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French business法国商业Outside in由外到内France just might be growing more tolerant of disruptive outsider法国也许会对外来的破坏分子越发纵容THE French do have a word for “entrepreneur”, pace George Bush, and more than 500,000 new businesses in 2013 to prove it. What they struggle to translate precisely is “outsider”.在法国有一个词是用来描述“企业家”的,在乔治·布什的书籍《步伐》中,以及在2013年有超过五十万的新业务明了这一点。而他们难以用精确的语言来翻译的这个词语便是“外来者”。Patrick Drahi, a Moroccan-born, Swiss-resident, Franco-Israeli billionaire who has just won a bitter takeover battle for SFR, a telecoms operator, happens to be both. It was a striking victory over the Bouygues family, a powerful industrial clan at the heart of the establishment, who were backed by a clutch of other well-connected family businesses, a state investment agency, a big union, and above all by the industry minister, Arnaud Montebourg. This is quite a feat in a country where disruptive newcomers have rarely been made welcome at the big-business high table.帕特里克·德拉希,一位洛哥出生,定居于瑞士的以籍法裔亿万富翁,于不久前赢得了一场发生在收购SFR的恶战,SFR是一家电信运营商。这是一场出人意料的战役,因为它战胜了布依格家族,这个强大工业帝国的核心,是由以众多其他出生名门的家族企业为靠山构成的,它不仅拥有政府投资,而且拥有一个巨大的联盟,其中以工业部部长,Arnaud Montebourg为首。在一个具有破坏性的外来者在大企业的谈判桌上是不被欢迎的国家,这是一个相当了不起的壮举。Mr Drahi attributes his win to the simple fact that his was a better project than Bouygues Telecoms, and logic prevailed. Others argue that the board of Vivendi, the media group that was selling SFR, is stiff with unusually independent-minded men whose backs were put up by the public pressure that the Bouygues family and their chums brought to bear.Drahi把他的胜利归结为一个简单的原因:他比布依格电信公司拥有更周全的计划,因此理应胜利。还有一些人认为这是因为试图出售SFR的维旺迪董事会(Vivendi SA;又译威望迪,前名为维旺迪环球(Vivendi Universal)是法国一家巨型媒体跨国集团。业务范围包括音乐、电视、电影、出版、电信、互联网和等行业。)出人意料的是因为无党派人士背后有布依格家族以及其同盟所施加的社会压力。Even so, it is not implausible to see in it the beginnings of a sea-change in French capitalism. The long-standing assumption that with the states blessing, the destinies of entire industries should be overseen by a charmed circle of interconnected people from the grandes ecoles and the haute bourgeoisie seems to be wearing thinner these days. One line in Mr Drahis CV implies he is part of that circle—he attended the elite ecole Polytechnique—but rather than continuing on the usual route via public service and politics to the top of a giant French corporation, the son of humble Moroccan teachers pursued a rather Anglo-Saxon career as a buyer, seller and stitcher-together of cable and telecoms companies around the globe, alongside buy-out firms.即便如此,法国资本主义史上这样一个如此重大的变革依然是令人难以置信的。一个长期存在的猜想就是在国家的庇佑下,法国整个实业的前途应该是在一些来自grandes ecoles以及haute bourgeoisie(法国中产阶级上层)的互通有无排外团体的严密监管之下的,这些些日子,他们看起来似乎衣着单薄。从Drahi先生的简历看来他似乎也是也是这个团体之中的一部分——因为他参与了整个的法国高等工商学院的整个精英班的学习——但是比起沿着通过公共务以及政治活动等成为法国的巨头企业这一条寻常之路,这位洛哥普通老师的儿子追随了盎格鲁-撒克逊的道路作为一个买家,卖家和有线电视遍布全球的电信公司,他与全面收购并驾齐驱。