anthropologists and other students of human behaviour.这种观点不仅生物社会学家普遍认同,人类学家以及一些研究人类行为的学者也认同。They base it not only on the propensity of modern man to go to war with his neighbours but also on observations of the way those who still live a pre-agricultural hunter-gatherer life behave.认同的基础有两点:现代的人们有与邻为敌的倾性;对那些仍然生活在农业社会以前的采集狩猎者的观察结果。Add this to field studies of the sometimes violent behaviour of mankinds closest living relative, the chimpanzee, and the idea that making war is somehow in humanitys genes has seemed quite plausible.除此之外,还可以到野外观察一下与人类亲缘关系最为相近的黑猩猩,可以知道黑猩猩有时也有暴力行为。由此,威尔森的观点似乎相当有说力。It has even been advanced as an explanation for the extreme levels of self- sacrificial altruism people sometimes display.其实,这种观点早已有人提出过,用来解释自称牺牲的利他主义者有时表现出来的那种极端行为。But a paper in this weeks Science, by Douglas Fry and Patrik Soderberg of Abo Akademi University, in Finland, questions all this.本周,芬兰埃学术大学的道格拉斯·弗莱和帕特里克·索德伯格在《科学》杂志上发表了论文,提出了疑问。Dr Fry and Mr Soderberg have reviewed what is known about modern hunter-gatherers.他们负责对被称为现代狩猎采集者的研究做出。They suggest that although such people are far from peaceful they are also far from warlike.他们说,虽然这些人远不是和平之士,但他们也远不是好战之人。Most who die violent deaths in their societies do so at the hands of fellow tribesmen, not foreigners.在他们的社会中,多数死于同族人暴力的人,而不是外来者暴力的人,也会施展暴力。Murderers, this research suggests, humans may often be.论文称,人类可能经常会成为杀人者。But they are not the died-in-the-wool warriors of anthropological legend.但是,又不是人类学传奇上的那种马革裹尸的武士。 Dr Fry and Mr Soderberg came to this conclusion by scrutinising 21 hunter- gatherer societies from all over the world.他们两人对全世界21个猎狩社会进行了仔细观察,得出了此项结论。They looked at ethnographic studies of these groups, published over the past 100 years or so.他们浏览了这些族群的种族志研究结果。Inter alia, these studies recorded homicides and their circumstances.这些研究发表于大约100年以前,特别纪录了杀人行为以及原委。The two researchers classified such deaths into interpersonal events, interfamilial feuds, group-sanctioned executions and intergroup events.他们把死因分为人际关系矛盾,家庭不和,族群判决的死刑,族群间矛盾。Only the latter could be described as war.只有后两者称为战争。One of the 21 groups was extremely warlike.21个族群中有一个极度好战。More than half of recorded killings perpetrated by the Tiwi, an Australian people, were acts of war—and nearly half of all homicides from all causes in all 21 groups involved the Tiwi.这个族群就是澳大利亚的提维人。研究中纪录了他们的杀戮行为,其中多半数的都属战争行为。21个族群所有的杀戮原委中近半数的涉及提维族。This group was such an outlier that Dr Fry and Mr Soderberg did their analysis twice: once with and once without the Tiwi.这个族群极度异常,两人进行了两次分析:一次涉及提维族,另一次没有。Nomads land游牧民族的土地Excluding the Tiwi, deaths in war were only 15% of the total.排除提维族,战争致死的人数是全部的15%;Including them, the figure was 34%.否则是34%。But even that is still a minority.但仍然不够充分,These numbers do not suggest hunter-gatherers are going out looking for trouble with their neighbours.不能说明问题―猎狩者跑出去找麻烦。This finding seems different from that arrived at in by Samuel Bowles of the Santa Fe Institute, in New Mexico.这项发现与新墨西哥圣菲研究所的塞缪尔·鲍尔斯年的研究结果不同。Dr Bowles looked at eight modern hunter-gatherer groups, including the Tiwi, and at archaeological evidence concerning 15 ancient ones.鲍尔斯研究了8个现代猎狩族群和15个古代猎狩族群的考古据,得出了结论:He concluded that death in warfare is so common in hunter-gatherer societies that it was an important evolutionary pressure on early Homo sapiens, and might easily account for the emergence of self-sacrificial altruism.