原标题: 郴州什么医院男科好天涯活动
Xun Zi (313 B. C.~238 B. C.), whose given name was Kuang and courtesy name Qing, was born in the State of Zhao and was a key figure in the Confucius school.荀子(约公元前313年~公元前238年),名况,宇卿,时人尊称为“荀卿”,汉代避宣帝讳,称之为孙卿。赵国人,儒家代表人物之一。When studying in the State of Qi, he became one of the celebrated scholars at the Jixia Academy.曾游学于齐,为稷下先生,名望极高。In his late years, he dedicated himself in teaching disciples and writing books, one of which is Xun Zi, an epitome of his thoughts.晚年著书授徒,现存《荀子》一书。Politically, he inherited the Confucian thought of li (rites) and considers li as not merely a moral standard but a necessity of governing the country.荀子的思想主要继承了孔子关于“礼”的思想,核心是实行礼治,把礼由伦理规范上升到一种治国之策。He also called upon the practice of the “royal regulations; which emphasizes li and fa (standards ): the purpose of li is to educate while that of fa is to rule. The practice of them combined means to restrain the evil in human nature.他主张实行“隆礼重法”的“王制”,把礼与维护等级制度的“法”结合起来。礼主要起“化”的作用,法主要起“治”的作用,而礼与法都是为了限制人性之中的恶。A strong critic to Mencius#39; claim that human beings are good by nature, Xun Zi held that human beings are born evil but they are perfectible through education.在人性理论上,苟子持“性恶论”,他猛烈抨击孟子的“性善论”,主张性伪之分,把人性区分为自然之性和道德之性。自然之性与生俱来,称之为性; 道德之性受后天教育熏习而成,称之为伪(伪就是人为的意思)。He believed that people are born with a conflicting mixture of desires that if allowed unfettered, would lead to disaster. It is only through the imposition of li and fa that these desires can be well channeled.他否定有天赋之性善,认为人生而有欲望要求,欲望要求无度量分界则发生争夺。因此要靠礼法加以规范限制。Therefore, Xun Zi valued moralization and education so much that the very first chapter of Xun Zi was named “Encouraging Learning”.所以荀子特别强调人后天的教化和学习,《荀子》的首篇就是《劝学》。On nature, Xun Zi held that the change of the natural world is under the control of objective laws, which have no relations with humanity. He rejected the thought of the existence of a correspondence between human and the universe. This, in fact, leads to the denial of an allegation that royal power is bestowed by the divinity.在自然观上,荀子否定了天人感应的思想,认为自然界的变化是客观规律作用的结果,“天行有常,不为尧存,不为桀亡”,与人事没有任何关系,这实际上也否定了君权天授的思想。Furthermore, Xun Zi believed that even human beings are the products of nature: born first is the physical body, from which spiritual functions are derived.不仅如此,荀子认为就连人类也是自然界的产物,先有了人的形体,即物质实体,然后派生精神作用,“形具而神生”。On the other hand, he affirmed the dominant and positive power of human beings in nature and put forward the thought of “controlling fatality and making use of it;.另一方面,他肯定了人在自然界面前的主导作用和能动作用,尽人事而知天命就能“制天命而用之”,做到人定胜天,这种思想是战国后期人民战天斗地发展生产的反映。 /201510/402712According to figures released by China#39;s National Bureau of Statistics on Tuesday, the number of men in the Chinese mainland stands at 704,14 million while the number of their counterparts is 670,48 million by the end of 2015.据周二国家统计局公布的数据显示,截止2015年年末,中国大陆男性人口达到70414万,而女性人口则为67048万。For every 113.51 boys born there were 100 girls (the natural rate is 102 to 107 boys to every 100 girls), the data showed.该数据显示,每113.51名新生男婴就会对应100名新生女婴(自然出生人口性别比为102-107名男婴对应100名女婴)。Though still far beyond the natural rate, China#39;s sex ratio at birth plunged by 2.37 from 115.88 of last year, the biggest drop in the last seven years.虽然现在这一数据仍远低于自然比例,但是与2014年出生人口性别比115.88相比,中国出生人口性别比下降了2.37,在过去七年时间内降幅最大。To balance the population, China further relaxed its more than three-decade-old family planning policy to allow all couples to have two children since the start of 2016.为平衡人口,2016年初,中国进一步放松了实行三十年余久的计划生育政策,全面放开二孩政策。China, like other countries with Asian cultures, held a historic preference for male offspring over female ones. Conservatives, especially old-fashioned clans in rural areas, regard boys as the only recognized heirs to carry on a family line.与其他亚洲文化圈国家相似,中国有着重男轻女的传统思想。传统保守的人们仍认为男孩是家里唯一传宗接代的香火,这一现象在一些农村地区守旧家族里尤为明显。The family planning policy, which was introduced in the 1980s to encourage each couple to have just one child, has pushed the sex ratio at birth up to some degree.计划生育政策在20世纪80年代出台,鼓励一对夫妻只生一个孩子,这一政策使得出生人口性别比上升到了一定的高度。Some families prefer boys if they can only have one child, said Chen Jian, Vice President of China Society of Economic Reform, adding that the gap between sexes at birth will narrow as the two-child policy is implemented.中国社会经济体制改革研究会副会长陈建表示,如果只能生一个孩子,有些家庭更愿意选择男孩。他还补充说道,二孩政策的实施将缓解男女性别比的失衡。If the sex gap continues to exist, it will threaten the population ecology and sustainable economic and social development, said Chen.若性别失衡仍这样持续下去,则将威胁到人口生态、经济及社会的可持续发展。;The most noticeable impact is a marriage squeeze. Left-over men will find it more difficult to marry women;, Chen added.“最显著的影响是婚姻挤压,性别比中剩余的男性择偶将更加困难”,陈建补充道。 /201601/423637

