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2019年09月20日 16:08:31    日报  参与评论()人

哈尔滨省第三人民医院可以做引产吗七台河市中医院联系电话齐齐哈尔上环哪家医院最好的 Can #39;goal factoring#39; help you keep your New Year#39;s resolution to hit the gym every day in 2014?“目标构想”能帮助你坚持自己的新年决心,在2014年的每一天都去健身房健身吗?#39;Goal factoring, #39; a method of designing better plans, is one of the techniques taught by the Center for Applied Rationality, which hosts three-day workshops that teach attendees how to use science-based approaches to achieve goals. A November workshop in Ossining, N.Y., instructed 23 participants on how thinking about one#39;s future self as a different person can help goal-setting and why building up an #39;emotional library#39; of associations can reduce procrastination.“目标构想”是应用理性学习中心(Center for Applied Rationality,简称“CFAR”)所教授的技巧之一,是一种拟定更合理计划的方法。该中心常举办为期三天的讲习班,教授与会者如何采用有科学依据的方法来实现目标。他们于11月份在纽约州奥西宁(Ossining)举办的讲习班吸引了23名参加者,指导他们把未来的自己想象成一个不同的人可如何帮助制定目标,以及建立“情感(联想)库”为何能减轻拖延。CFAR, a Berkeley, Calif.-based nonprofit, is prominent in the growing #39;rationality movement, #39; which explores the science of optimized decision-making. In recent years, books about decision-making and probability theory -- including #39;Predictably Irrational#39; by Dan Ariely, who writes a regular column for The Wall Street Journal, and #39;Thinking, Fast and Slow#39; by Daniel Kahneman -- have been best-sellers. Websites like Overcoming Bias and Less Wrong serve as communities for those who believe the best way to be effective, whether in changing eating habits or changing the world, is to actively look at the lessons of science and hard data. The movement draws on some of the same research as economists who argue that investors behave irrationally.CFAR是加州伯克利(Berkeley)的一个非营利机构,它在影响正在日益扩大的探讨优化决策制定科学的“理性运动”中地位显著。近些年,有关决策制定及概率论的书籍一直都是畅销书,包括也为《华尔街日报》(The Wall Street Journal)定期撰写专栏的丹·阿雷利(Dan Ariely)所写的《可预见的非理性》(Predictably Irrational),以及丹尼尔·卡内曼(Daniel Kahneman)撰写的《思考,快与慢》(Thinking, Fast and Slow)等。诸如Overcoming Bias和Less Wrong这样的网站成为了那些认为变得高效──无论是改变饮食习惯或是改变世界──的最佳方法就是积极参考科学经验和硬数据的人士的活动中心。此外,理性运动还借鉴了那些提出投资者总是不理性地行动的经济学家所借鉴的部分研究。Very smart people often make irrational decisions, says University of Toronto psychologist Keith Stanovich. This leads to, say, physicians choosing less effective medical treatments or governments spending millions on unneeded projects. In 2013, Dr. Stanovich received a million grant from the John Templeton Foundation to develop a rigorous #39;rationality ient#39; test similar to an IQ test. Dr. Stanovich, who sits on CFAR#39;s advisory board, hopes to have such a test y in two years. He hopes the test will encourage people to learn to be more rational.多伦多大学(University of Toronto)的心理学家基思·斯塔诺维奇(Keith Stanovich)称,非常聪明的人常常也会做出不理智的决定。这会导致医生选择了不怎么有效的医疗方案,或者是政府在不必要的工程上花了几百万。2013年,斯塔诺维奇士收到了约翰·坦普尔顿基金会(John Templeton Foundation)提供的100万美元资助,以开发一个类似智商测试的严密的“理性商数”测试。斯塔诺维奇士也是CFAR的顾问之一,他希望在两年后设计出这样的测试,并希望该测试能促动大家学习变得更理性一些。