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襄阳第一人民医院治疗前列腺炎怎么样好医专家

楼主:中医新闻 时间:2019年12月11日 14:23:19 点击:0 回复:0
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Japan’s history is full of moments when the elites rallied around a dramatic shift in strategy. In 1868, its leaders ditched hundreds of years of feudalism in response to the threat of western colonialism. In 1945, they abandoned the pursuit of “greatness” via military means and set diligently about the task of achieving economic prosperity. Now, after 15 years of deflation, Japan’s leadership has dramatically reversed course again by going hell for leather for inflation. In strategic terms, the sudden shift is reminiscent of the notorious attack on Pearl Harbor.在日本历史上,精英阶层团结一致大幅改变战略立场的时刻比比皆是。1868年,日本领导人为应对西方殖民主义的威胁,抛弃了奉行数百年之久的封建主义。1945年,日本领导人放弃了利用武力来追求“伟大”的做法,转而致力于实现经济繁荣的使命。今天,在国民经济经历了15年通缩之后,日本领导人再次大幅转向,开始全力推行通胀政策。就战略而言,这种突然转向不由得让人想起臭名昭著的偷袭珍珠港行动。Readers may consider the comparison to be in poor taste. Precious lives will not be lost as a result of an expansion of the monetary base, however dire the warnings from alarmists who say it will lead to hyperinflationary ruin. Yet there are interesting parallels. By 1941, Japan’s war planners thought conflict with the US was inevitable. In July that year, Washington had imposed an oil embargo on Japan in response to its invasion of French Indochina. Tokyo decided it needed to grab control of oil in the Dutch East Indies, now Indonesia – an assault that, it guessed, would inevitably draw the US into the war. In other words, conflict with Washington was coming. Better to pre-empt it in the hope of gaining significant strategic advantage through a surprise attack.读者可能会认为,这种类比并不得体。货币基础的扩张并不会让人们丧失宝贵的生命,无论那些认为这种扩张将导致恶性通胀的人说得多么危言耸听。但二者确有一些有趣的相似之处。1941年时,日本的战争策划者认为与美国发生冲突是不可避免的。当年7月,美国政府为应对日本入侵法属印度那,宣布对日本实施石油禁运。日本政府认定,有必要把荷属东印度群岛(如今的印尼)的石油控制在手里。它推测,如果对荷属东印度群岛发动袭击,将不可避免地把美国拖入战争。换言之,与美国的冲突很快就会到来。日本认为最好先发制人,以期通过偷袭来获得重大的战略优势。Something of the same calculation is going on when it comes to inflation. The logic goes a bit like this: Japan’s current fiscal position is unsustainable; you cannot borrow half of what you spend indefinitely, particularly when your working population – and thus your likely tax base – is going to shrink indefinitely; Japan’s population, currently 127m, will fall to 108m by 2050.在某种程度上,通胀政策有着同样的考虑。这里面的逻辑似乎是这样的:日本当前的财政状况是不可持续的;不可能永远靠举债来维持一半的出,尤其是在劳动力人口(也就是潜在税基)无限萎缩的情况下;日本目前的总人口为1.27亿,到2050年时将降至1.08亿。Thus some sort of debt crunch is coming. With more than 90 per cent of debt held internally, however, future governments are unlikely to default outright. Far more plausibly, they will resort to the printing presses. And if the endgame is inflation anyway, surely it is better to get the boot in first. As with Pearl Harbor, the hope is that by beating the enemy to the punch, one stands a chance of gaining the upper hand.如此一来,就会导致某种形式的债务危机。但鉴于日本逾90%的国债是由国内民众持有的,未来的日本政府不太可能采取显性的违约。更有可能的是,他们会求助于印钞机。如果不管怎样结局都是通胀,那么显然还是尽早进入通胀为好。就珍珠港事件而言,日本人希望的是,若能先发制人,就有机会占据上风。