Jack Solomon, a 74-year-old industrial chemist from Westchester, New York, had been waiting for the internet home-sharing revolution for years. Looking for a home to retire to in 2005, he and his wife ended up with a house in East Hampton and — as you do — a neighbouring island that sleeps 36.来自美国纽约州威斯彻斯特县(Westchester, New York)的74岁工业化学家杰克所罗门(Jack Solomon)多年来一直在苦等互联网私宅共享革命浪潮的到来。2005年他与妻子四处找寻退休后的住所,最终在东汉普顿(East Hampton)“安营扎寨”,这座邻近东汉普顿的小岛上共住有36人。He toiled unsuccessfully on craigslist, the local classifieds service, trying to eke out some income from the island when not in use for stays with family and friends. When it came, the new wave of home sharing websites was a godsend; today he has a steady stream of bookings for the island courtesy of Airbnb, TripAdvisor and VRBO (a popular US rental site).他曾在当地分类广告网站Craigslist上打广告,希望房子空置时(自己家人与朋友不在此居住时)能对外出租,但却以失败告终。当这一天终于成为现实时,不断涌现的私宅分享网站如同及时雨。如今拜Airbnb 、TripAdvisor以及美国知名租赁网站VRBO所赐,预订他小岛住所的人络绎不绝。Airbnb reports a boom in short-term home lets by the super-rich. In June, the number of one-bed listings charging more than 1,000 per night was nearly three times what it had been a year before. Asia is leading the charge: high-end apartments — those with pools and gyms — grew quickest in Tokyo (up 78 per cent) and Hong Kong (up 70 per cent). Over the same 12-month period, London listings grew by half and those in Paris a third.Airbnb报告称:富豪临时出租私宅者大幅飚升。今年6月,上网招租的单张床位数(每晚租金超过1000英镑)同比增长了近3倍。亚洲租金首屈一指独领风骚:带泳池与健身房的高档住宅的租金在东京与香港同比增幅最大,分别达78%与70%。过去一年,伦敦待租房屋的租金同比增长了50%,巴黎则同比增长了三分之一。Premium home rental sites are booming. Luxury Retreats, which claims to turn away 95 per cent of those who offer their (mainly) holiday homes, now has 2,800 properties, largely in the US and the Caribbean, with nightly rates ranging from ,000 to 4,000, for the plushest private island. Onefinestay has been listing plush pads since 2010 in sought-after city locations and now has 2,000 homes across London, New York, Paris and LA, with a combined value of 6bn. Villas.com, the vacation rental site operated by booking.com, which includes plenty of plush pads, boasts 308,000 vacation homes.高档住宅租赁网站也快速涌现。Luxury Retreats声称把95%有意出租者的度假屋者拒之门外,如今旗下拥有2800套房源(多数位于美国与加勒比海的最为奢华的私人海岛),每晚租金从1000美元至12.4万美元不等。2010年以来,Onefinestay一直招租城市黄金地段的豪华住所,如今在伦敦、纽约、巴黎以及洛杉矶等地拥有的房源多达2000套,总价值超过60亿英镑。由booking.com负责经营的休假房屋租赁网站Villas.com名下把大量豪宅出租,自诩名下度假房多达30.8万套。Second-home owners are getting younger, meaning more look to the internet for smart rental solutions when they are not using their homes themselves. The average age of second-home buyers in the US dropped from 52 to 43 in the 10 years to 2013, according to the US National Association of Realtors.二手房主越趋年轻化,他们更希望房屋空置时能通过租赁网出租。据全美房地产经纪人协会(US National Association of Realtors)统计:过去10年(截止2013年),美国二手房主的平均年龄从52岁降到了43岁。Increasingly, people are renting their main homes, too. “Where the super-rich have listed secondary residences for some time, now they’re starting to offer their main homes while staying in other properties or holidaying,” says Olivier Gremillon, who runs Airbnb’s European business.不仅如此,出租主宅者也越来越多。“富豪过去上网出租自己的次要住宅,如今当自己住到别处或是外出休假时,则开始把主宅临时出租。”Airbnb欧洲区负责人奥利维耶格雷米翁(Olivier Gremillon)说。Online home rental sites typically feature interactive calendars allowing owners to switch availability on or off at a moment’s notice, dodging the advance commitment typically required by property rental firms. As importantly, messaging apps and sophisticated review systems provide homeowners with the information they need to vet potential guests.家租网通常以交互式日历招揽客户:允许房主可即刻告知房屋能否出租,从而规避了房屋租赁公司通常要求的提前预约规定。同样重要的是:短信通知程序与先进的复查系统可给房主提供相关信息,用以审核有意承租者。Two years ago, Francesca Diana, an Italian jewellery designer who runs her global business from Rio, bought a private island on a rural nature reserve about an hour and half’s drive from her home. It has become a precious retreat: “I’d never rent it to someone unknown or give up the control over who could stay there,” she says.2年前,在巴西里约经营全球业务的意大利首饰设计师弗朗西斯卡戴安娜(Francesca Diana)购买了一座私人小岛,它位于当地自然保护区内,距离自家约1.5小时车程。“我永远也不会把它转租给陌生人、或是把它交给想长住的人。”她说。Through Airbnb, she corresponds with prospective guests to discover their interests and expectations, then s reviews from previous hosts to check their form. “I need to know they will respect the national park and aren’t here to use the island to party on,” she says. This choosiness, and the fact that she will only take guests for a week or more, cuts down her rental periods. But like many of today’s premium home-sharers, her motivation is social as well as financial.借助Airbnb,她与有意承租者取得联系,了解对方的兴趣爱好及期望值,再通过浏览以往招租房主的评价掌握其实际为人。“我得弄清楚对方是否尊重国家公园的相关规定,租住小岛是不是用于操办聚会。”