猎狩社会中发生的战争死亡现象非常普遍,变成了早期人类进化的压力。这就轻松地说明自我牺牲的利他主义的出现。Dr Bowless analysis did not, however, separate the Tiwi from the rest, so was influenced by this outlier.然而,鲍尔斯的分析并没有把提维族与其它族分离开来,因此受到了这种异常现象的影响。Treating outliers with caution is reasonable.认真对待这种异常现象是合乎情理的。An analysis of modern warfare that looked at the 1940s would come to a different conclusion from one that looked at the 1950s, 1960s, 1970s, 1980s or 1990s.有一项分析着眼于1940年代的现代战事,得出的结论与着眼于1950年代,1960年代,1970年代,1980年代以及1990年代的不同。Nor could the archaeological studies clearly indicate which violent deaths were caused by war.而且考古学研究也不能说明哪一项暴力致死的原因是战争。As Dr Bowles himself says, one cannot always distinguish between deaths due to intergroup violence and that occurring within groups.正如鲍尔斯本人所说,总是分不清哪些死亡是族群间暴力所致,哪些是同族群暴力所致。Dr Bowles was not the first to conclude that war was common during human evolution.战争是人类进化当中的普遍现象,得出此结论鲍尔斯并不是第一人。Early in the 20th century, studies of the Yanomami, who live in the Amazon rainforest, suggested as much.20世纪早期,对生活在亚马逊雨林的诺马米人的研究已经进行了大量论。But that idea was overthrown when, decades later, a researcher called Brian Ferguson re-examined all documented cases of Yanomami warfare.但是,几十年后又被布莱恩·弗格森推翻。These, he found, were overwhelmingly in areas penetrated by settlers rather than in places where the Yanomami dwelt undisturbed.他重新研究了诺马米人所有的战事文献。他发现,这些战事都发生在有人迹的地方,而不是诺马米人安居的地方。Something similar happened to chimpanzee researchers.那些研究黑猩猩的学者们也进行了方式相似的研究。The first big field study of these animals was done by Jane Goodall.珍·古德进行了首次大型野外研究。Her chimps, which live in Tanzania, are often aggressive, sometimes engage in cannibalism, and even steal and kill others infants. And they do engage in something that looks like warfare.她研究的黑猩猩生活在坦桑尼亚,好斗性强,有时会残食同类,偷盗甚至杀死猩猩婴儿,跟战争相似。When a large group of chimps split, for instance, vicious intertribal conflict followed.一大群猩猩内讧时,就会产生恶性冲突。All this suggests an evolutionary origin for some of the darker aspects of human nature.这些都表明了人性中那些较黑暗面的进化起源。A second study, though, conducted in Congo-Brazzaville by David Morgan and Crickette Sanz of Washington University, in St Louis, came to contrary conclusions.华盛顿大学圣路易斯分校的大卫·根和克瑞斯克特-桑兹在刚果共和国进行了又一项研究,得出了相反的结论:It found chimps to be peaceful creatures.此处的黑猩猩是安静的动物。For a while, that confused primatologists.这又使灵长类学家迷惑不解。The difference between the two populations turns out to be density.两处猩群的生活差别越来越大。The Tanzanian chimps are crowded together as deforestation around their reserve reduces the amount of habitat available.在坦桑尼亚,黑猩猩所生活的自然保护区周边地区进行了大量的森林采伐,减少了栖息之地的数量,只能团抱度日。Those in Congo do not, at least yet, suffer in this way.刚果的则没有。Chimps, then, do offer a useful lesson on the origin of warfare—just not the one that was originally believed.非洲黑猩猩确实能让人了解到冲突的起源―并不是先前的那样。Groups of chimpanzees, like groups of people, will fight each other if need be, but will otherwise leave each other alone.群居的黑猩猩跟群居的人类一样,矛盾激化时也会打架,再不了就是谁也不理谁。Whether modern, industrial man is less or more warlike than his hunter-gatherer ancestors is impossible to determine.跟人类的猎狩祖先相比,现代化、工业化之下的人是否更加好战,还是不太好战,已经不得而知。The machine gun is so much more lethal than the bow and arrow that comparisons are meaningless.机的杀伤力比弓箭要更大,但这种比较是无意义的。One thing that is true, though, is that murder rates have fallen over the centuries, as policing has sp and the routine carrying of weapons has diminished.有一点是肯定的,近几个世纪来,警力扩大了,带的惯例减少了,谋杀率下降了。Modern society may not have done anything about war. But peace is a lot more peaceful.现代社会可能没有改变战争,但社会秩序要更稳定了。 /201309/258713

  

