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广州白云口碑最好的人流医院广州白云血管彩超多少钱Lets say youre an 18 year old male who runs every other day, logging 12 miles a week.假设你是一个18岁的男性,每隔一天就会跑步,算下来每周会跑12英里。Now fast-forward to your late 40s.现在,把你的年龄快速往后推到40多近50岁。Your eating habits are the same.你的饮食习惯不变。To maintain your high school weight, how many miles a week would you need to run?为了保持你高中时的体重,你一周需要跑多少英里呢?Believe it or not, youd have to multiply your weekly mileage 4 and 1/2 times, increasing it from 12 to 54 miles a week!信不信由你,你得把每周的英里数乘以4.5,也就是从每周的12英里增加到54英里!Unless you take up weekly double marathons in middle-age, its impossible simply to “out run”middle-age sp.除非你在人到中年时,每周进行两次马拉松长跑,否则绝不可能轻易逃脱中年发福。Thats because metabolism decreases with age.这是因为,新陈代谢的过程随年龄而逐渐放缓。At 50 you just dont burn as many calories as you did at 18.到了50岁,你就不能像18岁时一样燃烧同样多的卡路里。Luckily, there are other factors in this equation.幸运的是,在这个等式中还有其他的影响因素。Gradually eatingless is one way to make up the difference, since metabolism slows by about 100 calories every ten years.减少食量是一种弥补差额的方法。因为新陈代谢的过程每隔十年就会降低100卡路里的消耗。Thats equivalent to a tablespoon of butter.这个数字相当于一大匙黄油的热量。To keep pace with metabolic changes, your daily at 40 could include everything you ate at 30, minus that tablespoon of butter!为了跟上新陈代谢过程的不断变化,你在40岁时的每日菜单必须在30岁时的食谱里减少一大匙黄油。However, cutting more calories every ten years gets trickier, and limiting food intake alone isnt the healthiest approach, anyway.然而,每隔十年减少更多的热量摄入越来越棘手,并且,不管怎样,仅仅限制食物摄取并不是一条健康的途径。Between our 20th and 70th birthdays, most of us lose about 30%of our muscle cells.在我们20岁生日和70岁的生日之间,我们中大多数人丧失了大约30%的肌肉细胞。Loss of muscle mass is the main reason metabolism slows down in the first place, since resting metabolic rate is directly related to lean body mass thats mostly muscle.本来,肌肉数量的减少是新陈代谢减缓的主要原因。这是由于停滞的新陈代谢率与大部分为肌肉的“瘦肉组织”直接相关。Maintaining or increasing muscle mass through strength training ups your metabolism and burn smore calories, even while youre sitting on the couch!通过体能训练来维持或增加瘦肉组织,能提高你的新陈代谢和增加更多热量消耗,甚至当你坐在沙发上时也可以做到!Two or three sessions a week, using free weights or equipment at a gym, will do the trick.一周花上两到三次时间,利用好健身房里的力量训 练器材或装备,你就能获得理想的效果。201404/287829广州女人性激素检查最好的医院 Science and technology科学技术Dinosaur behaviour恐龙行为Headbangers疯狂撞头的家伙Evidence of duelling dinosaurs战斗性恐龙的据WORKING out how an extinct animal behaved when it was alive is tricky.对于灭绝的生物来说,要研究出它们存活时的行为是很棘手,But it is not always impossible,不过也不是完全不可能。as Joseph Peterson and Collin Dischler of the University of Wisconsin explained on October 17th to the Society of Vertebrate Palaeontology meeting held in Raleigh, North Carolina.10月17日,在北卡罗莱纳州罗利市举行的古脊椎动物学会议上,美国威斯康星大学的约瑟夫·彼得森和柯林·狄斯勒就对肿头龙的习性做出了一些解释。Pachycephalosaurs lived 65m years ago.肿头龙生活在6500万年前。As their name suggests, they had large, bony, domed heads.正如其名称所说,它们有巨大的、高隆的头骨。For years, it was assumed they used these to bash one another in the way that rams do now.