她说。她的挑剔、再加上其容许的出租期只有一周左右,从而减少了她的总租赁时间。但与当今诸多豪宅共享者一样,她的动机是社会与经济目的兼而有之。Laurent also likes the company. A scion of a large French family — he won’t give his surname — he lets his sumptuous 4,300 sq ft Louis XVI-period spare apartment in Paris. Extra income for maintenance is handy, he says, but his guests, and their generous reviews, are what he gets excited about. He’ll give tours of the house, explaining which family castle features in this painting, which French king once sat in that armchair and when that celebrity came to stay. For between 650 and 1,000 per night, depending on the season, he’ll throw in a few of his own staff of “cleaners, driver, guardian and cooks”.不愿透露自己姓氏的法国某望族传人洛朗(Laurent)也喜欢与人为伴,他对外招租的是自家位于巴黎、始建于路易十六时期(Louis XVI)、面积达4300平方英尺的空置豪宅。这些贴补维修费的额外收入唾手可得,他说,入住客户以及对方的溢美之词同样让他很是受用。他通常会带客人走马观花一番,向对方讲述家族藏画中画的是哪座家族城堡、自家扶椅坐过哪位法王陛下、以及哪位名流曾下榻此处。每晚租金介于650-1000英镑之间,具体数额视季节而定,他还会免费安排自己的“清洁工、司机、保安以及厨师”来此务。Visitors during Paris Fashion Week can hobnob with models and celebs at one of his exclusive parties. Younger members of the home-sharing revolution pick their guests with more specific aims in mind. Ben James, who is 26 and “predominantly single”, rents out one or both rooms in his Mayfair penthouse, which includes a huge roof terrace. He’d probably pass on a request from a family with young children, he says, “but two young ladies over in London for a party fit more with my lifestyle”. Family in the area means that he can move out briefly if a long booking doesn’t quite sync with his own travel plans; at 700 per night, a three-week stay is, he points out, “a decent chunk of change”.巴黎时装周期间,游客可在洛朗组织的高档聚会上与参会的名模、名流进行亲密互动。私宅共享浪潮中的年轻一代挑选租客时目的性更为具体。26岁的本礠姆斯(Ben James)崇尚独身,他把自己伦敦梅费尔区(Mayfair)顶层公寓(带有面积很大的露台)的一两个房间对外招租。他通常愿意租给带有小孩的家庭租住,他说,“但是,两位住在伦敦的年轻姑娘若是合伙租住,则更符合我的生活方式”。他自己的家庭就在附近,如果长期出租与自己的出游计划相冲突,他可以短时搬出去住;他说:每晚700英镑的租金,若是租上三周,自己就有了“一大笔零花钱”。James was probably never shy, but others have taken a while to get comfy with the concept of house sharing.詹姆斯也许无所顾忌,但有些人真正接受私宅共享理念则需假以时日。Prime Airbnb listings surged last year when the firm hiked its insurance policy from 50,000 — about enough to cover a vase in some London homes — to 1m. Owners can add their own deposit requirements and checking procedures. In 10 years Laurent has lost only a Bose sound system and a few bottles of champagne from the cellar.去年,当Airbnb把保险赔偿费从5万英镑(刚够赔偿伦敦某些豪宅中的一只花瓶)猛增至100万英镑后,到Airbnb网招租的豪宅数大幅飚升。户主还可以要求添加定金要求以及增加核对程序。10年来,洛朗只丢过一套Bose音响系统以及几瓶窑藏香槟。Many rich users once avoided posting photos on their Airbnb profiles for fear of friends thinking they were hard up, says Gremillon. All that has changed: “now it’s cool to be part of the sharing economy; it’s something for people to talk about over dinner parties.” Some have been led by tech savvy kids, who grew up holidaying on strangers’ sofas via couchsurfing.com, and now rent or sublet their homes on even the shortest trips. Others have been lured by sites that take the hassle out of the rental process in exchange for keeping a share — typically up to half — of what guests are charged. At Onefinestay and LuxuryRetreats, after a rental price is agreed all the owner must do is decide whether to accept or reject subsequent bookings. Onefinestay ships in linen, towels and toiletries, and uses aircraft-style tamper tape seals to signal to guests which rooms or draws are off limits.很多有钱的房主曾竭力避免把豪宅照片上传至Airbnb网页,因为担心亲朋好友会误以为自己手头拮据,格雷米翁说。但此一时、彼一时也:“如今成为共享经济的一分子很潮很酷;它俨然成了各种饭局的谈资。”如今的技术男成了引领潮流者,他们从小到大随家人度假时,每次都睡在陌生人家(通过couchsurfing.com网承租)的沙发床。如今他们即便短途出游,往往把自家房子出租或转租于他人。其他人则被许诺简化招租程序的网站吸引,对方开出的条件是租金分成(通常达一半)。在Onefinestay及LuxuryRetreats,租金谈妥后,房主只需决定是否接受随后的房屋招租。Onefinestay备好床单、毛巾以及化妆品、并使用飞机上的密件启封方式向客人标示哪些房间与区域禁止进入。A few users with posh pads may not be super-rich. Lower-income European aristocrats are increasingly employing Airbnb to rent outbuildings on their estates, helping to fix leaking roofs, says Gremillon.有些豪宅户主可能并非富豪。越来越多的低收入欧洲旧贵族借助Airbnb网把自家豪宅的附属房屋对外出租,以赚取屋顶渗漏维修费用,格雷米翁说。Others are cash-strapped enthusiasts. Alain Etienne Marcel did a deal with the French town of St Malo, where he lives, to restore a 17th-century fort off the coast in return for a 99-year lease on the property. When he had returned some of the rooms to their original condition, he started to take bookings through Airbnb for up to ㄠ,600 per night. The revenue funds the rest of the work and helps pay for public visits to the fort, his original motivation for the project.其它热衷对外招租的豪宅则是因为资金短缺。阿兰縠节覄氠庚尔(Alain Etienne Marcel)与法国小镇圣马洛(St Malo,他如今居住于此)签订协议,他帮助修复一座17世纪的海滨要塞,条件是自己获得要塞99年的租用期。他把某些房间原样修复后,就开始通过Airbnb网接受客户预订,每晚租金高达1600欧元。收入用于未竟的修复工程以及贴补公众参观的费用(这是他最初的动因)。