Not many such disruptive outsiders have risen to the very top, but there are a few. One is Xavier Niel, founder of Iliad Group, a mobile-phone operator that has grown fast by drastically undercutting its rivals prices. The co-owner these days of Le Monde, a newspaper, and partner of the daughter of Bernard Arnault, boss of LVMH, a luxury group, Mr Niel is being clasped to the establishments bosom. Another iconoclast is Jacques-Antoine Granjon, the billionaire co-founder of an early online-retail business, Vente-privee.com.并没有很多这样具有颠覆性的局外人达到如此顶端之高度,但也不是没有。其中之一便是Xavier Niel,Iliad Group的创始人,一位增长迅猛与竞争对手议价能力极高的移动电话运营商。这些日子他成为了《世界报》的合伙人以及LVMH这个奢侈品集团老板Bernard Arnault女儿的合伙人,Niel先生已经紧紧扣住了当权者的心扉。另一个打破常规的人便是Jacques-Antoine Granjon,这位亿万富翁是Vente-privee.com.这个早期网上零售商的共同创始人。More shaking-up is on the cards. Frances business climate is changing as its flagship companies go global. Some are now run by foreigners—for example, Sanofi, a pharmaceuticals giant with a German chief executive, its first non-French boss. Others have shifted senior management overseas: Essilor, the world leader in corrective lenses, is mainly overseen from Texas these days. And foreign investors, with their Anglo-Saxon expectations of corporate governance, own around half the shares of the biggest firms, the CAC-40.巨变即将来临。当其旗舰企业走向国际的时候法国商业环境就已变化。其中一些企业现在还是由外国人经营的,例如Sanofi,这家制药业巨头有一个德国的首席执行官,这是非法籍人士的首次担任公司最高层。其他的一些公司也开始雇佣外籍人员作为公司高管:Essilor,矫正视力业内的领头羊,大体上已经处于特克萨斯州的监管下了。并且外国的投资者带着盎格鲁-撒克逊的法人管理期望值,大约拥有这家最大公司一半的一半份额,从CAC-40指数来看。There is another reason, too, why France is set to become more open to entrepreneurs, outsiders and disrupters. “Frances back is to the wall economically,” says Mr Drahi, “President Hollande has realised that only enterprises create jobs and Manuel Valls, the new prime minister, is aly pushing that line.” Just as Fran?ois Mitterrand, elected president in 1981 on an intensely socialist platform, had to change tack to woo back business and save the economy, so Fran?ois Hollande has begun to do the same. Among the 1980s returners, from self-imposed exile in America, was Mr Arnault, a disruptive force in his day. Helped by the French state, he acquired the kernel of what was to become the worlds largest luxury group.同时还有另一个原因,为什么法国对于企业家、外来者、以及颠覆者的设定变得更加开放。“法国背靠经济墙,” Drahi先生说道“奥朗德总统已经实现了只要企业能够创造了就业机会并且Manuel Valls,这位新总理已经在推广这条线。”正如Fran?ois Mitterrand,于1981年在强烈的社会主义平台中竞选总统,认为必须改变策略招商引资以挽救经济,所以奥朗德也开始着手做同样的事情。在十九世纪八十年代的在美国自我放逐的回归者中,是Arnault先生,一个破坏者,得到了法国的帮助,由此他获得了世界最大奢侈品集团的核心。 /201404/288202Education and race教育与种族On the road在路上Ethnic-minority pupils are storming ahead, thanks partly to tutors由于家庭教师的原因,少数民族学生总能在学业上拔得头筹Nov 16th 2013 |From the print editionIN APRIL Kumon, a Japanese firm, opened a tuition centre in Small Heath, a poor district of Birmingham. Its lessons are fairly cheap: about £55 () a month for twice-weekly English and maths classes and homework. As in many of Kumon’s 680 British outfits, its clients are diverse. Many are south Asian; a few are eastern European; none is white and British.4月,日本公司Kumon在伯明翰市的贫困地区小希思开设了一家讲学中心。