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  Science and technology科学技术Ageing衰老Forever young?青春永驻?A way to counteract part of the process of growing old一个减缓衰老进程的途径BIOLOGISTS have made a lot of progress in understanding ageing.在对人类衰老过程的探索中生物学家们取得了长足的进步。They have not, however, been able to do much about slowing it down.可是如何减缓衰老他们还没有太多的办法。Particular versions of certain genes have been shown to prolong life,与延长寿命相关的特定基因已经找到,but that is no help to those who do not have them.但这还帮不了那些此段基因缺失的人。A piece of work reported in this weeks Nature by Darren Baker of the Mayo Clinic, in Minnesota, though, describes an extraordinary result that points to a way the process might be ameliorated.本周《自然》杂志发表了明尼苏达州梅奥诊所的Dr.Darren Baker的一项实验报告,描述了其所采取的方法使得衰老进程得到改善,结果非常好。Dr Baker has shown—in mice, at least—that ageing body cells not only suffer themselves,至少在实验小白鼠体内是这样,but also have adverse effects on otherwise healthy cells around them.Dr.Barker称体细胞不仅自己逐渐衰老,还将不利的影响传达到周围健康的细胞。More significantly, he has shown that if such ageing cells are selectively destroyed, these adverse effects go away.更神奇的是,如果这些衰老的细胞被人为破坏掉,它们对健康细胞的负面影响也会随之消失。The story starts with an observation, made a few years ago, that senescent cells often produce a molecule called P16INK4A.故事还得从几年前的一项实验开始讲起,他们观察到衰老的细胞通常会产生一种叫P16INK4A的分子。Most body cells have an upper limit on the number of times they can divide—and thus multiply in number.大部分体细胞分裂次数会有一个上限-数量的翻倍,P16INK4A is part of the control mechanism that brings cell division to a halt when this limit is reached.当这个上限接近时,P16INK4A作为控制机制的一部分会使细胞的分裂停止。The Hayflick limit, as the upper bound is known, is believed to be an anticancer mechanism.海弗利克极限,即我们所知的上限现在认为可作为一种抗癌机制,It provides a backstop that prevents a runaway cell line from reproducing indefinitely, and thus becoming a tumour.它可以拦截、阻断细胞链的无限期、失常的增生,正是这种失常的增生形成了肿瘤。The limit varies from species to species—in humans, it is about 60 divisions—and its size is correlated with the lifespan of the animal concerned.这种极限随物种不同而不同,人类大致的分裂次数上限是60次,极限的大小与相应动物的预期生命期限有关。Hayflick-limited cells thus accumulate as an animal ages, and many biologists believe they are one of the things which control maximum lifespan. Dr Bakers experiment suggests this is correct.细胞的海弗利克极限累加就是动物的寿命长度,很多的生物学家推测它们控制着生命期限最长值。Dr.Barker的实验明了推测是正确的。Age shall not weary them老而未衰的器官Dr Baker genetically engineered a group of mice that were aly quite unusual.Dr. Baker 通过基因工程处理的一组小白鼠非常特别,They had a condition called progeria, meaning that they aged much more rapidly than normal mice.它们的症状也称早老症,意味着它们比一般的小白鼠衰老的更快。The extra tweak he added to the DNA of these mice was a way of killing cells that produce P16INK4A. He did this by inserting into the animals DNA, near the gene for P16INK4A, a second gene that was,他在这些小白鼠的DNA中加入了可杀死能产生P16INK4A分子的细胞的特别基因,具体做法是在实验小白鼠P16INK4A旁边的基因插入另一段动物基因,because of this proximity, controlled by the same genetic switch.因为在它旁边,第二段基因也受相同的遗传开关控制。This second gene, activated whenever the gene for P16INK4A was active, produced a protein that was harmless in itself,这第二段基因编码产生的蛋白质对自身无害,但在特殊的药物作用下,它就会变的很致命,只要P16INK4A分子有活性它就能被激活。