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Text Writing research reports for college or work is often found far more difficult than it need so be. The following article offers some excellent advice on how to make the task easier and the report more impressive and effective. Whether you write a research report for a college professor or for a demanding boss in your profession, the author's advice will put you well on your way to becoming a skillful report writer. RESEARCH REPORTS FOR BUSINESS AND THECNICAL WRITING Wayne Losano A surprising amount of one's time as a student and professional is spent reporting the results of one's research projects for presentation to teachers, managers, and clients. Indeed, without basic research skills and the ability to present research results clearly and completely, an individual will encounter many obstacles in school and on the job. The need for some research-writing ability is felt nearly equally by college students in all fields, engineering and science as well as business and the humanities. Graduate study often makes great demands on the student's research-writing skills, and most professions continue the demand; education, advertising and marketing, economics and accounting, science and engineering, psychology, anthropology, the arts, and agriculture may all require regular reporting of research data. ELEMENTS OF THE RESEARCH PAPER The standard research report, regardless of the field or the intended er, contains four major sections. These sections may be broken down into a variety of subsections, and they may be arranged in a variety of ways, but they regularly make up the core of the report. Problem Section. The first required section of a research report is the statement of the problem with which the research project is concerned. This section requires a precise statement of the underlying question which the researcher has set out to answer. In this same section there should be an explanation of the significance -- social, economic, medical, psychological, educational, etc. -- of the question; in other words, why the investigation was worth conducting. Thus, if we set out, for example, to answer the question "What is the effect of regular consumption of fast foods on the health of the American teenager?" we must explain that the question is thought to have significant relevance to the health of this segment of the population and might lead to some sort of regulations on such foods. A frequent subsection of this problem section is a review of past research on the topic being investigated. This would consist of summaries of the contributions of previous researcher to the question under consideration with some assessment of the value of these contributions. This subsection has rhetorical usefulness in that it enhances the credibility of the researcher by indicating that the data presented is based on a thorough knowledge of what has been done in the field and, possibly, grows out of some investigative tradition. Procedures Section. The second major section of the research report details, with as much data as possible, exactly how the study was carried out. This section includes description of any necessary equipment, how the subjects were selected if subjects were used, what statistical technique was used to evaluate the significance of the findings, how many observations were made and when, etc. An investigation of the relative effectiveness of various swim-strokes would have to detail the number of swimmers tested, the nature of the tests conducted, the experience of the swimmers, the weather conditions at the time of the test, and any other factors that contributed to the overall experiment. The goal of the procedures section is to allow the er to duplicate the experiment if such were desired to confirm, or refute, your findings. Results Section. The third, and perhaps most important, section of the research report is the presentation of the results obtained from the investigation. The basic rule in this section is to give all data relevant to the research question initially asked. Although, of course, one's natural tendency might be to suppress any findings which do not in some way support one's hypothesis, such dishonesty is antithetical to good research reporting in any field. If the experiments undertaken fail to prove anything, if the data was inadequate or contrary to expectations, the report should be honestly written and as complete as possible, just as it would be if the hypothesis were totally proven by the research. Discussion Section. The final required section of a research report is a discussion of the results obtained and a statement of any conclusions which may be drawn from those results. Of primary interest in business and technical research reports is the validity of the results as the bases for company decisions: Will our planned construction project meet federal environmental guidelines and be approved for building? Will this new program attract skilled personnel to our company? Will this new oil recovery technique be financially feasible? Thus, the discussion section of the research report must evaluate the research results fully: were they validly obtained, are they complete or limited, are they applicable over a wide range of circumstances? The discussion section should also point out what question remain unanswered and perhaps suggest directions for further research. STYLE OF RESEARCH REPORTS Research reports are considered formal professional communication. As such, there is little emphasis on a lively style, although, of course, there is no objection to writing that is pleasing and interesting. The primary goals of professional communication are accuracy, clarity, and completeness. The rough draft of any research report should be edited to ensure that all data is correctly presented, that all equipment is listed, that all results are properly detailed. As an aid to the er, headings indicating at least the major section of the report should be used, and all data should be presented under the proper headings. In addition to their function of suggesting to the er the contents of each section, headings enhance the formal appearance and professional quality of the report, increase to some degree the writer's credibility by reflecting a logical and methodical approach to the reporting process, and eliminate the need for wordy transitional devices between sections. Research data should be presented in a way that places proper emphasis on major aspect of the project. For different ers different aspects will take on different degrees of importance, and some consideration should be given to