For individuals, the odd secret of rationality is its reliance on emotions, proponents say. #39;People are always really surprised at how much time we spend at the workshops talking about our feelings, #39; says CFAR President Julia Galef, who has a statistics degree from Columbia University. #39;Rationality isn#39;t about getting rid of emotions, but analyzing them and taking them into consideration when making decisions, #39; she says.持者称,对于个人而言,理性的奇特秘密在于它对情感的依赖。CFAR主席朱莉娅·加利夫(Julia Galef)指出:“总是有人对自己在讲习班中花了那么多时间谈论自己的感受非常惊讶。理性并不是要你消除情感,而是要分析它们并在做决定时把它们考虑进去。”加利夫拥有哥伦比亚大学(Columbia University)的统计学学位。Attendees, who each paid about , 000 to participate in the Ossining workshop (meals and lodging included), learned a technique called #39;pre-hindsight#39; that uses emotional cues to create more foolproof plans. It works like this: Imagine that six months have passed, and you haven#39;t achieved the body of your dreams. How surprised are you? The less surprised you are, the less likely it is you will succeed at your goal. Then think in detail about each reason you wouldn#39;t be surprised if June comes and the number on the scale hasn#39;t budged. Each reason -- whether #39;I don#39;t have time#39; or #39;I don#39;t like running in the mornings#39; -- is a possible cause of failure. Using the surprise level to anticipate these is crucial to creating a plan to address each weak point.参加奥西宁讲习班的人每人需交费约4,000美元(包括食宿),学习的是一项名为“事后认识预测”的技能,即运用情感暗示来制定更万无一失的计划。它是这样起作用的:想象一下六个月已经过去,而你还未实现你的理想身材。你会有多惊讶?你越是不惊讶,你成功实现目标的可能性就越低。接下来,你要仔细想想假如6月份已经到来,但体重秤上的数字还没变化,对此你并不惊讶的每个原因。每一个原因──无论是“我没有时间”还是“我不喜欢在早晨跑步”──都是可能让你失败的原因。利用惊讶程度来预测这些是制定计划以解决每个弱点的关键。Similarly, goal factoring can help determine whether shelling out a month at the YMCA is the best way to get in shape. This involves mapping out the motivations (health, stress relief, weight loss) behind doing something (going to the gym), and questioning whether there is a more effective way to achieve the same things. Goal factoring could lead a person to realize that, given time and interests, an hour on the tmill is unrealistic, but a weekly soccer tournament with friends is doable.同样地,目标构想能帮助你决定每个月在基督教青年会(YMCA)花上40美元是否是保持体型的最佳方法。这包括要列出做某件事情(比如去健身房)背后的动因(为了健康、减压或减肥),然后自问做成同样的事情是否还有更有效的方法。目标构想可让一个人意识到,考虑到时间和兴趣问题,在跑步机上跑一小时是不切实际的,而每周和朋友踢场足球则是可行的。Other lessons include #39;structured procrastination.#39; The idea is that if you#39;re going to procrastinate, you might as well procrastinate by doing something that works toward another goal -- for example, procrastinate on starting a work project by watching a TED talk you#39;ve been meaning to catch or starting a book you#39;ve wanted to .其他技巧包括“结构化拖延”。其理念是假如你想拖延某事,倒不如通过做些有助于实现另一个目标的事情来拖延它。比如说,如果你想延迟开始一个工作项目,你可以去看一段你一直想补上的TED的演讲,或者开始读一本以前想读的书。If it seems like the rationalists are overthinking the decision-making process, consider the audience, Ms. Galef says. Most workshop participants have been software engineers, entrepreneurs, students or scientists. In one session, the instructor asked whether anyone present hadn#39;t written a computer program. No hands went up.加利夫说,如果你觉得理性主义者似乎对决策制定过程思虑过度了,想想讲习班的那些人吧。参加讲习班的人大多数曾是软件工程师、企业家、学生和科学家。在某节课上,讲师问在座的人是否有没有写过电脑程序的。没有一个人举手。