它的课程非常便宜:只需大约55英镑(约88美元)就能获得2周英文和数学的课程,还包括了家庭作业。Kumon在英国有680家机构,它们的顾客构成非常丰富。很多都是来自南亚的人,少部分是来自东欧的;而几乎没有白人和英国人。 In much ofEurope, pupils from many ethnic minorities linger at the bottom of the heap, says Chris Hamnett of King’s College London. That used to be true inBritaintoo—but not any more. Every ethnic-minority group that trails white Britons in GCSE exams, normally taken at 16, is catching up. Bangladeshis used to perform worse than whites; now they do better. Indians have maintained a huge lead. All this despite the fact that ethnic minorities are poorer than average. Control for that, by looking at pupils who are entitled to free school meals, and all ethnic-minority groups now do well.伦敦国王学院的克丽丝 哈姆尼特说,在很多欧洲国家,少数名族学生一般在底层扎堆。过去在英国也是这样——但现在完全不同了。每一个在普通中等教育书考试中输给英国白人的少数民族学生通常在他们16岁的时候就能赶上英国人。孟加拉裔过去曾不如白人;但现在他们更加优秀。印度人则一直保持着巨大的领先。所有这些都说明了少数民族学生并不比平均水平差。而且通过观察获得免费校园午餐的学生我们不难看出几乎所有的少数民族学生都表现出色。 But some fare better than others. One difference is imported social capital: Indians, who were middle-class when they arrived inBritain, have lots. Bangladeshis and Pakistanis, who often came from rural parts of their homelands, have less. Tenure inBritainmatters too. Newcomers have immigrant aspirations but suffer from not understanding the system. Better-established folk know how things work, but may have lost some of their ambition. A few are in a sweet spot in between.但是有些学生的遭遇比其它人更好一些。其中一个差异就是外来人员的社会阶级:大部分来到英国的印度人都是中产阶级,他们拥有更多福利。而孟加拉人和巴基斯坦人则多半是来自农村,他们则明显无法享受那么多福利。在英国的居住时间同样有影响。新来者有强烈的移民愿望但苦于不能理解整个体系。有些人已经较好地了解了事情如何运转,但他们中的很多人已经失去了自己梦想。极少一部分人能够很好地平衡这些问题,让自己处在一个很完美的状态。 Bangladeshis certainly seem to be. They arrived in large numbers from the 1970s and are now settled, largely inLondon. Plenty are still poor: half fall into the lowest income quintile. But the parents of many children now in school grew up speaking English and attended British schools. They not only understand the system but are shaping it. In 1987 the Collective of Bangladeshi School Governors was set up in theLondonborough of Tower Hamlets, where a fifth ofBritain’s Bangladeshis live. Shahanur Khan, its chairman, encourages parents to get involved in local schools. Parents are increasingly pushy: one mother recently complained to him that her children were not getting enough homework.孟加拉人明显就是这种类型。他们于上世纪70年代大量来到伦敦,而且现在已经站稳了脚跟。他们中的大多数依然很穷:几乎半数人都是收入最低的群体。但是很多孩子的父母都开始学习说英语并且开始在英国学校求学。他们不但理解了整个体系并且在让自己适应这个体系。1987年孟加拉人学校管理者集团在伦敦哈姆雷特镇成立了,在英国五分之一的孟加拉人生活在那。它的主席莎哈雅 可汗鼓励父母们去加入当地的学校。父母们越来越有进取心:最近一个月来对他的抱怨就是她孩子的家庭作业不够多。 Somalis arrived much more recently: just 9% of Somali pupils were born inBritaincompared with 83% of Bangladeshis. And they struggle. Many parents came as asylum-seekers and speak little English. Just one in ten Somalis is in full-time work. But their children are faring better, along with other black Africans. In Lambeth, a borough ofLondon, 61% of Somali pupils got five good GCSEs last year, up from 11% in 2007. Schools employ Somali teaching assistants to help parents and children with their English. The council organises an awards ceremony for outstanding students. And, increasingly, parents pay for extra tuition.