but which could be made deadly by the presence of a particular drug. Giving a mouse this drug, then, would kill cells which had reached their Hayflick limits while leaving other cells untouched. Dr Baker raised his mice, administered the drug, and watched.给实验小白鼠用这种药后,就会杀死那些接近海弗利克极限的细胞,其它细胞则完好无损。 Dr Baker 培养这些小白鼠,给它们用药物后,观察它们。The results were spectacular.结果是出人意料的。Mice given the drug every three days from birth suffered far less age-related body-wasting than those which were not.小白鼠出生后每3天给一次药,药小白鼠比没药小白鼠的与衰老相关的机体耗损要少的多。They lost less fatty tissue. Their muscles remained plump.它们耗损的脂肪组织更少,肌肉丰满,And they did not suffer cataracts of the eye.并且都没患上白内障。They did, though, continue to experience age-related problems in tissues that do not produce P16INK4A as they get old.接下来,他们还对那些老化的但并没有出现P16INK4A分子的器官也进行了衰老相关问题的实验,In particular, their hearts and blood vessels aged normally.特别是它们的心脏和血管,老化的进程很正常,For that reason, since heart failure is the main cause of death in such mice, their lifespans were not extended.小白鼠的主要是死因心脏衰竭,所以它们的预期寿命不会再延长了。The drug, Dr Baker found, produced some benefit even if it was administered to a mouse only later in life.Dr Baker发现,这种药物即使是饲喂给生命快到尽头的的小白鼠也会有一定的疗效,Though it could not clear cataracts that had aly formed, it partly reversed muscle-wasting and fatty-tissue loss.尽管对已经形成的白内障没法再变回清澈,但能使肌肉及脂肪组织的耗损部分得以缓解,Such mice were thus healthier than their untreated confrères.这些小白鼠因此比没有药的更健康。Analysis of tissue from mice killed during the course of the experiment showed that the drug was having its intended effect.对那些在实验中死亡小白鼠的组织进行分析发现,药物达到了预期的效果。Cells producing P16INK4A were killed and cleared away as they appeared.细胞一旦产生了P16INK4A分子就立即被杀死了。Dr Bakers results therefore support the previously untested hypothesis that not only do cells which are at the Hayflick limit stop working well themselves,因此这一结果实了早先未被验的推测,即,达到海弗利克极限的细胞不仅自身的不再正常运作。they also have malign effects on their otherwise healthy neighbours.还会还会把负面的影响带给周围正常的细胞。Regardless of the biochemical details, the most intriguing thing Dr Bakers result provides:先不管其中生化方面的细节,Dr.Baker的实验结论最引人入胜的是:is a new way of thinking about how to slow the process of ageing—and one that works with the grain of nature, rather than against it.人类有了延缓衰老进程的新方法-与其抗衡,不如顺应自然法则。Existing lines of inquiry into prolonging lifespan are based either on removing the Hayflick limit, which would have all sorts of untoward consequences, or suppressing production of the oxidative chemicals that are believed to cause much of the cellular damage which is bracketed together and labelled as senescence.延长预期寿命现有的办法,一是通过消除细胞的海弗利克极限,这可能会出现各种不利的后果。But these chemicals are a by-product of the metabolic activity that powers the body.二是抑制体内氧化物水平。氧化物被认为是引起细胞损伤的元凶,和细胞衰老划等号的一个词,但这些化学物质本身就是给身体提供能量的代谢活动所产生的副产品。If 4 billion years of natural selection have not dealt with them it suggests that suppressing them may have worse consequences than not suppressing them.如果40亿年前的自然选择都没有摒弃这体内的代谢副产品,那就意味着抑制它们可能比不抑制它们所带来的后果更严重。By contrast, actually eliminating senescent cells may be a logical extension of the process of shutting them down, and thus may not have adverse consequences.相反的,真正的消除掉衰老细胞可能是延长机体细胞正常运作的一个符合逻辑的作法,也不会再有不利结果了。It is not an elixir of life, for eventually the body will run out of cells, as more and more of them reach their Hayflick limits.