多年来,人们一直认为肿头龙用头攻击同类,就像现在的公羊一样。Recently, though, a second suggestion has surfaced—that rather than for fighting, the domes were for show; the dinosaur equivalent of a peacocks tail.不过最近有人提出另外一个假设:它们的大脑袋不是为了战斗,而是出于展示的目的—作用相当于孔雀的尾巴。Dr Peterson and Dr Dischler put these two theories into a head-to-head competition.彼得森和狄斯勒士让这两种理论来了个头对头的正面对抗。To do so, they studied 102 pachycephalosaur skulls, of various species.为此,他们研究了102只不同品种肿头龙的头骨。They found that 23 of these skulls had pits in them, and that these pits were similar both to each other and to those found in the skulls of living animals that bash each other with their heads.他们发现其中23只头骨上有凹坑。这些凹坑彼此类似。而且现存的用头部撞击同类的动物中,头骨上的凹坑也与之类似。That supported the head-butting theory. The clincher, though, came when they created computerised models of pachycephalosaur skulls and mapped the damage from each of their pitted specimens on to these virtual skulls.这持了头部冲撞理论。不过决定性的据来自于他们用计算机模拟的肿头龙头骨。他们将每个有坑样本的损伤部位标注在虚拟的头骨上。When they did this, they found that the pits were clustered—exactly as might be expected if they were the result of animals deliberately aiming at each other.这样操作后,他们发现凹坑聚集分布,正如人们假设的那样:是肿头龙故意用头部攻击彼此的结果。Intriguingly, they found two patterns of clustering.有意思的是,他们发现凹坑有两种聚集图案。Those pachycephalosaurs with highly domed heads had pits on both the fronts and the backs of their skulls.那些不太隆起的头骨仅在前方有凹坑,而非常高隆的则前后都有。Those whose domes were lower had them only on the fronts.这明了两种肿头龙攻击时的不同。This suggests the two sorts of animal fought in different ways. Low-domes, it seems, simply charged at each other. High-domes did that too.相对低隆的一种似乎仅向对方迎头冲撞。But they also engaged in head-to-head wrestling of a sort that allowed them to get behind their opponentsskulls and do damage from the rear, in the way that modern bison do.非常高隆的肿头龙除此之外还会采取头对头式摔跤法:能够碰到对方头骨的背部,从后面对彼此造成损伤,好比如今的野牛。None of which proves that pachycephalosaurs did not strut their stuff with their domes as well, just as a stag will often show off its antlers before engaging in combat, in order to give a less well-endowed rival the opportunity to withdraw.然而,两种图案都没有否定肿头龙自豪地迈步时也在炫耀他们的大脑袋。成年雄鹿就经常在战斗之前展示它的鹿角,为了使天生劣势的对手借机撤退。But it does demonstrate that the domes were serious weapons, not mere fripperies of fashion.不过这确实明了高隆的头骨是很厉害的武器,而不仅仅是时髦的矫饰品。 /201401/272690广州天河长安做试管成功率高

广州市长安医院治疗宫颈糜烂多少钱America and the second world war美国和第二次世界战争The workshop heroes车间里的英雄A tribute to the unsung workers致敬无名工作者MacArthur had help engineering victory麦克阿瑟将军曾对工程师的胜利作过贡献Engineers of Victory: The Problem Solvers who Turned the Tide in the Second World War.By Paul Kennedy.