The new home-sharing economy also offers a radical solution to the fraught uncertainties of relocation.全新的共享经济还给充满变数的异地安家提供了根本出路。When tech entrepreneurs Leila Zegna and her husband were planning a move from San Francisco to London last autumn, they compiled a shortlist of six central London neighbourhoods. Rather than gamble with a year-long lease in an area they might not like, they used Onefinestay to find three-week home rentals in each of the six areas. The company provided a list of suitable homes and arranged each stay; the couple arrived to a welcome from an agent and a mobile phone preloaded with the owner’s local tips, from restaurants to dry cleaners. Zegna estimates that the rental cost was just 15 per cent more than that of a long-term let. “It was a great adventure: we were incredibly mobile, living out of a suitcase and exploring each neighbourhood every night after work and at weekends,” she says, adding that global firms should follow her lead to make foreign postings more appealing.去年秋天,当科技创业者莱拉瀠尼亚(Leila Zegna)伉俪计划从旧金山搬至伦敦时,他们最终圈定了伦敦市中心的6处住宅区。他们没有选择在一个小区长租一年(他俩不太喜欢),转而通过Onefinestay网在每个小区各租住三周时间。网络租赁公司提供了几家候选家庭,并妥善安排好了一切入住事宜;夫妻俩每到一处,就有中介公司迎接他们,手机中预装了房主提供的本地务信息(从餐馆到干洗店)。杰尼亚估计租金只比长期租住多出15%。“这是妙不可言的经历:我们来去自如,只需拿个手提箱,每晚下班后以及周末,我们就会在每个小区寻芳探幽一番。”她说,并补充说跨国公司应该积极效仿其做法,如此一来员工驻外肯定争先恐后。Growth in demand for prime home rentals has been driven by the changing tastes of super-rich holidaymakers. Since the financial crisis, a shift from ostentatious consumption to sustainable localism — eccentric cafés and hidden farmers’ markets — has seen affluent travellers swap design hotels for homestays, says Mindy Ewing of Virtuoso, a premium travel agent that sources many of their properties through high-end sharing sites.高端住宅租赁需求增长的动因是外出度假的富豪品味发生了变化。自金融危机以来,从炫富性消费到对风土习俗(怪异的咖啡屋与出世农民的集市)持久偏爱的转变,让不差钱的游客弃住豪华酒店、转而选择农家旅舍,来自高端旅行社Virtuoso的明迪尤因(Mindy Ewing)说,Virtuoso通过豪宅分享网站淘选了许多适合招租的房屋。Frequent business travellers are also a growing market. When 49-year-old Paul Watts was working in San Francisco for a British software firm, he chose home rentals for the half dozen annual trips he made back to London, often with his wife. Now living in London again, they use the site for trips to the Paris office. “It enables us to feel like we have a work-home balance when I’m working abroad; it has been a life-changer,” he says.经常出差者的市场需求也是水涨船高。49岁的保罗瓦茨(Paul Watts)曾在旧金山为一家英国软件公司上班,每年回英国几次,都是与妻子租房住。如今返回伦敦居住后,他俩到巴黎分公司出差时,常常通过租房网站租房住。“我在国外出差时,租房住可以让我们感觉工作与居家两不误;它一直是改变生活的大功臣。”他这样说道。The same appetite for local immersion has driven growth in internet-enabled home swaps. These include HomeExchange.com, or the smaller, plusher, 3rdhome.com, which is a sort of a car club for holiday homes. Once accepted, members pledge their homes, specifying the dates they are willing to let them out; in return they get credits equivalent to the swankiness of their home and the desirability of the time slots they are offering. These they can spend by booking other homes.游客希望能深度入乡随俗,导致网上私宅互换居住行为不断增多。这其中就包括了HomeExchange.com网以及规模更小、也更为奢华的3rdhome.com等网站,后者属于专为度假家庭务、类似汽车俱乐部的网站。一旦接受协议,签约成员必须严守承诺,明确自家愿意出租的时段;作为回报,他们就获得与自家奢华程度以及可供出租时段相对应的信用分,自己预租别人家的房子时可当现金使用。The benefits of home swapping are financial — there’s no income from your guests, so no tax to pay — and fantastical — a steady supply of offers from homeowners in Brazil and the Bahamas to swap with your Kensington duplex will feed daydreams to brighten up the rainiest London workday.私宅互换既能带来经济好处(入住客人并不付房费,因此无须额外付税),也能让美梦成真——巴西与巴哈马的房主源源不断要求与诸位位于伦敦肯辛顿(Kensington)的复式住宅互换居住,此举能让上班的伦敦人浮想联翩,一扫城市阴雨绵绵的天气。As well as the boom in top-end rentals, sites to cater for a range of specialist owners are springing up thick and fast. In the land of the free and home share of the brave, Ryan Galiotto co-founded Kinkbnb.com when one of his friends was barred from a major US home rental site for including pictures of her fully equipped sex dungeon. Back in East Hampton, Solomon may be leading fellow baby boomers into a new dawn of technology-enabled home rental, but that is one site that he won’t be using to list his island.除了豪宅招租激增外,专为各色专用房主务的网站也如雨后春笋般涌现。在崇尚自由、私宅共享的英国,瑞恩加廖托(Ryan Galiotto)一位好友的招租私宅因包含“设施一应俱全”的性地牢照片而被美国某知名家租网站拒之门外,于是愤而与人合办了Kinkbnb.com网站。再次说说东汉普顿,所罗门也许正把同年龄段的婴儿潮一代人(baby boomer)带入科技为依托的家租新时代,但他不会在上述网站上招租自家的小岛豪宅。 /201509/401122

