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2019年10月15日 21:34:08|来源:国际在线|编辑:天涯中文
NASAs SDO Solar Dynamics Observatory has captured stunning new images of the sun. The never seen before images show materials streaming outward fromsunspotsincluding a large wave travelling across the sun, known as thecoronalmassejection.美国国家航空宇宙航行局的SDO太阳动力学观测台拍摄到了新的太阳影像。图像显示有大量物质从太阳黑子扩散出来,这被称为日冕物质抛射。The rich detail of the high-resolution allows scientists to examine close details of activity on the suns surface within colorful plumes of rising smoke.高分辨率的视频让科学家们看到了太阳表面的物质和烟尘,这使得科学家们进一步考察太阳成为可能。These thermal images provide the first high-resolution measurements of the sun at different temperatures. Every ten seconds, the SDO captures with a clarity ten times better than high-definition television. Itll be sending back information for the next five years that NASA says will have a huge impact on science and how the sun affects our daily lives in the earth.这些热感图片首次提供了太阳在不同温度下的高分辨率图像。每十秒钟,SDO会拍摄比高清晰度摄像机清晰10倍的图片。SDO在未来五年内将向地球传输大量重要影像,这可能有助于揭秘太阳活动对人类生活的影响。Andrew Peruson, Reuters.路透社Andrew Peruson报道。NASA美国国家航空和宇宙航行局,全称National Aeronautics and Space Administrationsunspot太阳黑子coronalmassejection日冕物质抛射注:本篇文章英文来自普特论坛,译文属原创,,。201206/186480Science and Technology科学与技术Materials science材料科学Stronger when stricken越敲越结实A new material that gets stiffer when it is stressed一种受外力时硬度提高的新材料ONE of the valuable properties of bone is that when it endures repeated stress it responds by becoming denser and stronger.骨头有一种很珍贵的属性,那就是当受到反复的击打时,其质地反而会变得更加紧密,坚硬度变得更高。A living material can do that.只有活性材料具备这种特征,A non-living one cannot.非活性材料则不具备。It has no way of adding the extra matter needed to provide the extra density.用添加必要物质来让材料获得更高密度的方法是不可行的,But it would help engineers a lot if non-living stuff could at least stiffen in response to stress—and that may now be possible.但如果非活性材料起码可以在外力作用下变得坚硬—目前达到这一点是可能的,Brent Carey, a graduate student at Rice University in Texas, thinks he has found a way to make it happen.那么这对工程师们来说有非常大的借鉴意义。布伦特凯利是一名德州莱斯大学的研究生,他认为他已找到了实现这一设想的办法。Mr Carey made his discovery when he was testing the properties of a material made of carbon nanotubes and a rubbery polymer called polydimethylsiloxane.凯利在测试一种材料的属性时有所发现,该材料的成分包含碳纳米管和一种名为聚二甲基硅氧烷的橡胶聚合物。He created this composite by growing a forest of nanotubes using hot hydrocarbon gases and an iron catalyst, and then filling the space between the tubes with the polymer.材料的合成过程是这样:首先,他使高温碳氢混合气体和铁催化剂相互作用产生密集的碳纳米管群,然后再用聚合物充填碳纳米管间的空隙。The surprise came when he discovered how his new material responded to repeated stress.当他注意到新材料受到连续作用力而产生反应时,令他惊讶的现象出现了。He found this did not cause any of the damaging fatigue that would be expected.据他观察,预期中的材料损毁性疲劳并未产生。Indeed, his initial inspection suggested the stuff was actually growing stiffer.实际上,他的初步监测显示材料变得更加坚硬了。Fascinated by this result, he took his finding to his supervisor, Pulickel Ajayan,这个结果让凯利喜出望外,他马上找到了自己的导师普里克尔阿贾扬,and they assembled a team to study the new material.随后他们成立了一个小组,专门研究这种新型材料。They gave the composite a real workout.他们给这种合成材料做了次实验:They compressed it five times a second for a week.对该材料施加5.5倍的压力,时间持续一周,That caused its stiffness to increase by 12%. Moreover,结果材料硬度提高了12%,并且这种状态没有减弱的迹象。