Can rationality exercises actually teach us to act more rational day to day?理性训练真能教会我们一天比一天更理性地行动吗?Psychologist Dr. Kahneman, who won a Nobel Prize in economics for research into decision-making in 2002, says it is very difficult to overcome our split-second irrational reactions. #39;Much of it is automatic, #39; he says. #39;Preferences come to mind and emotions arise, and we#39;re not aware that we#39;re making [decisions and assumptions] and therefore cannot control them.#39;凭借对决策制定的研究在2002年获得诺贝尔经济学奖的心理学家卡内曼士指出,我们会很难克我们自己在一瞬间的非理性反应。他说:“多数是自然出现的,你偏爱的东西会出现在你的脑海中,情绪会随之产生,而且我们也意识不到我们正在做出决定和假设,所以我们无法控制它们。”Organizations can generally make gains by adopting rational procedures enforced from the top, but Dr. Kahneman is skeptical of how much individuals can change.机构团体一般都能够从采纳自上而下执行的理性程序中受益,但卡内曼士对个人能改变多少持怀疑态度。Dr. Stanovich is more optimistic. It is true that automatic biases can#39;t be removed, he says, but people can train themselves to slow down and question these biases, and learn other mechanisms -- even something as simple as deliberately thinking of the effect of the opposite decision -- that may counteract such biases.斯塔诺维奇士则更为乐观。他说,自然而然的偏见确实不能消除,但人们可以训练自己减缓和质疑这些偏见,并学会其他也许能抵消这些偏见的机制──甚至是像审慎考虑相反决定的后果这样简单的事情。Max Tegmark, a physicist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, says he #39;aly had a high level of rationalism#39; but found the CFAR workshop useful.麻省理工学院(Massachusetts Institute of Technology)物理学家马克斯·泰格马克(Max Tegmark)说他“已经具备很高的理性程度”,不过还是发现CFAR的讲习班很有用。#39;I had this huge to-do list with over a thousand things on it, and I found I wasn#39;t looking at it very often because whenever I did, I just got this depressing feeling of being overwhelmed by my failure to accomplish stuff, #39; says Dr. Tegmark. After the March workshop in Berkeley, Calif., the 46-year-old developed an improved system for tackling emails by writing a program that responds to routine emails with automated messages. He also got better at staying on track with long-term projects. #39;I learned that if I want Max to do something in December, I should think about December Max as a different person, #39; he says. Instead of just putting a reminder to do something in a few months, he#39;ll plan ahead and send email reminders and incentives for his #39;future self.#39;泰格马克士说:“我制定了一份庞大的任务清单,单子上列了1000多件事情,我发现我并不会经常看它,因为每当我去看它时,我就会因为受不了自己做不成那些事情而产生一种沮丧的感觉。”在3月份于加州伯克利参加了讲习班后,46岁的泰格马克写了一个以自动生成的信息回复日常邮件的程序,由此开发了一个跟踪邮件的升级系统。他在坚持长期项目方面也做得更好了。他说:“我了解到如果我要马克斯在12月份做些事情,我应该把12月的马克斯想象成一个不同的人。”他不只是记上要在几个月后做某件事的提醒,而是提前计划,给“未来的自己”发送邮件提醒和激励。Another March attendee, Estonian computer programmer and Skype co-founder Jaan Tallinn, says the workshop helped him improve his fitness plan. After analyzing his actions, Mr. Tallinn, 41, realized that he was avoiding exercise mostly because his routine was too long. He designed a shorter routine with different exercises that he finds it easier to stick to. (Mr. Tallinn is an investor in the Machine Intelligence Research Institute, which is affiliated with CFAR.)爱沙尼亚电脑程序员、Skype的联合创始人扬·塔林(Jaan Tallinn)也在3月份参加了讲习班。他说讲习班帮助他改进了他的健身计划。