世上没有生命可以长生不老,随着机体内越来越多的细胞到了自己的海弗利克极限,最终,机体也就到了消亡的那一天。But it could be a way of providing a healthier and more robust old age than people currently enjoy.但是未来的我们可能会比现在更健康、更有活力的老去。Genetically engineering people in the way that Dr Baker engineered his mice is obviously out of the question for the foreseeable future.毫无疑问,在可预见的未来某天,Dr. Baker在小白鼠身上采用的基因技术就能应用在人类身上。But if some other means of clearing cells rich in P16INK4A from the body could be found, it might have the desired effect.但如果还能找到其它方法消除体内富含P16INK4A分子的细胞,那可能才是我们期望的效果。The wasting and weakening of the tissues that accompanies senescence would be a thing of the past, and old age could then truly become ripe.伴随着衰老而产生的机体组织耗损、衰弱都将成为过去,年老只意味着真正意义上的成熟! /201306/243111Scientists who study human sperm have long wonderedwhether human sperm could somehow sense the presence of an egg.研究人类精子的科学家们长期以来都很疑惑:精子是否能以某种方式察觉到卵子的存在。Then, just about a decade ago, it was discovered that sperm have proteins on them that react to the presence ofcertain chemicals.大约就在十多年前,人们发现精子本身含有一些蛋白质对某些特定的化学物质会产生反应。In fact, these are the same molecules used by nerve cells in your nose when you sniff out a scent.实际上,那些就是我们鼻子闻气味时需要的神经细胞。Nothing that looks like a nose of course, but these chemical-sensing proteins act like noses.当然不是真正的鼻子,但可以嗅到化学五的蛋白质就像鼻子一样。Researchers call these sensory devices “olfactory receptors.”研究人员把这些感知工具叫做“嗅觉感受器”。More recent studies have startedfiguring out what kind of chemical attracts a sperm.很多近代的研究已经开始弄清楚吸引精子的是那种化学物质。The most effective spermattractor is called “bourgeonal.”最有效的精子吸引子叫bourgeonal。Bourgeonal is a floral scent.Bourgeonal一种花香化合物。When sperm sense the presence of bourgeonal, they race toward it.当精子嗅到这种味道,就会迅速向它移动。Their speed goes from eighteen point three micrometers per second up to a whopping thirty point one.精子的速度从每秒18.3微米上升到30.1微米。The most likely thing isthat bourgeonal just happens to be structurally similar to another chemical produced by a female egg.最有可能的是, bourgeonal与由卵子产生的一种化学物在结构上是相似的。 /201407/315762

  Mike: Hi, Amanda. Why dont you sit down and watch this movie with me? It only started about 15 minutes ago.迈克:嗨,阿曼达。为什么你不坐下来,和我一起看这部电影呢?刚放了15分钟。Amanda: I dont know—this movie looks scary! Why is that guys complexion so pale? Why do his eyes look like theyre about to pop out? And why is there so much blood everywhere?阿曼达:我不知道——这部电影看起来很恐怖!为什么那个家伙的肤色那么惨白?为什么他的眼珠子看起来像是要蹦出来?而且为什么到处都是血?Mike: Im not exactly sure whats going on either. I think this group of friends decided to travel to the countryside during their spring break. They end up at this old farmhouse, and apparently there are these zombies that show up at nighttime. I guess its just your typical horror movie plotline.迈克:我也不清楚发生了什么事情。我想这群朋友决定春假期间去乡下旅行。结果他们来到这家农舍,很明显半夜里出现了僵尸。我想这就是你心目中典型鬼片的套路吧。Amanda: I hate scary movies! In fact, I hate all violent movies, and I especially hate ;jump scenes,; when something pops up on the screen suddenly or when theres a sudden loud noise. So basically, watching a horror movie is my worst nightmare.阿曼达:我讨厌恐怖片!实际上,我讨厌一切涉及暴力的影片,尤其讨厌“跳跃的场景”,例如有什么东西突然跳到屏幕上或者突然响起吵闹的噪音。所以基本上,观看恐怖片是最糟糕的噩梦。Mike: To be honest, I dont like horror movies that much either, but sometimes they can be pretty thrilling. And its fun to watch with a pretty girl, too, because then you can put your arm around her to comfort her when she gets scared.迈克:说实话,我也同样不喜欢恐怖片,但有时候会相当刺激。并且与漂亮的女孩子一起观看会很有趣,因为你可以在她受到惊吓需要安慰时搂着她。Amanda: I see what your plan is. Well, sorry to disappoint you, Mike, but I think Id better get going!阿曼达:我明白你在打什么主意。嗯,恐怕要令你失望了,迈克,我想我最好还是离开吧!原文译文属!201304/234234

  

  

