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襄阳中心医院治疗宫颈肥大多少钱襄阳老河口市妇幼保健院中医院治疗月经不调怎么样South Africa is a country that always creates an impression.南非是一个总是为人营造一种印象的国家。We know all of its diverse population, the trouble history of apartheid and its rebirth as a global travel destination.我们熟知这个国家的多样化人口,争议的历史及其作为全球旅游目的地的重生。I’ve been a fan of this country for many years.多年来我一直是这个国家的粉丝。But this is my chance to go beyond the obvious South Africa,但这次是我探寻超越显而易见的南非的一次机会,to explore on foot and take time to see how life and stunning landscape work today in the new South Africa.徒步探索并花时间了解今天在新南非生命及惊人的景象。A country thats now keen to invite the world.一个现在热衷于邀请世界的国家。Hello and welcome to one of the most famous wildlife reserves in the world, the Kruger national park.你好,欢迎来到其中一个最著名野生动物保护区世界,克鲁格国家公园。201306/244802襄阳市中医医院月经不调多少钱 When you think of hair loss you probably think of men, unless that is, you are one of the twenty million women in the U.S. who suffer from hair loss.当想到掉头发你可能认为那是男人的专利,但你可能就是美国二千万遭受脱发之苦女性中的一人。Though hair loss in men is a common subject for television commercials as well as fodder for television sitcoms, womens hair loss is so stigmatized its hardly talked about at all. 虽然男性脱发是电视广告中常见的宣传主题以及电视情景喜剧的笑料,但女性的脱发是如此受指责以致于很少有谈论的机会。The most common form of hair loss in women is Androgenetic Alopecia or what is known as female pattern baldness.最常见的女性掉头发是雄激素性脱发或所谓的女性秃头。It accounts for over ninety-five percent of incidents of hair loss in women.它是超过百分之九十五女性掉头发的主要原因。And like male pattern baldness it has a large genetic predisposition, and it involves androgen and DHT.就像男性秃头一样在很大程度上取决于遗传因素,涉及雄激素和二氢睾酮在内。Androgen is a male hormone that all men and women produce.睾酮是一种所有男人和女人都会产生的雄性激素。Androgen in turn produces a chemical called dihydrotestosterone, more easily remembered as DHT.相应地雄激素会产生一种叫做二氢睾酮的化学物质,为了方便,它被称为DHT。DHT in excess causes hair follicles to make thinner and thinner hair until they eventually stop making hair altogether.过剩DHT导致毛囊的头发越来越薄,直到头发最终完全停止生长。A significant difference between womens and mens hair loss though is that women dont typically get bald spots or receding hairlines, but they more often experience a general thinning of their hair.女性和男性掉头发的明显区别是虽然女性通常不会有秃头斑或发际线后退,但她们则会更经常感到头发稀疏。Some women do lose hair, but at the top of the heads and at the sides.一些女性掉头发是从头的顶部及两边开始。Another difference is that male pattern baldness can begin at puberty whereas female pattern baldness usually begins around the age of thirty, and it often gets worse with the onset of menopause.另一个区别是男性脱发可以开始在青春期而女性通常是在30岁的时候,常常会伴随更年期的开始而加剧。There are treatments out there, but one should be wary of phonies and of products that work for men, but can be harmful to women.的确有治疗的方法,但女性应该想到对男性有效的产品往往对自己则不利。As usual, its wise to consult a physician about treatment.像往常一样,咨询医生才是最明智的方法。 201310/262186Weightlessness and zero gravity are two different things. 失重和零重力其实是两种完全不同的概念。Think about it,the earths gravity keeps the moon in orbit. 想想看,地球的重力使月球绕轨运行。And astronauts are generally much closer to earth than the moon is, which means that the earths pull on them has to be much stronger.通常,宇航员其实比月球更为接近地球,这就意味着地球作用于他们的地心引力更强。While were on Earth, we feel our weight because, as the Earths gravity pulls us into its center, the ground pushes back against our feet.我们站立于地面上可以感受到重力,是因为地球本身的引力将我们拉向地心,但同时力又反作用于我们的双脚。