工程师的胜利:问题解决者曾扭转了二战的局势NEARLY 70 years after the second world war and with most of the combatants now dead, a leading historian can praise the Wehrmacht. Not, of course, its evil racism but its military prowess. On the battlefields, writes Paul Kennedy of Yale University, Germanys soldiers earned universal respect for their “capacity to react swiftly and fiercely to an assault on any front”. His superlatives continue to flow. The Wehrmacht possessed a fabulous capacity to recover and strike back; Germanys paratroopers were ultra- competent; the Reich fought with astounding tenacity.二战结束近70年后,大部分的参战者已与世长辞。也许主流的历史学家会赞扬纳粹德国,当然是它英勇的军队,而非那邪恶的种族主义。耶鲁大学教授保罗肯尼迪写到,德国士兵因战场上敏捷的反应能力及勇猛地向前方发起攻势而赢得普遍尊重。保罗肯尼迪的巅峰之作继续流传。纳粹德国拥有极好的反应和反击能力,空降兵相当出色,整个帝国持久作战的能力也十分惊人。How then did Germany come to lose the war? The British-born historian strives to avoid reductionism. Unlike others, he says, he does not claim that the Allies victory can be explained solely by brute force or by a wonder weapon or by some magical decrypting system. There were multiple factors. Some have been exaggerated. Bletchley Park was “certainly far less important” than most of the popular literature about the codebreakers suggests. Sir Arthur “Bomber” Harriss determination not to target the enemys oil, transport and electricity grids but to blast cities instead was, he writes, a “weird panacea”.德国是如何输掉这次战争的呢?一位英国的历史学家极力避免还原真相。他说,他不像其他人那样断言盟军的胜利只因为强大的军事力量或一件神奇的武器或某些神秘的解密系统。盟军的胜利有多种原因。一些事实被夸大。布莱切利园 (Bletchley Park)当然远不比关于破译者自述的那些大量流行著作重要。他写道,“轰炸机”阿瑟哈里斯的决心不是把目标放在敌人的石油、交通和电网上,而是要炸毁整座城市,“怪异的灵丹妙药”。Against this, Mr Kennedy argues, some reasons for the Allies success deserve much greater emphasis. One of them, the stupendous might of Americas military-industrial complex, was recognised at last in Arthur Hermans “Freedoms Forge”, reviewed here last year. Mr Kennedy celebrates another crucial component: the role of engineers. What they invented, improvised and improved had, by 1943, begun to turn the tide against Germany and Japan.肯尼迪反对道:盟军胜利有一些更值得强调的原因。其中,美国军工铁三角惊人的势力最终在亚瑟赫尔曼《铸就自由》一书中被实,去年本杂志也过此事。肯尼迪赞美盟军胜利的另一个重要因素是:工程师的角色。到1943年,他们的发明、创造和改进开始扭转抗衡德国和日本的局势。By then long-range B-24 Liberator bombers protected convoys of merchant ships crossing the Atlantic; Hedgehog grenades destroyed Grand Admiral Karl D?nitzs U-boats; B-17 Flying Fortress bombers flew from airfields in England deep into Germany and drove the Japanese back in the Pacific; T-34 tanks led the blood-soaked Soviet counter-attack on the Eastern Front; Mustang fighter planes decimated Germanys flying aces.那时超远程的B-24“解放者”轰炸机保护商船的护航队穿过大西洋;“刺猬”手榴弹摧毁德国大海军上将 Karl Dnitzs的潜艇;B-17空中堡垒轰炸机在英国机场起飞,深入德国内部,穿过日本返回太平洋;苏联的血腥武器T-34坦克东线进行反击;野马战斗机摧毁了德国顶尖飞行员。Mr Kennedy also rescues the engineers of the US Navy Construction Battalions from relative obscurity. Popularly known as the “Seabees”, these were the units that built the bases, the installations, the assembly points and the roads that carried the Allied fight forward. Their achievements more than justify Mr Kennedys assertion that engineers are essential to military victory. Yet, as he rightly complains, historians of grand campaigns all too often take their work for granted and assume that troops, fleets and air squadrons can be moved long distances by the stroke of a pen on a large map.