  Business商业报道Schumpeter熊彼得The enemy within家贼难防Fraud within companies is a risk that can never be eliminated, just managed企业内部的欺诈行为是一种无法杜绝的风险,只能控制BUSINESS has always been plagued by fraud:商业企业一直遭受着欺诈者的侵扰:witness the South Sea Company in the 1710s or Charles Ponzis Securities Exchange Company in 1920 or the Enron and WorldCom scandals in the early 2000s.比如南海公司在1710年代的所作所为把英国经济卷入了巨大的泡沫,1920年代Charles Ponzi的股票交易公司更是为世界贡献了庞氏骗局这一新名词,当然不得不提还有2000年代安然和世通两家公司丑闻。Ambitious fraudsters are attracted to businesses for the same reason that Willie Sutton, a contemporary of Ponzi, reportedly said he robbed banks: Because thats where the money is.企业对于野心勃勃骗子来说是很有吸引力的,其原因同当Willie Sutton*被问到为何抢时说的理由相同:因为钱在那啊。Some frauds are committed by people at the top such as Bernard Madoff or Allen Stanford.一些欺诈案是由Bernard Madoff或Allen Stanford这样的组织高层人员犯下的,Others are committed by hired-hands lower down the organisation.另一些则是由组织下层的雇员犯下的。But all frauds involve abusing peoples trust and diverting corporate resources for personal ends.但是所有的诈骗行为都包括对他人信任的滥用及以个人为目的的对企业资源的转移。Fraud by wayward employees, be they high or low, can never be eliminated.由难以捉摸的员工—无论是高层还是基层—所进行的欺诈是无法被杜绝的,Directors and executives can, however, treat it like any other unavoidable risk, and manage it professionally.公司的董事和高管要想像对待其他无法规避的风险一样对待欺诈,并对其进行专业的控制。The risk is particularly acute at the moment.在这样一个时代这种风险尤为突出。Companies are straining the bonds of loyalty.在这个企业对个人信任被透的额的时代里,They are making ever more use of contractors and temporary workers.企业对承包商和临时工的大量使用是前无仅有的。They are putting more pressure on employees to hit targets; they are also holding down the wages of the majority of workers while increasing the bosss pay.企业为完成目标对员工施加了更大了压力;他们降低了大部分员工的工资,老板的收入却得到了提高。This is all happening at a time when economic activity is shifting to the emerging world and to the internet.这同样也是经济活动向新兴经济体和互联网转移的时代。Kroll, a security consultant, found that 70% of the companies that it studied were affected by fraud in 2013, up from 61% in the previous year.一名名为Kroll的安全顾问对%些公司进行的了调研,发现在2013年其中70%的公司收到了欺诈行为的影响,去年的数据则为61%。At the same time the punishment is harsher than ever.而与此同时,对欺诈的惩罚也变得比从前更为严厉了。Companies nowadays run the risk of being held liable for their employees misbehaviour unless they can show they had done their best to prevent it.如今,企业要为其员工的不当行为负责,除非他能明自身已为防范此行为的发生做了最充分的工作;Directors who play even the smallest role in frauds can now go to prison.被发现与欺诈有任何的瓜葛的董事会成员都会面临牢狱之灾。Americas Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and its European imitators have made a serious crime of something once seen as normal business practice: bribing foreigners.贿赂外国人,这一曾经被看作日常商业行为的活动,如今也已被美国的《反外国腐败行为法案》及英国的仿造品定为严重的罪行。Companies infected by fraud can incur all sorts of other costs.与欺诈行为有关系的公司还会招致其他各种各样的损失:Their licences to trade may be withdrawn, they may be barred from bidding for government work and they may be subjected to online campaigns urging customers to boycott them.贸易执照被吊销,被禁止参加政府招标的项目,还有可能遭到力劝消费者抵制其产品的在线运动。What can companies do to uncover internal scams?