the effect showed no sign of abating, which led them to suspect that if it were exposed to more stress it would grow stiffer still.研究小组由此设想,如果对其施以更大的作用力,这种材料的硬度是否会变得更高。Why this happens is still a mystery.产生这种效果的原因还是个谜。Mr Carey and his colleagues report in the American Chemical Societys journal Nano that heating the new material did not eliminate the response.凯利和他的同事们发表在美国化工科学院的期刊杂志《Nano》的文章中说,即使对这种新型材料加热,也不能消除已产生的变化。This suggests that the self-stiffening is not the result of chemical changes in the polymer, which can usually be undone by heat.这说明材料强度提高并不是聚合物发生化学反应造成的,一般这种变化在加热状态下是可逆的。The researchers do have one lead, though.不过研究人员已有所发现。Because of the regular alignment of the nanotubes, they were able to stress the material from various directions.由于碳纳米管呈规律状排列,他们能够从不同的方向对材料施加作用力。They found that when the direction of stress was at right-angles to the tubes, it stiffened by 5.9%.当施力方向与碳纳米管成直角时,材料硬度提高5.9%;When it was in the direction in which tubes were pointing, the increase was only 4.3%.当作用力与碳纳米管所指方向一致时,材料硬度仅提高4.3%。What that means is still unclear, but it may be the key to understanding the phenomenon—and thus being able to replicate it with other ingredients.现在尚无法对其中的原因作出解释,但或许对于理解材料硬度变化是非常重要的—进而在其他原材料身上复制这类变化也有了可能。 点击此处下载本期经济学人讲解PDF与音频字幕 /201304/233072Do you have a million dollar idea? With me now, as a woman you know as a singer too about turning ideas into multi-million dollar businesses.你想成为百万富翁吗?作为一位女人,也作为一名歌手,我现在就告诉你怎样把想法变成百万美金?This was Lauren Granners first idea, a clear plastic jewelry organizer that holds a hundred pairs of earings, keeps them form tangling.这就是劳伦,格瑞娜第一个创意。她是透明塑胶饰品的创始人,她有上百对耳环,她从来不让它们闲着。Now as a host on Q, Lauren is selling hundreds of her new creations and has become a five hundred million dollar brand.作为Q的主持人,劳伦销售了许多她自己设计的饰品。她目前拥有价值5亿美元的品牌。Laurens also a judge on As shark tank where she coaches Americas aspiring entrepreneurs.劳论也担任A节目shark tank的评委,在那里她培训有抱负的企业家。Iaurenve been in a shopping world, shopping channel world for 15 years.劳伦已经在购物圈摸爬滚打了15年。You talk like its nothing. Most people fail. They go on.你可能会觉得没什么。很多人跌到了,又爬起来。Not me, I dont fail.不是我,我没有失败。Yeah, you will fail.是呀,但你总会失败的。And shes honest.Thats where we love. Lauren welcome to the program.劳伦很诚实,所以我们爱她。欢迎来到我们节目,劳伦。Great to be here.很高兴来这里。Whats the bridge between a really good idea and a profitable business?There has to be something between those two.那么,连接好的想法和赚钱的桥梁是什么?两者之间肯定有联系。Well,I was gonna say therere lots of bridges in detours along the way. We really have to start out with a great idea.好吧,我要说的是,前进的路是曲折的,有许多桥等着你去跨越。开始的时候我们必须得有很棒的想法。And then you have to know all the things to do to get there.其次,我们还得清楚到达目的地所需的所有条件。Market research is really a good idea.Can I make it? Is it going to be good cost? Can I get it out there? Selling it?市场调查是个很好的方法。要调查你的想法是不是可行?执行起来要花多少钱?售货渠道又是什么?卖不卖得出去?There are so many bridges you have to cross, but I do feel that if you are strong and tenacious and you really do your homework and put it out there, you can get there.有很多事情要做,但是你得自信,觉得自己很强大很顽强。然后做好该做的功课,付出劳动,最后你就会成功。The idea in your gut instinct is the first thing and those are all those work to be done after that.And youve been called a super star inventor, what keeps your idea flowing?第一件事就是有想法,这得靠直觉,剩下的事情就是付诸行动。