索马里人则是最近一段时间内较多的移民者:相比于83%的孟加拉学生出生在英国,只有9%的索马里学生是这样的。并且他们在抗争。很多父母都是为了寻求避难所而来并且几乎不会说英语。只有十分之一的索马里人有全职工作。但是他们的孩子和其它非洲黑人相比表现得优秀得多。在伦敦市的兰贝斯镇,索马里学生在普通中等教育书考试中获得了5A成绩的人数从2007年的11%上涨到了去年的61%。学校雇佣索马里裔老师去帮助家长和孩子学习英语。当地居委会为杰出的学生举办授奖仪式。同时的,父母们因为请课外辅导也需要付额外的学费。 That is another reason black and Asian children are doing better. Saturday schools have long been common, but parents are increasingly turning to private tutors. In a survey of 11- to 16-year-olds by the Sutton Trust, an education charity, 45% of Asian children said they received some kind of private tuition compared with 20% of white pupils. Another study suggests that Somalis are more likely to receive tuition than average, too. Supply has increased along with demand. Karamat Iqbal, director of Forward Partnership, an education consultancy in Birmingham, sees growing numbers of Pakistani graduates, who themselves attended British schools, working as tutors.周末学校课程已经变得很常见,但是父母渐渐得更倾向于私人教师。那也是黑人和亚洲学生表现更出色的一个原因。一个教育爱心组织萨顿托管会关于11到16岁学生的调查显示,相比20%接受私人辅导的白人学生,45%的亚洲学生有私人教师。另外一个研究显示,相比平均水平索马里的学生更可能得到私人辅导。供给也随着需求的上升而上涨。伯明翰教育机构前程伙伴的主席卡马特 伊克巴尔表示随着越来越多的巴基斯坦人毕业,他们开始进入英国学校开始作为一个助教工作。 Black Caribbeans, a long-established group, are doing better but not dramatically so. They have mostly lost immigrant zeal: many doubt that education will make much difference to their chances in life, suggests Steve Strand, a professor of education atOxfordUniversity. And some teachers may be conflating bad behaviour (last year blackCaribbeanboys were over four times more likely to be excluded from school than Bangladeshi boys) with a lack of aptitude. Afro-Caribbeans are less likely to be entered into higher tiers for exams where they could obtain the best grades.而很早就站稳脚跟的加勒比黑人最近也表现得更加出色了但却不是那么引人注目。牛津大学教授斯蒂文 斯特兰德表示:他们中的大多数已经失去了移民的热情,很多人怀疑教育是否会让他们的人生有更多地机会。而且一些老师可能将恶劣的行为与缺乏学习天赋混为一谈(去年加勒比黑人男孩是孟加拉男孩4倍的可能性被逐出学校。)加勒比黑人很难去参加那些能取得好成绩的考试。 Job prospects for ethnic minorities are not yet improving commensurately with their school results. Despite their success in exams, Mr Khan worries that Bangladeshi students are choosing “easy” A-levels, such as sociology and psychology, which limit their options. Pakistani pupils inBirminghamare doing better, says Mr Iqbal, but too many are still driving taxis and running corner shops or cheap restaurants.为少数名族学生准备的工作却没有随着他们学校成绩的提高而增多。除开他们在考试中的成功不谈,可汗担心孟加拉学生去选择一些容易拿A的科目,例如社会学和心理学,这可能会限制他们将来的发展。伊克巴尔表示伯明翰的巴基斯坦学生则做的好一些,但是有太多人依然在开出租车 经营街角商店和低端餐馆。 Still, blacks and especially Asians are edging their way into the professions. Fully 2,087 British Pakistanis started studying law at university in 2011, up from 478 in 2000. Some of those long-held ambitions are now being realised.黑人尤其是亚裔人仍然在让他们求职的路上缓慢前行。学习法律的巴基斯坦裔的从2000年的478人增加到了2011年的2087人。