Richard Dowling and Cormac Gollogly have been together for 12 years, engaged for five, and on Tuesday were finally able to marry when they became the first gay couple to wed in Ireland following a landmark referendum.理查德·道林和科马克·格劳格里在一起12年,订婚已有5年。在一次具有里程碑意义的全民公投之后,两人终于在本周二成婚,成为第一对在爱尔兰结婚的同性恋人。Ireland in May became the first country to adopt gay marriage via a popular vote. The backing of the measure by 62 percent of voters signalled a major change in what was once a strongly Catholic and socially conservative society.爱尔兰于今年五月进行了直接投票,成为第一个通过直接投票方式确定同性婚姻合法的国家。爱尔兰曾经是天主教氛围浓厚、社会风气保守的国家,而这一举措的持者占62%,标志着其社会的重大改变。After an unsuccessful legal challenge delayed the first weddings, Ireland officially recognised same-sex marriages starting this week, and the couple tied the knot in the southern town of Clonmel early on Tuesday morning.对法律挑战的失败使得这对新人的第一次婚礼被迫延迟,之后,爱尔兰官方承认同性婚期自本周起有效,这对恋人已于周二清晨在爱尔兰南方城镇克朗梅尔结婚了。;We are really delighted to be able to do it. Having a full marriage was important to us so now we can relax and get old together,; Dowling, 35, told the Irish Times who posted a of the couple exchanging their vows on its website.《爱尔兰时报》将二人交换誓言的视频发布到了网站上。“能结婚真是太开心了。对于我们来说,拥有一个完整的婚姻十分重要,而现在我们可以松一口气,白头偕老了,”35岁的道林对《爱尔兰时报》如此说道。Mary-Claire Heffernan, the wedding registrar who pronounced the newly weds husband and husband, said they were the first same-sex marriage couple to be married in Ireland.婚礼登记员玛丽-克莱尔·赫弗南宣布两位新婚者互为丈夫,并称他们是第一对在爱尔兰结婚的同性恋人。Ireland#39;s ;Yes; vote in May has had a profound effect on the country#39;s gay community with couples holding hands now a common sight in Dublin while gay politicians have become national celebrities.爱尔兰这次公投的通过对于该国同性恋群体有着深远影响,在都柏林,手牵手的同性恋人现在很常见,同性恋政客亦可以成为国家名人。Ireland followed several Western European countries including Britain, France and Spain in allowing gay marriage, which is also legal in South Africa, Brazil, Canada and the ed States, while homosexuality remains taboo and often illegal in many parts of Africa and Asia.包括英国、法国和西班牙在内的一些西欧国家已经承认同性恋婚姻,爱尔兰紧随其后。同性恋婚姻在南非、巴西、加拿大和美国同样合法,但在非洲和亚洲的大部分地区却仍是禁忌且不合法。 /201511/410794The Republic of China中华民国Second Revolution二次革命In April, Yuan secured the Reorganization Loan of twenty-five million pound sterling from Great Britain, France, Russia, Germany and Japan, without consulting the parliament first.1913年4月,袁世凯在没有与议会讨论的情况下,向英、法、俄、德、日五国筹措了二千五百万英镑的“善后大借款”。The loan was used to finance Yuan’s Beiyang Army.这笔借款用于扩充北洋军费。On May 20, Yuan concluded a deal with Russia that recognized special Russian privilege in Outer Mongolia and restricted Chinese right to station troops there.5月20日,袁世凯与俄罗斯达成了协议,承认俄在外蒙古的特权,并限制中国驻军权。Kuomintang members of the Parliament accused Yuan of abusing his rights and called for his removal.议会中的国民党成员指责袁世凯滥用权力,要求他辞职。On the other hand, the Progressive Party(进步党), which was composed of constitutional monarchists and supported Yuan, accused the Kuomintang of fomenting an insurrection.另一方面,由君主立宪主义者和袁世凯的持者组成的进步党,指责国民党煽动起义。Yuan then decided to use military action against the Kuomintang.袁世凯因此决定对国民党采取军事行动。In July of 1913 seven southern provinces rebelled against Yuan, thus began the Second Revolution(二次革命).1913年7月,南方7省起义反抗袁世凯统治,掀开了二次革命的序幕。There were several underlying reasons for the Second Revolution besides Yuan’s abuse of power.除了袁世凯滥用权力外,还有一些潜在的原因导致了二次革命。First was that many Revolutionary Armies from different provinces were disbanded after the establishment of the Republic of China, and many officers and soldiers felt that they were not compensated for toppling the Qing Dynasty.第一是各省革命军在民国成立后被解散,很多军官和士兵觉得自己并未得到推翻清政府的好处。Thus, there was much discontent against the new government among the military.因此,军中对于新政府有很多不满。Secondly, many revolutionaries felt that Yuan Shikai and Li Yuan-hong were undeserving of the posts of presidency and vice presidency, because they acquired the posts through political maneuvers, rather than participation in the revolutionary movement.第二是许多革命者觉得袁世凯和黎元洪作为总统和副总统不够格,他们通过政治手段获得职位,而非参与革命。And lastly, Yuan’s use of violence (such as Song’s assassination), dashed Kuomintang’s hope of achieving reforms and political goals through electoral means.最后一点是袁世凯对于暴力的极端使用,例如暗杀宋教仁,粉碎了国民党通过选举实现改革和政治目的的希望。However, the Second Revolution did not fare well for the Kuomintang.然而,国民党领导的二次革命并不成功。The leading Kuomintang military force of Jiangxi was defeated by Yuan’s forces on August 1 and Nanchang was taken.8月1日,江西的国民党军被袁世凯军击败,南昌失守。On September 1, Nanjing was taken.9月1日,南京失守。When the rebellion was suppressed, Sun and other instigators fled to Japan.起义失败后,孙中山和其他组织者逃往日本。 /201512/412295Putin#39;s ex-wife Lyudmila has married a man 21 years her junior, according to reports in Moscow. The 58-year-old former Russian first lady appears on official records to have changed her name as if she is now the spouse of a known friend, dashing businessman Arthur Ocheretny, 37.据来自莫斯科的报道称,普京的前妻柳德米拉嫁给了一个比自己小21岁的男人。在官方记录中,58岁的前俄罗斯第一夫人已经更改了她的姓氏,如今她是一名知名人士的配偶,即37岁的、风度翩翩的商人亚瑟·奥切列德内。