你曾被称作是发明家里的超级巨星,那么你源源不断的灵感来源于哪儿呢?Well,I think you born that way, I think I have an natural mind for creating product and ideas but then I also think Im very driven I really want to succeed,I want to make products makes peoples lives better.And that keeps me going.好吧,我认为这是天生的,我想我有创作和思考的天赋,而且我也很上进,我渴望成功。我想创造自己的产品,帮助人们提高生活质量,这也是我前进的动力。So the advice I guess for people what I call the DIY economy, do it yourself job market. Do it if theres ever been a time to start a business and take the idea that even kicking around for a long time and try to make it work. Its now, right?在我看来,DIY经济其实就是自由职业市场。自主创业的时代已经到来。即使要花很长时间让人们去接受你的想法,花很长时间才能成功,有想法现在就去做,是这样吗?It is now, I also think its any time. Because a good idea is a good idea.So whether its a down economy or an up economy or somewhere between,if you have a great idea and youre going to be passionate and put the hard work in you will get there.对,现在就行动,当然任何时候都不晚。因为好的想法就是好的想法。所以不管是在经济低迷还是繁荣,或者不好不坏的时候,你有了好的想法,就应该以热情的心态,坚强的意志和努力的奋斗来实现梦想。注:本文译文属原创,,!201205/180614

Finance and Economics;Funds of hedge funds;Going, going, gone?财经;综合基金;渐行渐去?An overdue wave of consolidation is hitting the funds-of-funds industry;迟到的兼并浪潮冲击着综合基金管理;“If one individual can serve as the embodiment of the hedge-fund industry—its entrepreneurial spirit, its youthful energy after decades of growth and its pursuit of the next great manager—it is Arpad “Arki” Busson.” So cooed the Financial Times in 2006. Now Mr Busson seems to have become the embodiment of his industrys struggles. On May 29th reports surfaced that Mr Busson is seeking to sell EIM, his fund of hedge funds, which manages 6.2 billion dollar, less than half of what it did in 2008.对冲基金这一行业极具创业精神,历经数十年的发展依然朝气蓬勃,而且始终积极寻找下一任出众的经理人。如果说某个人能体现出对冲基金的这些特点,那这个人非阿帕德·比松莫属。金融时报在2006年也有过这样的。如今比松先生摇身一变成为对冲基金坎坷发展的化身。5月29日有报道披露比松目前正与有关人士洽商出售其对冲基金EIM旗下的综合资金管理(FOF)部门,该部门经营着62亿美元的资产,不过这一数字与2008年相比萎缩了50%以上。Other funds of funds, which allocate investors money to a portfolio of different hedge funds, are also eyeing a sale. KKR, a private-equity firm, is in talks to buy Prisma Capital, a fund of funds. On May 21st Man Group, a listed hedge fund, announced it would buy FRM Holdings, an 8 billion dollar fund of funds, for up to 83m dollar. A small price tag, but some say Man is mad to pay even that.其他对不同对冲基金进行投资组合的综合基金也难逃被出售的命运。私募股本公司KKP正计划着收购替代投资管理公司Prisma Capital,全球知名的上市投资管理公司英仕曼集团5月21日也表示将以8300万美元的价格收购规模达80亿美元的FRM Holdings 。这个价钱并不高,但仍有些人说英仕曼付这笔钱简直是疯了。In return for extra fees, funds of funds are supposed to perform due diligence and select the best managers. But some of the industrys bright lights, including Mr Busson, put money with Bernard Madoff. Too many seem to have no clue how to select managers. Funds of funds have underperformed single-manager hedge funds in eight of the past ten years, according to Hedge Fund Research. Investors are voting with their feet. The sector still oversees 643.6 billion dollar but 184.2 billion dollar has flowed out since 2008.为了抵消额外花销,综合资金管理部门应该任用最出众的经理人并审慎经营。不过包括巴松在内,该行业的部分领军人物都把钱投给了庞氏骗局。他们中的很多人对于怎样挑选优秀的经理人毫无头绪。根据对冲基金研究会的数据,过去的十年中综合基金有八年的表现弱于单一管理基金。投资者会根据自身情况进行投资。综合基金仍然监管着6436亿美元,不过自2008年以来已经流失了1842亿美元。