他们中一些曾有远大理想的人现在也已经实现了。201311/265787Science and technology科学技术3D printing三维压制A third-world dimension第三世界的发展空间A new manufacturing technique could help poor countries as well as rich ones一项新的制造技术能够对贫困国家有所帮助,就像对那些富有国家的帮助一样。EVERY summer, Seattle holds a raft race in Green Lake, a park that is the eponymous home of the water the rafts must cross.每年夏天,西雅图都会在绿湖举行一场木筏比赛,参加比赛的木筏必须渡过这个湖,这里的公园因其湖水而闻名。Entries for the Milk Carton Derby have to be made from old plastic milk bottles.参加这场同城牛奶盒比赛的木筏必须是由旧的塑料牛奶盒制成。The result is a wonderfully Heath-Robinson collection of improvised craft.结果,你就会看到一场奇妙的希思-鲁宾逊简易工艺展。But this year one stood out: the entry from the University of Washingtons engineering department actually looked like a boat.但是今年,有一个参赛的木筏特别引人注目:这个木筏是华盛顿大学工程系做的,看起来真的像一只船。The students who built it, Matthew Rogge, Bethany Weeks and Brandon Bowman, had shredded and melted their bottles, and then used a 3D printer to print themselves a plastic vessel.制造这个木筏的学生—马修罗格、伯斯尼威克斯和布兰登伯曼,把他们收集的塑料盒切碎后再熔化,再使用一种三维压印技术压印成一种塑料容器。No doubt the Milk-Carton-Derby rules will be tightened next year—though in the end, the team came only second.毫无疑问的是,同城牛奶盒比赛的规则明年会更加严格—虽然最后,这个队只赢得了第二名。But they did come first in a competition that mattered more.但是,他们在比赛中首次出现的意义却更重大。On October 19th they won 0,000 in the 3D4D Challenge, organised by a charity called techfortrade.在10月19日,他们在由一个称为技术为了贸易更美好的慈善组织组织的三维-四维挑战赛中赢得了十万美元的奖金。3D printing is all the rage at the moment.三维压印目前正是风靡一时。Several varieties of the technique exist, using a wide range of materials as the ink.利用几种不同的现有技术,再加上大范围的原料—称之为墨水就可以操作了。One of the most popular methods, though—and the one used by the team—works by extruding a filament of molten plastic.尽管,最流利的一种方式—就是那个参加比赛的队伍使用的,只是挤压成一条熔化后的塑料细丝。In the case of the teams printer, this plastic was high-density polyethylene from milk bottles.就这个参赛队伍的印刷技术来说,这种塑料是由牛奶盒提炼出的高密度聚乙烯。The print head makes repeated passes over the thing being printed, leaving a plastic trail as it does so.打印头重复地打压着半成品,当它重复这样的过程后,只留下一条塑料丝。It thus builds up a three-dimensional structure.最后,就生产出了一个三维产品。3D printing is now taken seriously by manufacturers as an alternative to cutting, bending, pressing and moulding things.制造商们正在认真考虑三维压印技术,想用它来替代切割、弯曲和压制成型机器。It is also a popular hobby among those of a geeky disposition.而且,它在那些古怪的配制中也算比较受欢迎了。What it has not been used for so far is to help people in poor countries improve their everyday lives.只是,到目前为止它还没被应用于贫困国家,帮助那里的人们改善他们的生活。Mr Rogge, Ms Weeks and Mr Bowman intend to employ their prize money to do precisely that.罗格先生,威克斯女士和伯曼先生打算用他们的奖金去实现这个目标。They plan to form a firm that will, in partnership with a charity called Water for Humans, custom-build composting toilets and rainwater collectors.他们打算与一家称为为人类提供生活之水的慈善组织合作,创建一家专门生产自动堆肥厕所和雨水收集容器的公司。The partnership will look for suitable local entrepreneurs in poor countries and will train them how to build, use and maintain the printers.