肯尼迪还救助过默默无闻的美国海军建设营的工程师,也就是人们俗称的“海军工程营人员”。他们负责建设基地,设备,集散地点和盟军向前进攻的道路。这些人的成就远远足以明肯尼迪的说法,工程师是军事胜利的重要部分。然而,正如他抱怨地那样,研究大事记的历史学家往往把他们的工作看成是理所当然的,他们认为军队、舰队和空军中队可以很容易地移动像在地图上随笔一挥那样长的距离。Seabee statistics are still amazing. In the Pacific alone they built, in the midst of war, 111 major airstrips and 441 piers, tanks for the storage of 100m gallons of fuel, housing for 1.5m men and hospitals for 70,000 patients. The famous photograph of General Douglas MacArthur fulfilling his “I shall return” promise to the Philippines was possible only after skilful Seabees had managed the pontoon bridges and causeway units that brought the army ashore—along with the photographers, of course.海军修建营人员所作成就的数据仍令人惊讶。战争年代他们在太平洋孤岛上修建了111个主要简易机场和441个码头,存放100加仑燃料的坦克,容纳150万人的住房和容纳70,000例病人的医院。麦克阿瑟将军对菲律宾承诺“我还要回来”,这张著名的照片可能只有在技术娴熟的海军修建营成员成功管理浮筒桥梁和铜锣单位之后才可能实现。当然是铜锣单位把军队和摄影师一起带上岸。Mr Kennedys best-known book is “The Rise and Fall of Great Powers”and his knowledge of earlier conflicts adds depth and colour to his history of the middle years of the war. Alexander the Great, Julius Caesar, the Duke of Marlborough, Napoleon, William Tecumseh Sherman and others march across the pages as Mr Kennedy compares and contrasts their actions with those of their counterparts in 1943-44. And he is able to cite several instances of British-American-Soviet bickering to sustain the Duke of Wellingtons grumble that having enemies is nothing like as bad as having allies.保罗肯尼迪的著作是《大国的兴衰》,他早年的斗争经历增加了中年战争历史的深度和色。此书对亚历山大大帝、凯撒大帝、马尔伯勒公爵、拿破仑、威廉特库姆塞谢尔曼和肯尼迪等人进行了整篇幅的描述,并将他们与同处1943-44年代的对手们进行了对比。威灵顿公爵曾怨言:有敌人一点也不像有盟友那样糟糕,保罗肯尼迪就此能举出英、美、苏联验这句话的几个实例。 /201405/300911天河上环多少钱啊 Coffee rust咖啡锈病Roya flushed“罗亚”蔓延How Colombia fought the fungus哥伦比亚如何抗击叶锈病真菌WHEN Jesus Maria Aguirre saw his coffee bushes wither away, he knew that he had lost the sole source of income for his family. “We would go to collect coffee and would come back with our baskets nearly empty,” says the Colombian grower, recalling the pernicious effects of the “coffee rust” fungus, or roya.当赫苏斯·玛利亚·阿吉雷看到了他的咖啡树日渐枯萎时,他意识到,这下他的家庭失去了唯一的收入来源。“我们去田里采咖啡豆,结果只能篮子空空地回来。”这位哥伦比亚的种植者在回想起这种咖啡锈病真菌,或被称为“罗亚”所带来的恶性影响时这样说到。The fungus stunts the growth of the fruit of arabica coffee plants. It infected about 40% of Colombias crop between 2008 and 2012. Production plunged from a high of 12.6m 60kg bags a year in 2007 to just 7.7m bags in 2012. As supply from Colombia shrank, international buyers turned to growers elsewhere.这种真菌阻滞了阿拉比卡豆咖啡树果实的生长。在2008年至2012年间,它已经使哥伦比亚40%的作物受到了感染,产量因此由2007年的峰值1260万袋60公斤的咖啡豆暴跌至2012年的仅770万袋。随着哥伦比亚的咖啡供应量的萎缩,国际上的咖啡买家开始向其它咖啡生产地寻求供应。