European funds of funds have been hardest hit. They catered more to rich individuals, the kind scared off by Mr Madoff, than American funds of funds. But they have been losing investors everywhere to direct investment, and to cheaper consultancy firms. In a sign of the times, Albourne Partners, a large consultancy, now advises on 300 billion dollar in hedge-fund allocations, up by 67% from 2008. Funds of funds have had to cut their fees to compete; some are trying to add value by focusing on niche strategies or small, unknown managers欧洲的综合基金管理公司已经遭到了最严重的打击。他们将目光转向被麦道夫的庞氏骗局吓跑的富有个体投资者,而不再是美国的综合基金管理公司。但他们在各地市场上的投资者或流向直接投资项目,或流向价格低廉的咨询公司。大型的咨询公司Albourne Partners突出体现了这一情况,该公司如今为3000亿美元的对冲基金项目提供咨询务,这一数字自2008年以来已增长了67%。综合基金管理公司需要降低收费标准以应对竞争,一些公司还采用利基战略或聘请不知名的经理人来增加价值。Optimists remain. In 2008 Protégé Partners made a 1m dollar bet with Warren Buffett that funds of funds could beat the stockmarket over a decade. At the end of last year, the fund of funds Protégé selected had fallen by 5.9%, compared with the 6.3% fall sustained by a mutual fund tracking the Samp;P 500. There are still six years to go before the winner is declared, but such modest outperformance suggests plenty of funds of funds will end up losers in the meantime.乐观主义者还是有的,2008年Protégé Partners以100万美元和巴菲特打赌,赌十年之内综合资金管理的盈利能力会比股票市场更强。去年年末,Protégé 公司选中的综合基金盈利下滑了5.9%,与之相比,盯住标普500的指数型基金的收益下滑了6.3%。尽管六年之后才能决出胜负,但综合基金如此微弱的优势预示着在此期间会有大量的综合基金败下阵来。 /201304/233495

Business商业Tour operators旅游公司Horrible holidays糟糕的假期The holiday business is in trouble. Firms are merging like Brits in Benidorm旅游业身陷困境,各公司正忙于兼并EUROPES travel industry has had four terrible years: a recession, an Icelandic volcano, unrest in the Middle East, costly oil, a weak dollar and a widesp sense of malaise.欧洲的旅游行业已经经历了四年的低谷:经济衰退、冰岛火山喷发、中东骚乱、昂贵的油价、贬值的美元以及普遍疲软的经济。People want to get away from it all, but worry that they cant afford to.人们想要摆脱这些,却又担心无力承担。Airlines, hotels and cruise ships have all suffered, but the worst-hit are the tour operators.航空公司,酒店以及度假巡游船都受到了牵连,但受影响最大的还是旅游公司。To survive, they have merged and cut costs.他们通过兼并和削减开来维持生存。In 2007 Thomas Cook, a German-owned travel firm, took over MyTravel, a British rival, to create Europes second-biggest package-tour firm. A couple of months later Hanover-based TUI,德国的Thomas Cook旅游公司在2007年收购了其英国的竞争对手My Travel,从而组建了欧洲第二大的旅游务公司。几个月后,Europes biggest travel company, merged its travel business with First Choice, another British package-holiday company, to create TUI Travel, a company based in London and listed on the London Stock Exchange.欧洲最大的旅游公司,总部位于汉诺威的途易与英国的另一家旅游务公司 First Choice合并了其旅游业务,从而成立了途易旅游。途易旅游的总部位于伦敦,并于伦敦交所上市。Both package-holiday giants cut capacity by as much as 25% in the following years.两家旅游务巨头在接下来的几年里缩小规模高达25%。Yet mergers and downsizing have provided only temporary relief.然而整合与缩小规模只是缓兵之计。On August 3rd Holidays 4 UK, a tour operator specialising in trips to Turkey, went bankrupt, leaving 12,800 holidaymakers stranded.八月三日,只提供土耳其旅行务的旅游公司Holidays 4 UK宣布破产,造成了12,800名度假者的滞留。On the same day, Manny Fontenla-Novoa, the boss of Thomas Cook, was forced out of his job after three profit warnings in 12 months.就在同一天,托马斯?库克的老板Manny Fontenla-Novoa在公司接到了12个月来的第三个利润预警后被迫离职。His replacement will have a big job on his hands.摆在他继任者面前的将是一项艰苦的工作。In the nine months to June, Thomas Cook lost 6.1m before tax.