他们的合伙人将会在那些贫困国家中寻找当地合适的企业家,并且会训练他们怎样组装、使用和保养压印机器。Once the technology is established for toilets and water collectors, other products will be introduced.一旦这种技术应用于厕所和集水箱,那么将会产生一系列的其它附属产品。The local partners will know what products are needed and how much people are prepared to pay for them—and therefore what is worth making.当地的合作者瘵会了解,这里需要什么样的产品,这里的人们愿意花多少钱来购买—因此这是值得试试的。The operation will thus run on a commercial basis.这种运作将会基于一种商业操作模式。But the software that controls the printers will be open-source and available to all, as will many of the designs for things the printers can make.但是,控制压印机器的软件将会成为公共资源,所有人都可以使用,就像当时设计这种压印机器时的设想一样。That way, the technology can sp.这样的话,这种技术将能很快传播开来。A trial will begin soon in Oaxaca, Mexico.墨西哥的瓦哈卡将会很快进行这种试验。The crucial point about the teams printer is that it combines size and cheapness.威克斯小组的压印机最关键的一点是,它的大小正合适而且价格很便宜。Printers used by hobbyists are not expensive, but they are small.供业余爱好者使用的压印机并不贵,而且很小巧。Many would find it hard to make anything larger than a coffee cup.许多人发现这个机器做出的东西都没一个咖啡杯大。Those used by engineering companies cost serious money—and even they might balk at printing an object the size of the Milk Carton Derby boat.那些工程公司使用的压印机成本很高—甚至他们也无法压制出像同城牛奶盒比赛中那样大的木筏。The teams printer is built around a second-hand computer-controlled plasma cutter.那个参赛队伍的压印机是由一台二手电脑控制的空气等离子切割机做出来的。This directs the movement of an extruder that melts flakes of plastic into a thin stream which can be squirted out as required.电脑控制着挤压机里的一切运作—即先熔化塑料,再挤压成细细的液体状,当需要时就可以喷射出来进行压制。It is able to create things with dimensions of up to 2.5 metres by 1.2 metres by 1 metre.这种机器可以生产出长2.5米,宽1.2米,高1米的物品。Appropriately, many of its parts were themselves manufactured on a desktop 3D printer.产品的许多部分还是来自于原材料,只是经过了一台台式三维压印机的处理而已。The ink is cheap, too. High-density polyethylene is as common as muck—literally, for a lot of it ends up on refuse tips.墨水也很便宜。高密度聚乙烯很常见,就像随处可见的泥土一样—就是这个意思,因为垃圾堆中有大量这种材料。Chop it up, though, and it is grist to the mill.但是,一定要记得剁碎它,这对压印机很重要。Mr Rogge estimates that if he and his colleagues had printed their boat from commercial plastic filament it would have cost them 0.罗格先生估计,如果他和他的同事利用商业塑料丝来制作这条船的话,那么成本会高达800美元。Instead, 250 clean, empty milk bottles set them back just .20.相反,他们用250个干净的,空牛奶盒只花了3.2美元。Some technical questions remain.不过,还有一些技术问题。High-density polyethylene shrinks when it cools.高密度聚乙烯遇冷会收缩。That stresses the object being printed and can sometimes tear it apart.这个不足也反应到了压制出来的产品上,产品有时都能完全扯开。The students are therefore working on a second prototype that prints things faster, allowing the layers of plastic to cool almost simultaneously.因此,这些学生们正在努力制作第二个样品,以提高压制速度,而且确保让塑料层几乎能同时冷却下来。They are also experimenting with making things from other types of waste plastic that suffer less from shrinkage.他们也在试验用其它类型的废塑料制作产品,以减少收缩性。And until a production version of the printer is y and priced, it remains to be seen how competitive its output really will be with mass-produced items.