Putin and his wife announced their divorce in July 2013. Since then she all but disappeared from view while the Russian president forbids any questions about his private life although he made clear in 2014 that he was happy in his love life.2013年7月,普京与妻子宣布离婚。从那以后,她便从公众的视线里消失了。普京也拒绝回答任何关于他私生活的问题,尽管他在2014年曾明确表示,他生活得很幸福。Ocheretny is reported as heading the Centre For Interpersonal Communications and Literature Education publishing house in Moscow. His previous job was at a company called Art Show Centre, which organised parties for ed Russia - Putin#39;s political party - and energy giant Gazprom.据该报道称,奥切列德内是莫斯科人际交流中心和文学教育出版社的负责人。他以前曾在“艺术展示中心”公司工作,该公司曾为普京领导下的“统一俄罗斯党”效力,同时也与能源巨头俄罗斯天然气工业公司有着联系。Had she wed Ocheretny, this would be her married name. However, marriage records are not open to public scrutiny in Russia. Yet the pair have not been pictured together but they appear to be#39;friends#39; on social media.如果柳德米拉已经嫁给了奥切列德内,她就要改变她的姓氏。但是在俄罗斯,她的婚姻登记记录并不会向公众公开。此外,目前还没有两人在一起的合照,而且两人在社交媒体上仍是好友关系。The former first lady has been supporting Centre for development of interpersonal communication (CRMK) which is headed by 37-year-old Artur Ocheretny. Little is known of Ocheretny but he has a son aged around ten years old.这位前任第一夫人一直在赞助人际交流发展中心,而现在这个中心由37岁的亚瑟·奥切列德内领导。关于奥切列德的消息很少,除了获知他有一个10岁大的儿子。In 2014, Putin told Russians he would not contemplate remarrying until Lyudmila was happily betrothed.#39;First I have to see my ex-wife Lyudmila Alexandrovna married, and only then think about myself,#39; he told a televised question and answer session when asked about how long Russia would have to wait for a new first lady.2014年,普京曾告诉俄罗斯民众,除非柳德米拉开心得订婚,否则他不会考虑再婚。当电视访谈问道:俄罗斯多久之后将迎来新的第一夫人?普京答道:“首先我必须看到我的前妻柳德米拉结婚,然后我才会考虑自己,” /201601/424802

5.Drinking Alcohol Can Cause Birth Defects5.饮酒可导致新生儿先天性缺陷Alcohol can lead to birth defects. Pregnant women who drink put their unborn babies at risk for fetal alcohol syndrome. A woman is at risk of giving birth to a child with fetal alcohol syndrome if she drinks while pregnant.Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a condition that affects the developing fetus when alcohol passes through the placental barrier. Experts indicate that drinking alcohol while pregnant is the leading cause of birth defects and developmental disability in the U.S. About 40,000 babies are affected by FAS every year. The effects of fetal alcohol syndrome include physical and mental disabilities, learning difficulties, behavioral issues and lifelong impairments that prevent individuals from reaching their full potential.酒精可能引发新生儿的先天性缺陷。饮酒的妇,易使自己还未出生的宝宝患上胎儿酒精综合症。如果怀了还喝酒,那这就是把自己的孩子置于患上胎儿酒精综合症的危险之中。胎儿酒精综合症,是酒精透过胎盘屏障影响生长中的胎儿的一种情况。专家指出,在美国,妇饮酒是导致婴儿先天性缺陷和发育障碍最主要的原因。每年大概有40,000婴儿患有胎儿酒精综合症。胎儿酒精综合症的症状包括,生理和心理障碍,学习障碍,行为问题和终身残疾,这些都会影响一个人充分发挥其潜能。Children suffering from fetal alcohol syndrome often have abnormal facial characteristics, stunted growth, brain damage, organ defects, problems paying attention and poor coordination. These children are also experience poor coordination and limited fine motor and gross motor skills. Fetal alcohol syndrome not only impacts the affected child, it takes a toll on society with billions being spent each year on services for children with FAS. Even if a woman stops drinking when she learns of her pregnancy, can still have a baby with FAS. Alcohol can affect the developing fetus very early. That is why any sexually active woman of childbearing age who is not using birth control should avoid alcohol. There is no cure for fetal alcohol syndrome, once the damage is done to a child, he or she must suffer for life. Abstaining from alcohol is the best practice for any woman who is at a stage of life where she may become pregnant.患有胎儿酒精综合症的儿童,通常会有面部特征异常、发育迟缓、脑损伤、器官缺损、注意力不集中和肢体协调能力差等问题。这些孩子们还要经历协调性障碍,像难以完成的精细动作和一些大动作的技能。不仅仅是患有胎儿酒精综合症的儿童们受苦,社会每年还要付数十亿美元来为这些儿童患者务。即使饮酒的女性在得知她怀时停止摄入酒精,她生出的宝宝也有可能会患上胎儿酒精综合症。酒精能在很早的时候就对胎儿的发育产生不良影响。所以说,性行为频繁却未节育的育龄女性应该避免饮酒。胎儿酒精综合症现在还没有治愈的方法,一旦得了这种病,孩子必将一生受苦。戒酒对于育龄期女性来说,可谓明智之举。4.Drinking Alcohol Can Increase Aggression4.喝酒可能会引发暴力事件Alcohol is often a factor in physical and sexual violence. Alcohol should never be used as an excuse for violence and is not the underlying reason for this behavior. However drinking can and does contribute to family violence orviolence against women and children. In the home, a person who physically abuses his or her spouse can become more aggressive when alcohol is involved. The individual who perpetrates the violence feels less inhibited, which results in an escalation of violent behavior toward a spouse or children. This can result in actions such as hitting, kicking, shoving, verbal abuse or the use of weapons like knives or guns. Children who are sexually abused are often the helpless victims of drunken adults.