在分析了自己的行动后,41岁的塔林意识到他逃避健身主要是因为他的那个日常计划太长了,于是他拟定了一个他认为更容易坚持的包含不同锻炼项目的较短期的计划。(塔林为隶属于CFAR的机器智能研究所(Machine Intelligence Research Institute)的投资者。)That individuals -- as well as markets and corporations -- don#39;t always behave rationally is a tenet of behavioral economics.个人──连同市场及企业──并不总是理性行事是行为经济学的一大信条。Scholars of behavioral economics, including Dr. Kahneman, have attempted to tease out the factors behind individuals#39; and investors#39; shifting risk tolerances and decisions.包括卡内曼士在内,行为经济学的学者曾尝试理出个人及投资者的风险容忍度和决策不断变化背后的因素。Behavioral economics, which has gained ground among academic economists over the past several decades, departs from traditional notions by assuming that individuals don#39;t always behave rationally and act in their own best interests. Thus we have market bubbles in which investors inflate stocks or homes way above their rational value.过去数十年来,行为经济学在学院派经济学家中得到了发展,它与传统观念不同,认为个人的行为并不总是理性的,并且总是按照自己的最大利益行事。因此,我们会看到市场泡沫,投资者将股票或房产的价格抬高到远远高于它们合理价值的水平。 /201401/274236哈尔滨医科大学附属第一医院 人流价格表

哈尔滨人流去哪个医院哈尔滨省七院在哪里 大庆让北医院男科医生

大庆市人民医院几点下班All Steven Schwankert wanted to do was dive a wreck off China’s coast. 最初,史蒂文#12539;施万克特(Steven Schwankert)只是想在中国沿海进行一次沉船潜水。 Instead, the Beijing journalist and scuba instructor stumbled upon the mystery of a missing submarine, man’s first use of scuba equipment to escape from certain death, and an island graveyard that was hidden in plain sight. 但这位驻北京的记者兼潜水教练却偶然发现了一艘沉没的潜艇,以及一个明明就在那里但却没人发现的岛上墓地。在这次沉船事件中,水下呼吸器首次被用于逃生。 The story surrounding that mystery is now the subject of a book by Mr. Schwankert, “Poseidon: China’s Secret Salvage of Britain’s Lost Submarine,” and a documentary, “The Poseidon Project,” by British filmmakers and brothers, Arthur and Luther Jones. 围绕这个秘密的故事现在成为施万克特所写的《海神号:中国秘密打捞英国沉没潜艇始末》(Poseidon: China#39;s Secret Salvage of Britain#39;s Lost Submarine)一书的主题,同时也是英国导演阿瑟#12539;琼斯(Arthur Jones)和卢瑟#12539;琼斯(Luther Jones)兄弟执导的纪录片《海神号事件》(The Poseidon Project)的主题。 Both tell the story of the HMS Poseidon, a British submarine that collided with a freighter in China’s Bohai Sea in June of 1931 and sank in five minutes. Five men ultimately survived the wreck (in addition to the men who abandoned ship before it sunk) by using a prototype of today’s modern scuba gear. Their bravery is one of the compelling stories of the book. 这两个作品讲述的都是关于海神号的故事。1931年6月,这艘英国潜艇与一艘货船在中国渤海相撞,并在5分钟内沉没。这艘潜艇上有五个海军士兵(不包括在潜艇沉没前弃船逃生的人)通过使用现代水肺的原型成功逃生。他们的英勇事迹是这本书中具有吸引力的故事之一。 But it’s not the only moment of drama. Mr. Schwankert, editor of Beijinger magazine and founder of the diving company SinoScuba, vividly describes the process of finding out what exactly happened to the sunken submarine. He tracked the whereabouts of the remains of the men who died in the accident, and learned the sad story of others who perished in the escape efforts. 但这并非唯一的戏剧性时刻。施万克特是《北京人》(Beijinger)杂志的编辑,并且是水肺潜水训练中心SinoScuba的创始人。他生动的描写了发现这艘沉没的潜艇究竟发生过什么的过程。他曾追踪此次事故遇难者遗体的下落,并发现了有关其他一些在逃生过程中死亡的人的悲伤故事。 