企业怎样做才能发觉其内部的阴谋呢?A new book, Corporate Fraud: the Human Factor, by Maryam Hussain, an investigator at EY, an accounting firm, provides a timely guide.安永会计事务所的一名调查员Maryam Hussain所写的一本新书,《企业欺诈:人的因素》为他们提供了适时的指导。One answer is to look for the telltale signs.其中一点就是要去寻找那些能暴露问题的征兆。Some of the biggest corporate tricksters were people whose flamboyant personalities often raised suspicions: think of Robert Maxwell, or Augustus Melmotte in Anthony Trollopes The Way We Live Now, perhaps the best novel about corporate fraud.一些大名鼎鼎的企业诈骗者,通常也会具备一些令人生疑的浮夸性格:想想Robert Maxwell吧,或是看一下Anthony Trollope的《我们现在生活的方式》,它可能是最好的企业欺诈题材的小说。Boards have a duty to pluck up the courage to challenge such larger-than-life bosses.董事会有责任鼓起勇气,对这些具有传奇色的管理层人员提出怀疑。However, most corporate fraudsters do not have swishing reptilian tails as a giveaway sign.然而,大部分的行骗者并没长着沙沙作响的尾巴作为暴露自己的标志。In many instances they are not borderline psychopaths, just ordinary people gone wrong.在多数情况下,他们并不是边缘型精神病,而都只是些误入歧途的普通人。Frequently, they start with small crimes and then engage in ever bigger misdemeanours to conceal their wrongdoing.通常在起初,他们只是犯下了小错误,然后却用更大的不当行为来掩盖之前的错误。Nick Leeson, who destroyed Barings Bank by losing 862m in bad bets on derivatives, said, It all started when I tried to cover for a junior colleague who had lost 20,000.为巴林造成8.62亿英镑的金融衍生品坏账,最终致其倒闭Nick Leeson曾经说:一切都开始于我试图包庇一位造成两万英镑损失的年轻同事。Ramalinga Raju, the chairman of Satyam, who admitted to inflating the computer-services companys revenues by 1 billion, said, It was like riding a tiger, not knowing how to get off without being eaten.软件务公司萨蒂扬的董事长Ramalinga Raju说:我就像骑在老虎身上,不知如何下来才不会被吃掉。此人承认自己把公司的利润夸大了数以10亿计。A second answer is to put procedures in place to detect frauds.第二点则是要落实监测欺诈的程序和手续。The Sarbanes-Oxley law passed in America after the Enron and WorldCom frauds requires the boards of public companies to commission independent audits of their internal financial controls.在安然和世通的丑闻后美国通过了《萨班斯-奥克斯利法案》,要求上市公司的董事会委任独立审计进行内部财务控制。But rigorous procedures can easily lure companies into a false sense of security.但是,严格的手续会引诱企业产生一种安全的错觉。The employees most affected by those rules may be precisely the ones most capable of finding ways around them, as was the case with Mr Leeson and Jerme Kerviel, a renegade trader at Societe Generale.那些受严格规定影响最大的员工也恰恰会是最有能力钻空子的人, Slesson先生以及ociete Generale公司变节的交易员Jer?me Kerviel都是这样的例子。Many companies seek reassurance that all is well by installing cyber-security tools to monitor employees e-mails and internal accounting systems for suspicious activity.许多公司为寻求保障,会通过安装网络安全工具来监控员工的邮件和内部会计系统,以发觉可疑活动。But fraudsters are often quicker at harnessing technology to disguise what they are up to than companies are at using it to spot them.企业利用科技来搜寻行骗者,后者也同样使用科技来掩饰他们的意图,而且总要技高一筹。Those running scams may also be skilled at tricking colleagues into giving them passwords—a technique Edward Snowden may have exploited to devastating effect.那些行骗者同样很擅长从他们的同事那里骗取密码—一个像Edward Snowden那样的技术人员就可以对公司造成毁灭性的影响。Praising the bearers of bad news赞美告密者The most powerful weapon against fraud is not an algorithm or a checklist but a whistleblower.对抗欺诈最有力的武器并不是计算程序或是核对清单,而是告密者。The Association of Certified Fraud Examiners calculates that three times as many frauds are discovered by tip-offs than by any other method.注册舞弊检查师协会的检查人员计算出:通过密报发现的欺诈案例是通过其他方法发现的3倍。