时间:2020年01月21日 14:42:37

Elton John once sang that sorry seemed to be hardest word but now scientists have found that the perfect apology requires more than just the word #39;sorry#39; itself.英国著名音乐家埃尔顿·约翰曾唱到,对不起是最难说出的话。不过现在,科学家研究出最完美的道歉方式,而且远不止“对不起”这么简单。Based on the findings of a new study, researchers said there are six key elements to make one#39;s apology more sincere and easy to accept with two being very critical in ensuring acceptance. They are accepting one#39;s own fault and offering to repair the damage when making an apology, according to Ohio State University researchers.俄亥俄州立大学一项新的研究成果提出了道歉的六大关键因素,让道歉更真诚,更能被对方接受。其中最关键的两点,就是承认错误,并主动提出弥补伤害。The study looked at how 755 volunteers reacted to apologies that contained some or all of the six key elements in two separate parts.该研究将755名志愿者分成两组,分别观察他们面对全部或部分包含六大关键因素的道歉时做出的反应。The first part involved 333 adults acting out a fictional scenario where they were an accounting department manager interviewing a potential employee. The applicant had filed an incorrect tax return during their previous work but when asked during the fake interview about it, they apologised. The adults involved in the study then had to rate different apologies which contained one, three or all of the sorry elements listed above. The scale was between one (not at all) and five (very).第一组的333名成年人扮演正在面试求职者的会计部门经理。面试过程中,求职者将为自己曾在工作中填错了报税单而道歉。求职者的道歉中将包含上述的一种、三种或全部道歉的关键因素。这时,“部门经理”们就要为求职者的道歉打分,1表示不满意,5表示很满意,从1分到5分,程度递增。In the second part of the research, 422 undergraduates had the same scenario but this time they did not know what elements were within the apologies and had to rate it in a similar fashion.面对同样的场景,第二组的422名大学生也要给这些道歉打分,不同的是他们并不知道这六大因素的存在。The results were not exactly the same, but very similar, researchers said, and those apologies that contained more of the elements were rated higher than others.两组的结果没有完全一致,但非常接近,都表明道歉中包含的关键因素越多,分数就越高。;Apologies really do work, but you should make sure you hit as many of the six key components as possible,; said Roy Lewicki, from the university#39;s Fisher College of Business.俄亥俄州立大学费舍尔商学院的罗伊·路维其教授是这项研究的发起者,他表示“道歉虽然管用,但要尽可能多的包含这六大因素。”;Our findings showed that the most important component is an acknowledgement of responsibility,; Mr Lewicki, who led the study, said. ;Say it is your fault, that you made a mistake.;“研究结果显示,人们最看重的是承担责任。如果原因在你,那就主动承认错误。”He added that an offer of repair was crucial because ;one concern about apologies is that talk is cheap;. But by offering to fix the damage, ;you#39;re committing to take action to undo the damage;, he said.另外,主动提出弥补伤害也是十分关键的因素。路维其教授认为,人们总觉得口头认错并不走心,而提出解决方案,降低错误造成的损失,这才是将道歉付诸行动的做法。 /201604/437285

In general, people are more cheerful in the summertime, according to Philip Gehrman, associate director of the Behavioral Sleep Medicine Program at the University of Pennsylvania. Light serves as the strongest cue to regulate circadian rhythms, which include the sleep cycle, hormonal fluctuations and body temperature and follow a roughly 24-hour pattern. “People tend to feel better in summer months,” Gehrman said. “There’s a slight elevation in our mood. More positive emotions are reported.”宾夕法尼亚大学(University of Pennsylvania)行为睡眠医学项目副主任菲利普#8226;格曼认为,通常人们在夏天会感到更愉快。我们的昼夜节律(包括睡眠周期、荷尔蒙波动和体温,大致以24小时为一个周期)主要受日光影响。格曼说:“人们在夏季的几个月里会感觉更好,心理状态有小小的提升,会有更多的正面情绪。”But the effect isn’t uniform—circadian rhythms vary from person to person, so the amount and timing of sunlight means different things to different people, said Dr. Irina V. Zhdanova, a neuroscience professor at Boston University. For example, morning sunlight can irritate people who wake up late. On the other hand, for people who rise early, morning sunlight can have a positive effect, but sunlight may irritate them in the evening.但实际情况也不是千人一律。波士顿大学(Boston University)神经科学教授伊琳娜#8226;V#8226;日达诺娃士说:“昼夜节律因人而异,所以日照的多少和时长对不同的人来说意义也不同。”比如,早晨的阳光会让习惯晚醒的人感到不适。而对于习惯早起的人来说,早晨的阳光就会有积极的效果,傍晚的阳光倒是会让他们不高兴。It’s similar to meal habits, Zhdanova said.日达诺娃认为,这一点与饮食习惯类似。“Some like three meals a day, others like 10 small meals a day,” Zhdanova said. “Sometimes sunlight is good and uplifting during a certain time of the day, while for others, it’s neither uplifting or positive and can induce mild irritation.”她说: “有的人喜欢一日三餐,有的人喜欢一日十餐(每一餐的分量都较小)。在一天中的某个时段,对于有些人来说阳光是很好的兴奋剂,但对另一些人来说,阳光不仅不能给人带来正面情绪或者起到提神的效果,反而还会引起轻微的不快。”The extra sunlight also entrains the circadian rhythm, a process in which the internal biological clock aligns itself to external cues, like the light-dark cycle. Now that the days are longer, in general, the circadian rhythm is entrained much better, Zhdanova said. In other words, the circadian rhythm is better aligned with natural sunlight and darkness, which can affect people’s sleep and moods.更多的日照还能控制昼夜节律,在这个过程中,人体生物钟可以根据体外的环境(比如自然的明暗周期)来进行自我调节。日达诺娃认为,由于白昼变长,人体昼夜节律通常会得到更好的控制,也就是说能够更好地与自然光线的明暗变化保持一致,而后者影响着人们的睡眠质量与情绪。However, Gehrman said, it is unclear whether elevated moods come from more entrained circadian rhythms and better sleep, or if the happiness boost is directly attributable to the sunlight.但是格曼也表示,目前还不太清楚更为愉悦的情绪状态到底是来自更佳的昼夜节律和睡眠质量,还是只跟日照有关。On the flip side, experiencing less sunlight in the winter can pose a challenge, said Frank Scheer, director of the Medical Chronobiology Program at Brigham and Women’s Hospital. “The lengthening or shortening of the light period during the day does have a clear effect,” Scheer said. “In wintertime, when the days are shorter, we are more likely to wake up when it’s still dark outside and before the circadian system stimulates wakefulness and improved mood.”布莱根妇女医院(Brigham and Women’s Hospital)医学生物钟项目主任弗兰克#8226;谢尔认为,反过来看,冬天的日照较少确实会带来一些问题。他说:“日照时间的延长或缩短确实会有显著的影响。冬天,白昼变短,很有可能我们醒来时天还黑着。此时,昼夜节律系统还没开始促使我们清醒并调整情绪。”So, enjoy the longest day of the year while it lasts—the days will start getting shorter again from here.所以,在白昼最长的夏至日前后,尽情享受日光吧。白昼正在慢慢变短哦! /201606/451083