Some critics of reflation say it will work too well. The outcome, they predict, will be capital flight, yen collapse and rampant inflation. That is conceivable, though far from inevitable. If the Bank of Japan can spirit inflation from deflation, it stands a decent chance of being able to control it. Other critics say it will not work at all. Their argument is that Japan has been aggressively printing money for years without success. That is not right either.一些批评通货再膨胀的人士表示,这种政策的效力太过强大,最终会适得其反。他们预计的结果是资本外逃、日元崩盘和恶性通胀。这种结果是有可能出现的,但绝非不可避免。如果日本央行(BoJ)真能神奇地化通缩为通胀,那么它也有不小的可能控制住通胀。还有一些批评人士认为,这种政策毫无效力。他们的观点是,日本多年来一直在大举印钞,却没有取得任何成果。这种观点也是不正确的。Under Masaaki Shirakawa, who stepped down as BoJ governor this month, the central bank made only token efforts to expand its balance sheet. Mr Shirakawa was a firm believer that Japan’s deflation was structural and could not be fixed by monetary means. Even under his predecessor, Toshihiko Fukui, the BoJ’s pursuit of quantitative easing from 2003 to 2006 was not all it seemed. In that period, the bank took a cautiously incremental approach, a far cry from Haruhiko Kuroda’s big bang this month, with his pledge to double the monetary base in two years. Japan, then, is trying something radically new.在上月离职的前行长白川方明(Masaaki Shirakawa)任内,日本央行只是象征性地扩大了一下资产负债表。白川坚信,日本的通缩是结构性的,不可能通过货币手段加以解决。即便是在白川的前任福井俊彦(Toshihiko Fukui)任内,日本央行从2003年至2006年推行的定量宽松也不尽如表面上那样激进。在那段时期,日本央行走的是谨慎渐进路线,与这个月黑田东彦(Haruhiko Kuroda)搞出的大动静有天壤之别——黑田承诺,要在两年之内让货币基础翻番。所以说,日本正在尝试某种全新的做法。One concern expressed by neighbouring countries from China to Australia is that the policy’s only “transmission mechanism” is via devaluation. Their concerns are partly selfish. They worry that floods of money will leave Japan, pushing down the currency and improving the competitiveness of its exporters. In other words, Japan will simply be stealing growth from others.从中国到澳大利亚,日本的这些邻国表露出的一个担忧是,该政策的唯一“传导机制”是货币贬值。它们的担忧在某种程度上是出于自身利益的考虑。这些邻国担心,会有大量资金流出日本,从而压低日元汇率、提高该国出口商的竞争力。换言之,日本简直就是在从其他国家窃取增长。But their observation also stems from doubts about underlying growth prospects in a country with such unpromising demographics. The BoJ is massively ramping up its purchase of Japan government bonds in order to force financial institutions to recycle savings into riskier assets with higher returns. But what if such assets don’t exist? The worry is that flat or falling demand, coupled with a lack of supply-side reform, will weigh severely against future returns. Lack of opportunities at home could explain why the yen has dropped so precipitously, 20 per cent against the dollar since November. It would also suggest that Shinzo Abe, prime minister, needs to shoot his third arrow – the structural reforms intended to lift Japan’s potential growth rate.但它们持这种态度的原因还在于,一个人口结构如此没有希望的国家,其潜在增长前景是值得怀疑的。日本央行大幅加大购买日本国债的力度,是为了迫使金融机构将储蓄投向风险更高收益也更高的资产。但如果这类资产不存在呢?人们担心,需求持平或下降,再加上缺少供应面的改革,将严重拖累未来的回报。国内投资机会匮乏或许正是日元汇率大幅下挫的原因——去年11月以来,日元兑美元下跌了20%。它还表明,日本首相安倍晋三(Shinzo Abe)需要射出第三箭,那就是旨在提升日本潜在增长率的结构性改革。