在压印机生产出来的成品已经完全没有问题,而且定出合理的价格以前,这种产品与大批量生产的成品的竞争力谁高谁低还有待观察。Mr Rogge doubts, for example, that a 3D-printed bucket—even one made from milk bottles—will ever be cheaper than one made in a factory.罗格先生还不确定,比如说,一个三维技术压制出来的水桶—即使原材料是牛奶盒—的价格会低于工厂生产出来的水桶价格。Boats, though, could be a hit.虽然,木筏可能会是个创举。One of the judges at the 3D4D Challenge noted that many small vessels in West Africa are made from trees, such as teak, that are becoming scarce.在三维-四维挑战赛中的一位评委说,在西非,许多小容器就是由树木,比如柚木制成的,而这种木材也越来越少了。Making them from waste plastic instead would be an environmental twofer: rare species would be conserved and less rubbish thrown away.如果用废塑料制作这些容器将会对环境是一举两得:珍稀物种得到了保护,而且还减少了垃圾 /201401/272528

Whats five times as strong as steel, twice as tough as Kevlar,and can be stretched over thirty percent in length withoutbreaking?什么东西的强度是钢的5倍?什么东西的韧性是凯夫拉的2倍?什么东西能够拉长到自身长度的30%却不会断裂?The answer is spider silk.是蜘蛛丝。Spiders make at least six different types of silk which they use for locomotion, protecting eggs,wrapping prey, and gluing pieces of web together.蜘蛛能生产至少6种不同类型的蛛丝用以移动、护卵、捕食和结网。Silk is not only strong, its biodegradable andproduced at low temperatures and pressures, unlike many man made polymer fibers.蛛丝不仅结实,而且在低温低压下可生物降解和再生。这有别于许多人造纤维。Why dont we use spider silk to make things?为什么我们不利用蜘蛛丝来制作产品呢?Unlike silk worms, spiders cant produce much silk at a time.蜘蛛无法像蚕那样在短时间内产生大量的丝。It took eighty weavers and a milliongolden orb spiders five years to make a spider silk rug a little over twelve feet square.制作12平方英尺多点的蛛网地毯,需要80名织工,使用100万只金球蜘蛛,花费5年时间才能完成。Scientists decided to work on the silk quantity problem.科学家们决定研究蛛丝的数量问题。And, no, they didnt create giant spiders.当然他们不会去创造巨型蜘蛛。First, they identified soft and crystalline components in the silk protein sequences that make it bothstretchy and strong.首先,他们在蛛网蛋白序列中识别出使蛛网具备延展性和强韧性的柔软又透明的成份。Once they identified these elements, they located the gene that codes forspider silk.一旦科学家们成功识别出这些成份,他们就能锁定形成蛛网的基因。With the gene in hand, scientists decided to use a common intestinal bacteria named Escherichiacoli to help them.基因到手后,科学家们决定使用一种普遍的肠道细菌—大肠杆菌—作为辅助。They inserted the spider gene into the bacteria.他们要把蜘蛛基因嵌入大肠杆菌。Because the protein was large,they had to do some metabolic engineering to enable the bacteria to produce it.不过蜘蛛的蛋白很大,所以科学家们需要做一些代谢工程使得大肠杆菌能够生产蜘蛛蛋白。In the end, they made spider silk, but it wasnt as fine as the real thing.最后,大肠杆菌产出蛛网,但其质量不如真正的蛛丝那么理想。Thats because spidersenhance the uniformity of their silk as they pull it from their spinnerets.原因在于蜘蛛是从吐丝器官里把蛛丝拉出来的,这加强了蛛丝的均匀性。The pulling process wasnt replicated in the lab until scientists developed a device to mimic thefiber-pulling step.在科学家们开发出一种模拟拉出蛛丝的设备之前,这种拉丝过程无法在实验室里复制。They have now created a th rivaling natural silk.不过科学家们现已创造出一种与织线媲美的天然丝。This great fiber could soon be used for violin strings as well as bullet proof vests.这种优质的纤维预计很快就能用于小提琴琴弦或者防弹背心上了。 201403/278874

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