Mr. Schwankert highlights the story of the man he says is the story’s hero, Petty Officer Patrick Willis. The book opens with a dramatic scene of Mr. Willis leading the six men and two young Chinese mates’ assistants in the forward torpedo room of the downed submarine in a prayer as they feel the cold water rising on their bodies. 施万克特以浓重笔墨描写了其中一个名叫帕特里克#12539;威利斯(Patrick Willis)的海军士官的故事,他说威利斯是这个故事中的英雄。这本书以一个戏剧性场面作为开头,当时威利斯带着五个士兵和两个年轻的中国大副助手在艏鱼雷舱祈祷,当时他们感觉到冰冷的水在他们周围不断上涨。 The room had to be flooded so that the men could open the escape hatch and try to make their way to the surface, 126 feet (38 meters) up. And as Mr. Schwankert writes, “The submariners had no choice but to contemplate doing something that no one had ever done before: rescuing themselves from a downed submarine using an experimental breathing device.” 只有这个舱充满水,他们才能打开安全舱口,并设法回到距离他们有38米的水面上。施万克特写道,这些潜艇人员不得不考虑去做他们以前从未做过的事:使用一个实验性的呼吸器从一艘沉没的潜艇中自救。 Adding to the tension, the room offered just seven sets of Davis Submerged Escape Apparatus, an early scuba technology called a rebreather, for eight people. Mr. Willis gave the seven devices to the six navy men and one of the Chinese boys. The other boy, Ho Shung, was described by several accounts of falling into a panic not surprising if he saw everyone else with breathing equipment. One account has the men knocking the boy out so that his panic didn’t affect everyone. Ho, and a British sailor whose device had no oxygen, never appeared on the surface after the accident. 雪上加霜的是,舱内只有7套戴维斯脱险工具(Davis Submerged Escape Apparatus)(早期潜水术语对呼吸器的叫法),但他们有8个人。威利斯将这7套工具分配给六位海军士兵和两个中国男孩中的一人。据称,另一个男孩何爽(音)陷入恐慌――当看到其他人都有呼吸器时,他有这样的反应并不令人意外。据称这些海军士兵将这个男孩击昏,这样他的恐慌就不会影响到其他人。何爽和一位呼吸器内没有氧气的英国海军士兵在此次事故后长眠于深海中。 The book and the movie highlight dramatic incidents like these and others: Mr. Schwankert’s discovery that the Chinese eventually salvaged the Poseidon in 1972, a finding that Mr. Schwankert calls the main discovery of the book; the contrast between Mr. Willis the hero and the submarine captain Bernard Galpin, who Mr. Schwankert says made a “dumb” decision that caused the sub to be rammed and sunken; and Mr. Schwankert’s search for the British naval cemetery where two of the men who died in the accident, and whose bodies were recovered, were probably buried. 这本书和电影突出了类似这样的和其他一些戏剧性的事件,包括施万克特发现中国在1972年打捞过海神号,他将这个发现称为这本书中的主要发现;威利斯与潜艇船长加尔平(Bernard Galpin)的对比,施万克特说加尔平做了一个愚蠢的决定,导致这艘潜艇撞船并沉没;以及施万克特寻找英国海军墓地(上述两位遇难者以及其他打捞出来的遗体可能被安葬的地方)的过程。 Three months after the Poseidon accident, the Japanese invaded Manchuria. The story of the Poseidon, which made headlines and even led to a feature film called “Men Like These,” was lost to history. 在海神号事故发生三个月后,日本入侵满洲。曾经登上头条,甚至拍成剧情片《像这样的男人》(Men Like These)的海神号事件渐渐被淹没在历史长河中。 Now, though, with a book and film, the story has resurfaced. “To be able to correct history, to be able to write history correctly, that is really what I wanted to do,” Mr. Schwankert says. 但是现在,通过这本书和这部电影,这一事件再次浮出水面。施万克特说,能够修正历史和正确的书写这段历史,这是我真正想要做的。 His research in China over the years taught him some important lessons. “In China, it’s kind of like football. You don’t go for touchdowns; you go for first downs. You try to push forward as much as you can. The fact that I was able to discover that a submarine had a completely different final chapter than was previously known, and that it was all done in original Chinese research that to me was amazing.” 