酒精是引发身体暴力和性暴力中的一个因素。酒精不应该被当做是施行暴力的借口,而且它也不是引发暴力行为的根本原因。然而饮酒会促使家庭暴力的发生,或促使对妇女和儿童使用暴力。在家中,有家暴行为的人,饮酒后对配偶的暴力行为会加剧。醉酒者施行暴力会无所顾忌,从而引发对配偶和孩子的暴力行为升级。这也就导致了殴打、踢、推搡、言语辱骂和使用刀器械等暴力行为的发生。儿童常常会成为醉酒的成年人性虐待的无辜受害者。In these situations there may be a pattern of drinking and abuse that persists for years. Similarly alcohol is often a factor in violent acts toward other people including date rape and gang rape. Every year there are stories about young people being sexually assaulted by either trusted friends or strangers, and in many cases alcohol is a factor. On college campuses, a party where binge drinking occurs may lead to a student becoming vulnerable when he or she is observed as too drunk to be aware of what is happening. As a result one or more persons may decide to take advantage of the situation by having forced sex with the individual. When caught, the perpetrators try to make excuses such as ;she wanted it,; or he did not resist.; It is obvious that an individual who is drunk is not in a position to consent to sex nor to defend themselves in such a situation.酗酒和虐待已经存在好多年。同时酒精也是致使约会强奸和轮奸等暴力行为的一个诱因。每年都会有很多年轻人,遭受自己信任的朋友或是陌生人性侵犯的案件发生,多数情况下酒精就是引发这类案件的一个因素。在大学聚会中,当别人觉得你喝了太多酒时,其实酒精早已让你麻痹,对身边发生什么毫无知觉,容易成为受害者。从而可能诱发有些人会利用这一状况强迫他人发生性关系。当行凶者被抓时,他们会寻找借口说;是她想要做的;或;当时他根本就没有抵抗;。很显然,一个人在醉酒的情况下,根本不具备认同与他人发生性行为,或是自卫的能力。3.Drinking Alcohol can Lead to Fatal Vehicle Crashes3.酒驾会造成致命交通事故According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, in 2012, there were 10,000 people who died in alcohol related car crashes. Millions of people go to bars and attend social events where they drink heavily and then get in their cars and drive. The impaired judgment and invincibility that comes with drinking alcohol causes people to think that they can drive without problems. As a result, persons who drive while impaired end up in accidents where they injure or kill themselves and or others.根据美国国家公路交通安全统计,2012年有1万人死于酒驾事故。数以百万的人在酒吧或参加社交活动时大量饮酒,之后仍然继续开车。饮酒会使人的判断力降低,并产生无敌感,让人认为继续开车根本没有问题。因此,醉酒驾驶最终会引发事故,造成双方间的伤亡和伤残。Alcohol alters depth perception as well as the skills necessary for operating a vehicle safely. When turning onto a busy highway, a drunk driver may not be able to judge the distance of an oncoming car when turning onto a busy highway. He or she may exceed safe speeds, drive the wrong way or veer off the road into crowded spaces. All of these actions put lives at risk. Getting arrested for driving while alcohol impaired is the beginning of a lengthy criminal record for many who choose to drink and drive. Regardless of the circumstances, a driving while impaired charge has repercussions. Those who are caught drinking and driving spend time in jail and pay thousands in court cost and fees. Assuming that a drunk driver has not killed or maimed anyone, regaining the privilege to drive often requires paying more fees and excessively higher insurance premiums. A person arrested for driving while impaired may also regain only restricted driving privileges. The criminal record that comes with drunk driving can impact the ability to get a job, purchase a home and live as a responsible citizen, making it difficult for the individual to function as a respected member of society.酒精会彻底改变人知觉,以及安全驾驶所必须的技能。当车辆驶入车水马龙的高速公路时,酒驾的司机根本无法及时判断出迎面驶来的汽车的距离。他/她可能会超速驾驶、开错方向、驶离道路,开入拥堵区。这些行为都会危及到生命安全。一旦酒驾被记录在案,其他犯罪行为也会随之而来。无论什么情况下,酒驾都会带来严重的影响。酒驾的人被拘捕后会关在监狱里一段时间,同时还要向法院付数千美元的诉讼费用。如果酒驾司机没有造成人员伤亡和伤残,那么他可以继续驾驶,并且只需赔偿一些费用和额外高额的保险费。因酒驾被捕的人虽能重新获得驾驶的权利,但酒驾的犯罪记录会影响到当事人找工作、购买房屋和公民信用度,使他的声誉很难被社会认可。2.Drinking Alcohol is a Gateway to Other Drug Use2.酗酒是滥用其他毒品药品的;跳板;Alcohol is a known as a gateway drug. The term ;gateway; refers to a situation where people get introduced to substance abuse by first using drugs that are easy to get. Gateway drugs are usually inexpensive and are ily available. This is what makes alcohol the drug of choice for many young people who are seeking a quick high and although it is not legal for persons under 21 to purchase, it is not difficult for young people to get alcohol by paying older friends, using fake identification cards or sneaking drinks from a parent#39;s liquor cabinet or wine cellar.酒,被称为诱导性毒品。;诱导;,意指人们在第一次使用过比较容易得到的毒品之后,会导致滥用毒品的情况。诱导性毒品一般比较便宜且非常容易得到。这就是为什么很多寻找刺激的年轻人选择拿酒来消遣。虽然未满21岁的人购买酒是不合法的,但是对于年轻人来说使用假身份,或花钱找年长的人买酒这并不是什么难事,有些年轻人甚至会从橱柜或者酒窖中偷父母的酒。