High-end lingerie sales are outpacing China#39;s generally downbeat luxury market, and heating up competition between international brands and local rivals looking to go upmarket.如今,高端女式内衣的销售状况正领跑中国普遍低迷的奢侈品市场,这加剧了国际品牌与想走高端路线的本土品牌间的竞争。US brand Victoria#39;s Secret will open its first store, and companies including Italy#39;s ultra-luxury La Perla and Germany#39;s Triumph are adding stores and moving beyond China#39;s mega-cities. International brands see China as a priority to help bolster overall sales given a fairly bleak global outlook.美国品牌;维多利亚的秘密;将在华开设第一家门店,意大利顶级奢侈内衣品牌La Perla和德国黛安芬等企业正在华增加门店数量,并正向中国大城市以外的地区进军。鉴于全球前景黯淡,国际品牌将中国视为提振整体销售的重点。Chinese consumer tastes are maturing, women are more confident about buying for themselves and leaders drive against conspicuous consumption is likely diverting spending from flashy branded bags and accessories to sports and leisure wear and the more discreet lingerie.中国顾客的品味正在走向成熟,女人们对自己投资更加自信。领导人反对铺张浪费也使得消费从耀眼的品牌包包和配饰转向运动和休闲装以及更加隐秘的内衣。;Luxury is not about buying to show off, it#39;s about buying items that make you feel good,; says Chiara Scaglia, La Perla#39;s Asia chief.拉佩拉亚洲主管基娅拉·斯嘉利亚说:“奢华不是用来显摆的,而是购买之后你的感受美好。”China#39;s women#39;s underwear market is expected to have a retail value of billion by next year - double that of the ed States - and will grow to billion by 2020, according to Euromonitor.根据消费市场研究机构欧睿国际报道,中国的女性内衣市场下一年零售额有望达到250亿美元,这将是美国的两倍,并将在2020年前增长到330亿美元。Chinese firms such as Beijing Aimer, Maniform and Ordifen are also chasing that money, targeting higher-end customers and raising their quality.包括北京爱慕,曼妮芬和欧迪芬等在内的中国公司也在力争利益,定位高端顾客,提升自身质量。;That means foreign brands will have to out-compete local brands not just on quality, but also innovation,; said Matthew Crabbe, director at Mintel, a global provider of market research.全球市场研究公司英敏特的负责人克雷布说,;这意味着外国品牌不但要在质量上超过中国本土品牌,还要在创新上更胜一筹。;For now, the market is highly fragmented, with none of the leading firms having more than around a 3 percent share. International brands see China as a priority to help bolster overall sales given a fairly bleak global outlook.现在,内衣市场还很分散,没有一个引领公司的份额超过3%。纵观相当惨淡的全球市场,国际品牌将中国视为提高整体销售的首选。La Perla, which sells bras priced around 2,000 yuan (0), has eight stores in China and plans additional outlets in Chengdu and Chongqing within the year. It also aims to open a men#39;s store in Beijing.拉佩拉内衣售价约2000元人民币(300美元),已经在中国开了8家店铺并计划在成都和重庆增开折扣店,它还计划在北京开一家男士内衣店。 /201608/458273

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