过去几年施万克特在中国进行的研究让他学到了一些重要的道理。他说,在中国,情况有点像打橄榄球,首攻比触地得分更重要,你得尝试尽力前进;能够发现一艘潜艇的与过去所知完全不同的完结篇,而且这些发现都是基于对中文原始资料的研究完成的,这连我自己都感到吃惊。 The book “Poseidon”was released Oct. 12. Mr. Schwankert will be talking about the book and the movie at Beijing’s Bookworm on Nov. 7. 《海神号》一书已于10月12日出版。施万克特11月7日将在北京的老书虫书店(Bookworm)聊这本书和这部电影。 /201310/261400 Eyes bulging at the steaming plate before her, Lee Soo-#173;kyung eagerly wolfs down a mouthful of rice, unperturbed by the film camera hovering a chopstick’s length from her face. But the constant interruptions by Park Joon-wha give the actress, her pretty features offset by a frumpy collared shirt, little chance to enjoy the meal.李秀景(Lee Soo-#173;kyung,见右图)的姣好面容似乎与领子邋遢的衬衫不相称。此刻,她瞪着眼前热气腾腾的盘子,狼吞虎咽地吃下一大口米饭,对距离自己的脸仅一根筷子开外的摄像机并不在乎。但朴俊华(Park Joon-wha)不停地打断她,她根本就吃不好饭。“Eat as much as you can!” cries the director of the forthcoming soap opera Let’s Eat, scrutinising her from behind two screens and his thick black-rimmed glasses. “If it’s hot then show it – let’s see you gulping! And bring her some more green vegetables to make it more colourful!”戴黑色宽边眼镜的导演一边通过两块视频屏幕观察她的表演,一边大喊:“尽量吃,能吃多少就吃多少!要是感觉饭菜热,你得让人看到你在大快朵颐!来,再给她加点儿绿色蔬菜,让色更鲜艳。”剧组正在制作即将播出的肥皂剧《一起吃饭吧》(Let’s Eat)。As crew members top up her plate once more, Ms Lee discreetly spits a half-chewed morsel into a bucket by her side.剧组人员再次加满菜盘之际,李秀景悄悄地把一小口嚼了一半的饭菜吐进身边的桶里。Making South Korean television drama is hard work, and not always glamorous. Yet the results are consumed avidly by viewers from the Mongolian steppes to the congested streets of Jakarta.拍韩国电视剧是件苦差,也并不总是光鲜的。不过,从蒙古大草原到雅加达拥挤的街道,观众们都非常热衷看韩剧。South Korea’s TV drama exports grew from m in 2001 to 5m in 2011 – the most recent official figure available – and industry executives say there is still room for expansion in Asia and beyond.2001年韩剧出口额为800万美元,2011年(可获得最新官方数据的年份)上升至1.55亿美元。行业高管表示,韩剧在亚洲及其他地区仍有扩张空间。Despite the impressive growth, the soap-opera makers are in no danger of overtaking the multibillion-dollar sales of the country’s electronics groups such as Samsung, or shipbuilders. But their rise reflects the growing cultural allure of one of Asia’s richest nations – as well as its fiercely competitive business culture.尽管增长惊人,但电视剧制作公司与该国三星(Samsung)等电子产品集团或造船企业在销售额上仍不可同日而语。但是,该行业的崛起反映了亚洲最富裕国家之一不断增强的文化魅力——也反映了韩国竞争激烈的商业文化。The lonely death this summer of the celebrated director Kim Jong-hak, in the bathroom of a rented apartment, was a reminder of the high stakes at the top of the country’s TV business. Mr Kim had invested millions of dollars in Faith – a 24-part drama about a plastic surgeon who travels back in time – only to find himself facing a commercial flop and an angry cast pursuing him for unpaid wages.今夏,韩国知名导演金钟学(Kim Jong-hak)在一处出租公寓的浴室里孤独地死去,向世人提醒该国电视业高层的风险有多么高。金钟学曾向24集的《信义》(Faith)投入数百万美元,最终遭遇商业失败,而愤怒的剧组人员向他追讨被拖欠的薪酬。该剧讲述的是一位整形外科医生穿越时空回到过去的故事。