Before that, though, comes the question of whether the world will tolerate Japanese devaluation. Here the signs are not too bad. The International Monetary Fund said this week that complaints about competitive devaluation were “overdone”. It welcomed Japan’s “dramatic change” in monetary policy and raised its estimates for growth this year from 1.2 per cent to 1.6 per cent, and next year from 0.7 per cent to 1.4 per cent. Even some Chinese officials have cautiously endorsed Japan’s policy. (Others have been less accepting with one complaining Japan was using its neighbours as a “garbage bin”.) Still, the most likely outcome is grudging acceptance of Tokyo’s radical new measures. The world may judge that, even if there are spillover effects, it is better for everyone if Japan can get its economy going again. Tokyo’s monetary pre-emptive strike will be a lot less controversial than Pearl Harbor. And it may actually work.但在那之前还存在一个问题,即世界是否会容忍日元贬值。这方面的迹象还不算太糟。国际货币基金组织(IMF)日前表示,有关竞争性贬值的怨言有些“过头了”。IMF乐见日本“大幅改变”货币政策,并且上调了对日本经济增长的预期,今年的增长率预期从1.2%上调至1.6%,明年的增长率预期从0.7%上调至1.4%。就连部分中国官员也对日本的政策表示了谨慎持。(另一些官员则持保留态度,有人抱怨称,日本正把邻国当作“垃圾桶”)。尽管如此,最有可能的结果仍是世界勉强接受日本激进的新举措。国际社会可能会断定,即便存在溢出效应,只要日本能够使其经济恢复增长,最终结果也还是会使所有人受益。日本在货币政策方面发动的先发制人打击,引起的争论将远少于珍珠港事件。而且,这种政策可能真的有效。 /201304/235926

To the Chinese stock market and property bubbles, now add the whisky bubble. 除股市泡沫和楼市泡沫以外,中国现在又多了一个威士忌泡沫。 That#39;s what analysts at brokerage firm Redburn are cautioning for spirit makers looking to sell the tipple to the huge Chinese market, and it#39;s not without precedent. Japan went through such Scotch-fueled exuberance in the 1970s and 1980s, say the analysts, and spirit makers are still haunted by the hangover from that experience. Agence France-Presse/Getty Images这是经纪公司Redburn的分析师向那些想在巨大的中国市场销售威士忌的酿酒公司发出的警告。这种泡沫并不是第一次出现。分析师说,日本在上世纪70年代和80年代就经历过一轮相似的威士忌狂欢,而酿酒公司至今仍对当年的宿醉记忆犹新。 According to Redburn, Scotch is in fact a highly economically-sensitive product, with demand closely tracking economic upturns and downturns. Following the economic slump of the 1970s in the West, Scotch makers turned to the most promising market, Japan, where their marketing efforts, and the behavior of newly-rich Japanese consumers has many parallels with the Chinese market today.据Redburn说,威士忌实际上是一种与经济形势息息相关的产品,需求紧紧跟随着经济的起伏而起伏。在上世纪70年代西方经济遭受重挫之后,威士忌生产商转向了最有希望的市场──日本。当时酒商的营销手段和日本新富消费者的行为跟今天的中国市场有很多相似之处。 ;The Japanese consumer acquired a taste for premium Scotch and many deluxe brands, such as Johnnie Walker Gold Label, were launched exclusively for the Japanese market. But Japanese consumption was increasingly not on the back of increased connoisseurship, rather it was price-insensitive executives spending on the corporate credit card,; writes Redburn.Redburn写道,日本消费者喜欢喝优质威士忌,很多奢侈品牌都是专门面向日本市场推出的,尊尼获加金牌 ((Johnnie Walker Gold Label)威士忌就是其一。但日本威士忌消费越来越依赖刷公司的信用卡且不在意价格的企业高管,而不是人们鉴赏能力的提高。 Then came the bust in the early 1990s, and the bursting of the Japanese whisky bubble which Scotch makers were not prepared for.然而接下来90年代初期经济泡沫的破灭以及日本威士忌泡沫的破灭让酿酒公司猝不及防。