从去年九月到今年六月的九个月期间托马斯?库克的税前损失达3.261亿美元TUI Travel is perking up a bit.不过途易旅游正逐步恢复活力。Its pre-tax losses fell to £355m in the nine months to June, from £563m for the same period last year.它从去年同期5.63亿英镑的税前损失降到六月来的3.55亿英镑。On August 10th it reported a 57% increase in its “underlying operating profits”, a figure that excludes planeloads of supposedly one-off costs.八月十号它宣布其“实际营业利润”增长了57%,这一数据还不包括大量可能的一次性花费。TUI Travel has several advantages.途易旅游还是有些优势的。It is less centralised than Thomas Cook, more flexible and better managed.它不像托马斯?库克那样高度集中化,相比之下更加灵活,管理得也更好。It sells fewer holidays in the turbulent Middle East.它在政局不稳的中东地区组织的线路并不多。And its margins are buoyed by its focus on fancy holidays rather than bargain booze-ups on beery beaches.利润来自于倍受重视的精品套餐路线,而不是便宜的沙滩啤酒派对。Even so, a spokeswoman for TUI Travel admits that the high oil price is a worry.尽管如此,途易旅游的发言人承认昂贵的油价的确令人担忧。TUI Travel owns 143 aircraft.途易旅游拥有143架飞机。The company was fully hedged for oil-price volatility this year but next year it is expecting a 30% increase in its fuel bill.今年该公司采取了严密的措施以防油价动荡,但明年它的燃油预算预计将增长30%。Its French business is suffering because of political unrest in Frances former African colonies, which are a favourite destination for French holidaymakers.它在法国的业务也因原法属非洲殖民地的政治动荡而遭受了不小的损失,而这些地区恰恰是法国人热衷的度假胜地。TUI Travel is now planning to merge its French operations to create one brand in the hope that this will turn around its weakest unit.途易旅游现在正计划把旗下的法国业务合并成一个品牌,希望以此来拯救那些经营惨淡的分。The traditional tour operators business model is out of date, says Jamie Rollo of Morgan Stanley, a bank.“传统旅游公司的运营模式已经过时了,”根史坦利投资的杰米?罗洛说道,Their fixed costs are high.他们的固有成本很高。They book flights and rooms months in advance, and still have to pay for them even if a volcano or terrorist forces travellers to cancel.他们需要提前几个月预定机票和房间,并且即使火山喷发或是恐怖袭击导致旅行取消他们也仍需付这些费用。And although they now do a lot of business online, they struggle to compete with cheaper online-only firms such as Expedia, Travelocity and Orbitz.尽管现在他们尽管现在他们很多业务在网上进行,但却很难与那些如Expedia,Travelocity以及Orbit等这些更加便宜且只做网上务的旅游公司相匹敌。Further consolidation is likely.进一步的整合是可能的。Germanys package-tour market is still fragmented and lucrative, so REWE Touristik and others might soon be snapped up.德国的旅游务市场仍然较为零散并十分有利可图,所以像REWE Touristik一类的旅游公司很快就会变得十分抢手。TUI Travel and Thomas Cook might even merge, creating a giant and saving plenty of money.途易旅游和托马斯?库克甚至可能合并,以成为行业巨头并进一步节省资金。Alternatively, one of these two big boys might marry a low-cost airline, linking cheap flights with cheap beds.或者,这两个大块头之一会兼并一家低成本的航空公司,形成一条完整的低价住宿低价机票产业链。In the short run Thomas Cooks new boss will have to improve the companys dire finances.短期来看,托马斯?库克的新任老板首先要做的就是改善公司糟糕的财务状况。The firm is planning to sell assets worth £200m over the next six to 18 months, including some or all of its seven hotels.公司计划在接下来的6到18个月期间卖掉价值2亿英镑的资产,包括部分甚至全部其7家酒店。Its chief financial officer says that an equity issue is not on the cards, at least for now.它的财务总监表示至少目前还不打算发行股票。He may have to change his mind. Holidays are supposed to be relaxing, but for the firms that provide them, they are anything but.他将来也许会改变主意。假期本应该是令人放松的,但对于那些提供这项务的公司来说,情况就恰恰相反了。 点击此处下载本期经济学人讲解PDF与音频字幕 /201303/230053

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