His suicide prompted soul-searching in an industry that has seen its budgets balloon in recent years. “When I started in this industry 20 years ago it would cost about Won50m (,000) to make a single 70-minute episode,” says Kim Young-seop, a content executive at SBS, one of South Korea’s three terrestrial broadcasters. “Now it’s more like Won450m.”受金钟学自杀的触动,近年来预算快速上涨的电视行业开始了反省。韩国三大电视台之一SBS的内容总监Kim Young-seop说:“20年前我进入这个行业时,拍一集70分钟的电视剧成本大约是5000万韩元(合4.7万美元),如今成本已接近4.5亿韩元了。”SBS and its rivals, KBS and M, have begun to commission most of their TV dramas from independent production companies. The two parties typically split filming and salary costs but the broadcaster usually takes all the domestic advertising revenue. To make a profit, the independent producers must rely on export sales, sponsorship and product placement.SBS及其对手KBS和M都已开始委托独立制片公司制作大多数电视剧。一般情况下,双方分担摄制与工资成本,但电视台通常独占全部国内广告收入。为实现盈利,独立制片公司必须依靠出口销售、赞助和植入式广告。Critics say this system unfairly skews financial risk towards the independent producers. But the ruthless competition between them has helped drive a dynamic industry with broadening international appeal.批评者表示,这一制度不公平地让独立制片公司承担了大部分的财务风险。但是,这些制片公司之间的无情竞争提高了该行业的活力,在国际上产生了越来越大的吸引力。Japan has been by far the biggest foreign market ever since the success in 2003 of Winter Sonata, a mixture of slushy romance and high drama that won a huge following among middle-aged women (see box). Executives see limited room for further growth there, however. The novelty has worn off among the Japanese, with sentiment towards South Korea also darkened by a growing diplomatic dispute over the nations’ past colonial relationship.日本一直是自2003年《冬季恋歌》(Winter Sonata)大获成功以来韩剧最大的海外市场。那是一部多愁善感、情节曲折的爱情片,受到了中年女性的热烈追捧。然而,行业高管们认为日本市场的未来增长空间受限。一方面,日本人对韩剧的新鲜感已逐渐消退,另一方面,历史上两国之间殖民关系引起的外交纠纷日益加深,也使日本人对韩国的印象变差。So the industry is looking further afield. Broadcasters in Iran, Iraq and the ed Arab Emirates have given primetime slots to conservative South Korean medieval dramas. “In those countries they don’t want to see women in short skirts,” explains Jo Han-sang, an overseas distribution executive at KBS.于是,韩国电视业开始把目光投向更远方。伊朗、伊拉克和阿联酋的多家电视台已安排在黄金时段播放保守的韩国古装连续剧。KBS负责海外发行的高管Jo Han-sang解释道:“在那些国家,人们不想看到女人穿短裙。”Nearly a dozen of KBS’s dramas are currently showing on Romanian national TV, Mr Jo says, while Turkish producers have been buying the rights to remake some shows.他说,KBS出品的10多部电视剧目前在罗马尼亚全国电视台播放,土耳其一些制片公司也一直在购买版权,对部分剧目进行改编。The industry’s export success echoes that of Mexican soap operas, or telenovelas – and SBS is targeting their Latin American heartland through a distribution deal.韩国电视业的出口佳绩与墨西哥肥皂剧(被称为telenovelas的浪漫电视肥皂剧)相仿。SBS正通过一份发行协议,把目光投向拉美腹地市场。But for now, the real money is to be made in Asia, be it from the established markets of Japan and Taiwan or the fast-growing demand in countries such as Vietnam and Cambodia. “US shows have specific genres – cop shows or medical shows – but we have universal stories,” says Park Man-young, a KBS producer.但目前而言,韩剧还是要靠亚洲来赚取大部分利润——无论是成熟的日本或台湾市场,还是需求快速增长的越南和柬埔寨等国家。KBS制片人Park Man-young说:“美剧有些固定的类型——警察剧或医疗剧——但韩剧的情节很齐全。”