structuring research reports differently for different audiences. Management, for example, will be most concerned with the results of a research project, and thus the results section should be emphasized, probably by presenting it immediately after the problem section and before the procedures section. Other researchers would be most interested in the procedures section, and this should be highlighted in writing up research projects for publication in professional journals or for presentation at professional conferences. For non-technical ers and federal agencies, the implications of the results might be the most important consideration, and emphasis should be placed on the discussion of the report for this ership. For additional clarity and emphasis, major results should be presented in a visual format -- tables, charts, graphs, diagrams -- as well as in a verbal one. Beyond checking the report for clarity and accuracy in the presentation of technical data, the author of a research report should review for basic grammatical and mechanical accuracy. Short sentences are preferable to long in the presentation of complex information. Listings should be used to break up long passages of prose and to emphasize information. The research writer should try to use the simplest possible language without sacrificing the professional quality of the report. Although specialized terms can be used, pretentious jargon should be avoided. A finished research report should be able and useful document prepared with the er in mind. CONCLUSION Although we struggle with research reports in high school, d them in college, and are often burdened by them in our professional live, learning to live comfortably with them is a relatively easy task. A positive attitude (i.e. one that seem the oral or written presentation of research results as of equal importance to the data-gathering process); an orderly approach which includes prewriting (i.e., before any actual research is done, the researcher should try to get down on paper as much about the subject under investigation as possible) and a formal research report structure as the framework for the investigation; and a reasonable approach to the actual writing process including editing for accuracy and clarity, will help one to produce effective research reports efficiently. NEW WORDS presentation n. the act of presenting; a talk, usu. to a group of people 提出,呈递;介绍,报告 client n. a person who gets help or advice from a professional, e.g. a lawyer, an accountant, an architect, etc.; a person who buys goods or services 委托人,当事人,顾客 obstacle n. sth. which prevents action, movement or success marketing n. the branch of business concerned with advertising, publicity, etc. 营销 economics n. the science that deals with money, goods and services and how they are related to each other 经济学 accounting n. the art, practice or system of keeping, analyzing and interpreting business accounts 会计学 anthropology n. the scientific study of man, including his physical characteristics, the origin and development of races, and the cultures, customs and beliefs of mankind 人类学 data n. facts; information element n. a basic part of which sth. is made up intend vt. have in mind as a goal; plan precise a. clearly expressed; exact; accurate significance n. importance; meaning economic a. connected with trade, industry and the management of money; of economics consumption n. the act of consuming or an amount consumed 消费(量) teenager n. a young person of between 13 and 19 year old relevance n. importance or significance to the matter at hand relevant a. segment n. a part into which a whole is or can be divided; section regulation n. a law or a set of rules by which sth. is regulated investigate v. examine carefully in a search for facts, knowledge, or information investigative a. summary n. a short statement of the main points of a report, etc. consideration n. careful thought assessment n. the act of calculating or deciding the value or amount; the value or amount at which sth. is calculated rhetorical a. in using a style designed to impress or persuade 修辞(学)的 enhance vt. make greater; improve 增加,提高 thorough a. complete in all respects tradition n. ideas, customs, beliefs that have been passed down from generation to generation Article/200802/263482015新学年第一周,天津大学学生拿到手的选课手册上,赫然列着一门《恋爱学理论与实践》的课程。开课单位是校团委,两个学分,将于寒假过后的下学期开课,累计32个学时。对此,有已毕业的校友感慨“我上学的时候怎么没赶上好时候”。更有网友表示:“上一门课,不仅提升自己的交际空间,还能获得心仪对象,得课如此,复何求哉!”但也有网友称此举有点“不务正业”。【新闻】请看《中国日报》的报道The increasingly skewed sex ratio in China not only worries the parents of marriageable young people, but also their schools. Tianjin University in northern China has defied traditional Chinese conservatism by offering its students a dating course.中国性别比例失衡日益严重,这不仅令适婚年龄的年轻人父母担心,同时也令学校感到担心。因此中国北部的天津大学打破中国传统的保守主义,为学生提供恋爱课程。【讲解】skewed sex ratio是性别比例失衡;a dating course是恋爱课程。天津大学开设的《恋爱学理论与实践》课程的授课者不是教师,而是天津大学学生社团(student community)“鹊桥会”,两个学分(credits),将于寒假(winter vacation)过后的下学期开课,累计32个学时(class hours),专注于交友(friend-making)和约会(dating)。这一课程将教授理论和实践技巧(theory and practical skills),包括社交礼仪培训(social etiquette training)与恋爱沙龙(dating salon)实践,提高语言表达能力(language expression ability)与待人接物的能力。与普通课程不同,天大“恋爱课”的学生成绩分为随堂笔记和期末舞台剧(stage play)展示两部分。舞台剧围绕恋爱为主题开展,组队独立创作,只要创意(creativity)足够就有高分。因为课程带有课外实践性质,并没有死板标准,甚至还有丰厚的额外奖励(bonus)——“将课程里面习得的知识学以致用(apply what they learned to real dating),交到了一个好的对象,可以酌情给满分(full marks)。 /201509/400187beat the drum(s)热烈持A:Which school is your child in?A: 你的小孩现在在哪儿上学?B: She is now in a private school.B:一家私立学校。A: Oh, it costs too much. It#39;s more expensive than the public school.A: 噢,那收费很高,比公立学校贵得多。B: It#39;s the idea of my husband. He is always banging the drum for better schools.B:这是我丈夫的主意。他老是一味鼓吹好学校,好教育。A: But the private schools don#39;t amount to better schools.A: 可私立学校并不等于就是好学校。 /201511/394573台湾籍旅美老师今天交给我们的句子是:But it turns out high birth rates and the population explosion are not permanent features of some cultures or countries. But rather a part of a four-step process the whole world is going through, The demographic transition. Most developed countries have aly made the transition, while other countries are doing it right now.但结果发现:高出生率及人口爆炸对于某些文化或国家来说并不是永久的现象,这现象仅只是整个世界所经历的四阶段程序的其中一个阶段:人口分布的改变。大部分的发达国家都已经历过,而其他国家只是正在经历这个阶段罢了。学习重点:1.population 人口population (n.) 人口populate (v.) 居住于2.explosion 爆炸explosion (n.) 爆炸explode (v.) 爆炸3.permanent 永久的permanent (adj.) 永久的4.demographic 人口统计的demographic (adj.) 人口统计的5.transition 过渡、转移transition (n.) 过渡、转移transit (n.) 运输、输送 /201706/514082

大家好!今天我们来看一看怎么用美语来聊“奶酪的种类”?Parmesan 帕尔玛干酪mozzarella 马苏里拉奶酪blue cheese 蓝奶酪 /201507/386320

What#39;s the rush?你急什么呀? /201606/447512

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