;If consumption is based on fashion or corporate expense accounts then there is no inherent brand equity to weather a downturn in either the economic or fashion cycle,; says Redburn.Redburn说,如果威士忌消费的基础是时尚或公司报销,那么就没有内在的品牌价值来抵挡经济周期或时尚周期的下行。 Diageo PLC, which on Wednesday announced plans to invest more than 1 billion pounds (US.52 billion) in Scotch whisky production over the next five years concentrating on emerging markets, produces a premium vodka in China exclusively for that market, called Shanghai White. In Shanghai, it runs the Johnnie Walker House, where, according to its website, it is ;an embassy for whisky culture.;帝亚吉欧(Diageo PLC)周三宣布将在未来五年投资逾10亿英镑(合15.2亿美元)用于扩大威士忌产能,新兴市场是主要的目标市场。该公司在中国产有一种专门针对这个市场的超高档伏特加,名为“海上幻”(Shanghai White)。它在上海运营着尊尼获加“尊邸”(Johnnie Walker House),其网站说,这是“威士忌文化的使馆”。 China is aly the top market for France#39;s Remy Cointreau SA#39;s Remy Martin cognac, but the company has repeatedly said that it has plans to spend up to 1 billion euros to acquire new premium brands, such as an upmarket whisky that is popular in China.中国已经是法国人头马-君度集团(Remy Cointreau SA)人头马干邑的最大市场,但该公司曾反复表示打算投入最高10亿欧元用于收购新的优质品牌,比如一款在中国很受欢迎的高档威士忌。Even politicians have jumped on the bandwagon, with Britain and China signing an agreement in 2010 to ensure that only Scottish-made whisky be allowed to be sold as Scotch in China, partly because counterfeit Scotch is a problem.甚至连政界都来凑热闹。英国和中国在2010年签署了一份协议,以确保只有苏格兰生产的威士忌才能作为苏格兰威士忌(Scotch)在中国出售。部分原因在于中国的假冒苏格兰威士忌泛滥成灾。 Redburn says there#39;s no guarantee that Scotch will be able to gain mass appeal in China, beyond just being the tipple of choice for the ultra-wealthy class. It says Scotch tastes vary widely in the region and do not show direct correlation with income. Where GDP per capita is high, such as Japan, Singapore and Hong Kong, Scotch consumption is actually much lower than in South Korea, Taiwan and Thailand.Redburn说,无法保苏格兰威士忌在成为极富阶层最爱饮品之外,还能够受到中国普通民众的欢迎。它说,亚洲各地对苏格兰威士忌的喜好差异很大,与收入没有直接关系。日本、新加坡和香港等地人均GDP较高,但其苏格兰威士忌的消费量却大大少于韩国、台湾和泰国。 In addition, whisky and other spirits face stiff competition against China#39;s national drink, baijiu, which is distilled from sorghum, wheat or rice, and dominates the alcohol market by a long way. Not surprisingly, there#39;s also talk of there being a baijiu bubble in China, driven by the drink#39;s popularity not just for consumption, but also for investment and gifts.除此以外,威士忌等酒水还面临着中国国饮──白酒的激烈竞争。白酒用高粱、小麦或大米蒸馏而成,在中国酒水市场占据着绝对的配地位。毫不奇怪地,也有人在说中国存在白酒泡沫,因为白酒受欢迎不仅是为了用于消费,而且是用于投资和送礼。On the other hand, India, which has a tradition of drinking Scotch dating back to the colonial era, is a market of huge promise for spirit makers, says Redburn. However, low incomes and high import tariffs are obstacles to growth. India and the European Union are currently in trade talks, where European officials are hoping for steep tariff cuts on liquor.Redbum说,对于酿酒公司来说,印度是一个大有希望的市场,因为它拥有发端于殖民时期的威士忌饮用传统。但由于收入水平低而且进口关税高,印度这个市场成长受限。眼下,印度和欧盟正在举行贸易谈判,欧洲官员希望印度大幅降低酒水的关税。 /201206/186255

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