“All of a sudden everything is about Korea,” says Leung Yuk-ming, a cultural studies professor at Hong Kong’s Lingnan University. But while TV may have started the “Korean Wave”, she adds, the centre of attention is now K-pop – the immaculately groomed, minutely choreographed bands that have an ever tighter grip on Asia’s teen market.香港岭南大学(Lingnan University)文化研究系助理教授梁旭明(Leung Yuk-ming)说:“突然间,韩国文化铺天盖地来了。”不过,她补充道,尽管韩剧也许开启了“韩流”,但现在最吸引观众的是K-pop(韩国流行音乐)——打扮得干干净净、舞蹈动作精心编排的乐队,在亚洲青少年当中越来越有市场。TV companies have sought to cash in by hiring the singers to appear in their shows. “We do like to cast an ‘idol’ who appeals to the international market,” says Suh Jang-ho, a content executive at the entertainment group CJ Eamp;M, which used the pop star Yoon Doo-joon in Let’s Eat.电视公司已寻求利用这一趋势,他们雇佣歌手拍电视节目。集团CJ Eamp;M内容总监Suh Jang-ho说:“我们的确希望请一位在国际市场有吸引力的‘偶像’主演。”该集团聘请了流行歌星尹斗俊(Yoon Doo-joon)加盟《一起吃饭吧》。The likes of Mr Yoon do not come cheap. The going rate for an internationally popular star is now Won100m per episode, executives say. Cuts have to be made to accommodate the big names, notes Yoon Tae-jin, a professor at Seoul’s Yonsei University. “Suddenly the lead parts have no parents any more.”尹斗俊等明星的身价不菲。高管们表示,目前国际级明星每集电视剧的片酬是1亿韩元。首尔延世大学(Yonsei University)教授Yoon Tae-jin指出,为了延揽大明星加盟,不得不在其他方面削减。“主角们突然间都没有父母了。”However, the country’s idiosyncratic “live shoot” system means even the superstars are not given an easy ride. Producers typically shoot only the first few episodes of a drama before it goes to air, and they continue filming as the run proceeds.然而,韩国另类的“随拍随播”制度意味着,就连超级明星的日子也不太好过。一部电视剧开播之前,制片公司通常只拍好了开头几集,然后边拍摄、边播放。This enables screenwriters to develop the plot according to the audience reaction, which is tracked on social media and discussion boards on shows’ fan pages. An unpopular character might be killed off, for example.这一制度使编剧能根据观众反应(从社交媒体和剧目粉丝网页追踪)来设计剧情。比如,某个不受欢迎的角色可能被砍掉。Yet the system often results in cast and crew working through the night as they battle to complete filming each episode before it airs.但这一制度往往意味着,由于每一集都要赶在开播之前制作好,演员和剧组人员往往要彻夜赶工。“Let’s say the episode is being aired at 10pm – the filming might finish at 7pm on the same day,” says Park Tae-young, an executive producer at Samwha Networks, one of the biggest independent TV companies. “If the tape is delivered to the broadcaster late, then you just have a blank screen for one or two minutes. That happens from time to time.”韩国最大的独立电视公司之一Samhwa Networks的执行制片人Park Tae-young说:“比如说,这一集将在晚10点播放,拍摄工作可能在下午7点才完成。如果录像带不能及时送到电视台,电视屏幕上就要出现一两分钟的空白。这种情况时有发生。”However much the budgets grow and the stars complain, producers show no sign of abandoning the gung-ho approach that characterised the growth of other South Korean export industries decades earlier. “If we filmed it before airing, everything would take longer,” says Mr Park at KBS. “Actually, it’s a crazy practice. But we’ve been doing this for years.”无论预算增幅多大,明星如何抱怨,但制片人并未流露出放弃这种紧张制作模式的迹象。几十年前,韩国其他出口行业在起飞阶段也出现过这种模式。KBS的Park Man-young说:“如果我们要求在开播之前制作完毕,那么一切都要花更长时间。没错,这种模式很疯狂,但我们多年来一直是这么做的。” /201312/268305哈市阳光医院网上预约挂号哈尔滨阳光妇科医院医生在线咨询

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