It also notes that firms with fraud hotlines, which staff can call anonymously, suffer smaller losses from fraud, and cut by seven months the exposure gap between the start of an illicit scheme and its discovery.协会还出,那些设有员工可以匿名拨打的翻欺诈热线的企业通常因欺诈产生的损失也相对较小,而且也减短了那些非法阴谋从开始到被发现之间的长达七个月的潜伏期。Governments are increasingly providing whistleblowers with legal protection and financial incentives:政府也在不断增加对告密者提供的法律保护和经济奖励:Americas Securities and Exchange Commission has created a 450m fund to reward them.美国券交易委员会已经为奖励他们创立了4.5亿美元的基金。Companies that dither, blather or launch half-hearted inquiries when presented with evidence of employee misconduct often end up regretting it.在面对自己员工不当行为的据时,那些表现得犹豫不决、暧昧不明或是不配合调查的公司通常在最后都会后悔。JPMorgan Chase lost billions in its London Whale rogue-trader scandal, initially dismissed by the banks boss, Jamie Dimon, as a tempest in a teapot.根大通公司在其绰号伦敦鲸的无赖交易员造成丑闻中损失惨重;而该公司老板Jamie Dimon起先对此事不予理睬,最终造成了这次的茶壶中的风暴。Besides doing more to encourage whistleblowers, businesses must take decisive action to close the exposure gap.除了要鼓励员工告密之外,企业还得采取决定性的行动来减短欺诈事件曝光的时间。A botched investigation can tip off a fraudster and make it easy for him to cover his tracks.鲁莽的调查行动会打草惊蛇,让行骗者更容易掩盖自己的行迹。A suspicion of deliberate foot-dragging can render an entire company vulnerable.但如果企业表现出故意拖延调查的嫌疑,又会使整个企业处于不利的地位。The damage done by corporate fraud can last long after the culprits have been identified.即使在欺诈犯被发现后,其对企业的伤害依旧会持续。 /201403/278511

  When you burst out crying, you expect the bleary red eyes and the rivers of tears that stream down your cheeks. But on top of all that, your nose starts to run like a faucet. Why does this happen? What’s the connection between crying and a runny nose?当你放声大哭时,朦胧的红眼睛以及泉涌般的泪水沿着面颊滑落是预料之中的事。除此之外,你会开始流鼻涕。为什么会出现这种情况?哭和流鼻涕之间又有什么联系呢?Where Do Tears Come From?眼泪从何而来?Tears come from tear glands located just over the eye, behind the bone. As tears rinse down over your eye, they collect at the rims of your lower eyelids, where some may overflow and stream down your cheeks.眼泪是由位于眼骨后的泪腺分泌的。当泪水被分泌出,他们便贮藏在下眼睑边缘,一部分眼泪溢出眼睛沿脸颊流下。But that’s not the only escape route for overflowing tears. If you look very closely at the inside of your eyelid, right near your nose, you’ll see a tiny little hole. You might need to gently pull your eyelid down to see it, because it’s on the inner edge of the eyelid, resting against the eye.但那并不是眼泪流出来的唯一路径。如果你仔细观察眼睑内侧靠近鼻子的地方,你会看到一个极其微小的洞。你可能需要轻拉眼睑才能看到这个小洞,因为它位于靠近眼睛的眼睑内侧。River Tears泪流成河These little holes, on the upper and lower eyelids of both eyes, serve as drains and lead into canals that run through grooves in the bones of the face and eventually empty into the nose. Even when you’re not crying, some of the normal, everyday tears that moisten and clean your eyes drain out through this secret passageway into the nose, but it’s such a small amount that you don’t notice it.这些小洞位于双眼的上下眼睑,它们发挥着排水管的作用,引导泪水沿着脸骨的凹槽流下并最终流入鼻子。即使你不哭的时候,每天也会有一些正常产生的、用以湿润和清洁眼睛的眼泪通过这个秘密通道流到鼻子里,只不过它们数量太少你察觉不到而已。When the tears really start to gush, however, this unnoticeable trickle turns into a river. As the tears make their way down through the nose, they moisten and loosen other secretions on the way. And that’s when you reach for a tissue!当眼泪喷涌而出的时候,这些平时察觉不到的小泪滴便汇流成河。在泪水流入鼻子的同时,它们在沿途还起到湿润和疏松其它分泌物的作用,这时候,你就需要纸巾擦拭了。 /201305/237603

  

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