Young people who abuse alcohol are likely to abuse other drugs. The fact is that alcohol changes brain chemistry, leading to the desire for other drugs. Once young people get a taste of alcohol and become accustomed to the high from drinking, they often seek what they think is a better high through other drugs. Often when a young person takes his or her first drink, it is in an environment of recreational drug use where along with the alcohol, all types of drugs are available. These drugs may include marijuana, cocaine, meth as well as painkillers and other prescription drugs. As a result of combining these drugs with alcohol a young person may become addicted to several substances which begins a vicious cycle of addiction. In fact, some experts say that most young people between the ages of 12 and 17 who are heavy alcohol users also use illicit drugs. This is why it is imperative that young people not experiment with alcohol. One night of experimentation can lead to a lifetime of addiction.恶意酗酒的年轻人,极有可能滥用其他毒品药品。酒精会让大脑产生一种化学物质,会让人们有使用其他毒品药品的欲望。一旦年轻人喝过酒,并且习惯了喝完酒后的兴奋感,他们通常就会寻找那种通过使用其他毒品药品后带来的更加兴奋的感觉。通常人们第一次喝完酒后,就会处于酒精和毒品带来的快感之中,用完任何毒品都会有这种反应。这些毒品药品包括大麻,可卡因,冰毒,止痛药以及一些其他的处方药。年轻人把这些毒品药品和酒精混合使用,很可能会对其中的几种物质上瘾,并对依赖这些毒品药品陷入恶性循环。事实上,一些专家说,大多数12到17岁的对酒有严重依赖的年轻人,也违法使用毒品。这就是为什么年轻人要远离酒类,年轻人一旦沾酒,可能会终生上瘾。1.Drinking Alcohol Can Ruin Your Life1.酗酒会毁掉你的生活Alcohol is dangerous because it has the power to change a person#39;s life forever in the worst kind of way. The teenager who takes one drink on a dare and gets behind the wheel and has an accident where there are fatalities not only faces criminal charges, but may forgo any chance of attending college and enjoying the privileges and opportunities that come with being a carefree young adult. There are many former recovering alcoholics who live each day on the edge because they are afraid that the will relapse and start drinking again.酒精非常危险,它可能以残酷的方式永远改变人们的生活。那些斗胆酗酒,并且酒驾发生车祸的青少年,最终不仅会面对刑事处罚,而且可能失去上大学的机会,失去享受基本权利的机会,失去一个无忧无虑的大学生该有的各种机会。有很多已戒酒的酗酒者,整天忧心忡忡,因为他们害怕有一天意志垮掉,继续酗酒。When an alcoholic is willing to work hard at it, treatment can be successful, however, every day requires the recovering alcoholic to focus on one thing—not taking a drink. Not taking a drink when one is an alcoholic is in some cases like not being able to eat when hungry. This is how dangerously powerful alcohol is and no one is immune to its effects. Imagine drinking for several years, deciding to quit and being successful at staying sober. You rebuild your life, meet and marry a supportive spouse. You have a home, lovely children, a decent paying job and all seems to be going well. One day someone comes into your home and assaults you and your family to the appoint where you need hospitalization, burns down your home, steals your identity and runs up thousands of dollars of bills in your name. You are devastated. All that you have worked so hard for is now in shambles. That is the effect that deciding to take one drink can have on the alcoholic who for whatever reason decides to return to drinking. Once again after so much hard work to rebuild his or her life, the dangerous power of alcohol leaves the alcoholic#39;s life and the life of his or her loved one#39;s in shambles. Anyone who does not consume alcohol is better off leaving alcoholic beverages alone. Most people who start drinking think they have the knowledge and will power to limit the amount they drink. It is true that some people take a drink now and then and never encounter any of the earlier discussed problems. However no one knows for sure how he or she will react to that first drink. The result could be that one drink leads to a fatal accident or other life altering encounter. The first drink is often the gateway to the use of other harmful substances. There are people who are more prone to addiction than others due to genetics or other reasons. However sense no one knows prior to taking that first drink what the outcome will be, before experimenting with alcohol, the following questions should be asked? ;Is this something I can live without, and am I willing to risk throwing my entire future away for a swig of an alcoholic beverage?;当一个酗酒者决定戒酒时,治疗会起作用。然而,这就需要他们每天集中精力做一件事——不酗酒。对于一个酗酒者来说,让他滴酒不沾,就像是让饿了的人不吃饭一样。这就是酒精的魔力所在,并且很少有酗酒者能够自已。试想一下:酗酒多年后,决定戒酒,并且能够时刻保持清醒;你重塑了生活,遇见相伴左右的配偶并与之结婚;你有自己的家庭,有可爱的孩子,有体面的工作,一切看起来都是那么称心如意。但突然有一天,一个人来到你家,袭击你和你的家人,致使你们需要住院治疗;烧毁了你的家,毁坏你的声誉,夺走你名下大把的钱。你遭受到了毁灭性的打击。这一切你努力得来的现在都已化为泡影。这些后果,都是决定戒酒后,又重新酗酒的酗酒者会遇到的情况。通过不懈努力重塑生活后,酒精的强大威力,又会使酗酒者及其深爱的家人的生活苦不堪言。不喝酒的人,最好远离含有酒精的饮料。很多尝试喝含酒精饮料的人认为,他们有能力和毅力掌控好喝酒的度。不排除一些人喝酒只是偶然现象,他们也不会遇到任何一种之前所提到的问题。然而没人能确定喝酒的人接下来的行为——结果可能会是,因喝一次酒而发生致命的事故,或者其他会使生活出现大变故的事情。饮酒行为通常会成为使用其他有害物质的诱导因素。有一些人由于遗传或者其他的原因,比其他人更容易上瘾。然而,既然没人知道喝酒所带来的后果是什么,在喝酒前,应该考虑以下问题:没有酒,我能生存吗?我是否愿意用我的未来做赌注,来大饮特饮这些含酒精饮料?审校:假微信 编辑:Freya然 来源:前十网 /201602/428051

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