What Mr Aguirre went through then is now the lot of farmers throughout Central America, the Dominican Republic, southern Mexico and Jamaica. Production there fell by 30% between 2011 and 2013 because of roya, reckons the International Coffee Organisation. USAID thinks it has caused billion of economic damage in Latin America since 2012. This time Colombians are the ones taking advantage.当时阿吉雷先生所遭受的窘境现在已经席卷了中美洲、多米尼加、南墨西哥以及牙买加。据国际咖啡组织估计,由于受“罗亚”影响,这些地区的咖啡产量在2011年至2013年间已下跌了30%。美国国际开发署认为,自从2012年起,这种锈病已经导致了拉丁美洲范围内高达10亿美元的经济损失。不过这次,哥伦比亚的种植户却可以置身事外甚至因此获利。On his farm on the slopes of the countrys central mountain range, Mr Aguirre today presides over 1.5 hectares (4 acres) of healthy bushes plump with red berries. For yields to recover, he had to yank up fungus-prone bushes and plant a new variety that promised to fight off the blight. He was one of thousands of farmers who joined in a countrywide scheme run by the Colombian Coffee Growers Federation, which represents more than 500,000 independent growers. By June 2014 more than 3 billion bushes had been replanted.现如今,在阿吉雷先生位于哥伦比亚中部山脉山坡上的农场里,他照料着超过1.5公顷的种满红色果实的健康的咖啡树。当初为了使产量恢复,他不得不剔除了易感真菌的植株并且种植了一种据信可抗枯萎的新品种。阿吉雷先生是全国范围种植计划的数千参与者之一,这个计划是由哥伦比亚咖啡种植者联合会运作的,这个联合会代表了超过50万的独立种植户。截至2014年6月,这种新植株已重新种植了超过30亿棵。Three-quarters of them were replaced with a roya-resistant variety known as Castillo, which had been developed in the labs of Cenicafé, the coffee federations research arm, after 13 years of selective breeding. Lindsey Bolger, head coffee buyer for Keurig Green Mountain, a roaster in the ed States, said the industry was “on pins and needles” about whether the Castillo would work. It has. Colombia produced 11.5m bags in the 12 months to June 2014, up by 31% on the previous 12-month period, according to the coffee federation. Buyers are coming back.这些咖啡树中的四分之三被一种被称为“卡斯蒂罗”的 “抗罗亚”品种替代,此品种是由哥伦比亚国家咖啡研究中心实验室经过13年精心选育开发出来的。林塞·尔捷,美国绿山咖啡烘焙公司的首席采购,在谈及“卡斯蒂罗”能否担任恢复产量重任时,形容咖啡产业对此是“如坐针毡”。事实上,“卡斯蒂罗”做到了。据咖啡联合会数据,截至2014年6月的12个月内,哥伦比亚出产了1150万袋咖啡豆,比上个同期的产量增长了31%。采购商们又把目光开始投回哥伦比亚。Fernando Gast, Cenicafés director, says seeds of the Castillo coffee plants have been sent to Mexico, El Salvador and Costa Rica for evaluation. But he warns that Colombias success story is not directly transferable to Central America. The Castillo variety was created for Colombias needs and may not adapt to Central Americas soil and climate, he says.费尔南多·加斯特,哥伦比亚国家咖啡研究中心实验室主任,表示“卡斯蒂罗”的种子已被送往墨西哥、萨尔瓦多以及哥斯达黎加进行进一步评估。但是他也警告说,哥伦比亚的产业复苏经验并不可被中美洲地区直接套用。“卡斯蒂罗”品种是为了满足哥伦比亚的需求而研发生产的,所以可能并不适合在中美洲的土壤及气候环境条件下种植。Cenicafés 89 researchers cannot rest easy, either. They are working on a project to map the coffee genome. That should help them develop new varieties that will not only resist roya, which is continuously evolving, but will also be less susceptible to erratic weather. The search for a stronger brew is never over.实验室的89位研究人员们也还不能高枕无忧。他们现在正在进行一个绘制咖啡树基因谱的项目,这将有助他们培育新的变种,这种变种不仅能抵抗“罗亚”及其以后可能出现的其它变种,还能更不易受到不稳定天候影响的新品种植株。对于更优良品种的研究总会一直进行下去。 /201407/316599广州黄埔人流哪家医院好

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