When astronauts orbit the earth, theyre still subject to gravity, 宇航员绕地飞行时,他们仍然受到重力的作用。but theyre moving sideways so quickly that even though theyre being pulled towards the earth, theyre not getting any closer to the center of the planet. 但是由于他们始终侧向移动,而且速度如此之快,所以即使他们受到地心引力的影响,他们也并没有更接近地心。In other words, theyre basically in a state of constant free fall, and thats why theyre weightless.换而之,他们基本上是处于恒定的自由落体运动中,也就是他们失重的原因。It just gets weaker. 它只会减弱。And every object with mass, including you and me, has whats known as gravitational attraction. 每一个有重量物体,包括你我,都有万有引力。Although youre subject to all those forces, the Earths gravity masks their pull because the Earth is so large and so close.虽然所有物体都受到万有引力的作用,但是地球本身的庞大,而且我们离地球如此之近,这就使得物体的重力被掩盖。So moving away wont free you of the Earths gravity. 因而,离开地球并不能让你脱离地心引力的影响。All that would happen is that the Earths pull would be masked by the pull of some other object, like Mars.但有可能会是这样的情况,地球的引力会被诸如火星的物体所掩盖。 /201311/263577襄阳市四医院看妇科炎症怎么样

中航工业三六四医院官网专家在线咨询China, India and climate change中国,印度和气候变化Take the lead引领全球Emerging markets are a big part of the problem; they are essential to any solution新兴市场是问题的症结,也是任何解决方法的关键。Greenprint: A New Approach to Cooperation on Climate Change. By Aaditya Mattoo and Arvind Subramanian.绿色印记关于气候变化的新合作方式作者:阿迪特亚马图,阿温德苏布拉曼尼恩MOST books about the environment take the West as their starting point. This is understandable. For decades America was the worlds biggest polluter, contributing more to the problem than any other country, whereas Europe—at least in its politicians minds—has model environmental laws and holds plenty of righteous talks to negotiate new solutions.很多关于环境的书都以西方为出发点。这个可以理解。过去几十年来,美国都是世界上最大的污染源,造成的影响比其他任何国家都要大,而欧洲-至少在欧洲的政治家心里-拥有可作为典范的环保法律并在商讨新的解决方法时发表了许多公的讲座。But Europe and America are becoming supporting actors in the worlds climate-change drama. The lead players are China and India. China is the worlds largest emitter, contributing nearly a quarter of current global emissions. With India it accounted for 83% of the worldwide increase in carbon emissions in 2000-11. Though global warming began with industrialised countries it must end—if it is to end—through actions in developing ones. All the more reason to welcome “Greenprint”, the first book on climate change to concentrate on this growing part of the problem. Written by Aaditya Mattoo, an economist at the World Bank, and Arvind Subramanian, a senior fellow at the Centre for Global Development, the book offers an unflinching look at what one might realistically expect emerging markets to do.但欧洲与美国,在世界正在上演的气候变化戏剧的舞台上正沦为配角。主要的演员是中国和印度。中国是世界上最大的废气排放国,它所排放的废气占了全球排放废气总量的将近四分之一。在2000年至11年期间,在全球碳排放增长中,中国和印度就占了83%。虽然全球变暖始于工业化国家,但必须终止-如果会终止的话-发展中国家采取行动终止全球变暖。《绿色印记》应受到欢迎的更重要的原因是,它关注了发展中国家在全球变暖问题上日益凸显的地位,这是第一本关注此问题的书。该书的两位作者阿迪特亚马图是世界的一名经济学家,阿温德苏布拉曼尼恩是全球发展中心的资深人士,本书毫不畏惧地指出关于我们可以期待新兴市场采取何种切实的措施解决气候变化的问题。From an environmentalists point of view, India and China elicit despair. They are obsessed with growth. To fuel it, they are building ever more coal-fired power stations, a filthy form of energy. Their cities fume. Their rivers catch fire. There is not much anyone can do about it.从一个环保人士的角度看来,印度和中国的做法只能让人绝望。他们太沉迷于经济增长了。为了推动经济增长,他们建了更多的火力发电厂-一种极不环保的能源。他们的城市都弥漫着烟雾。他们的河流都着火了。我们对此也无能为力。But an attractive quality of this book is that it goes beyond such fatalism. The West, the authors argue, has failed to mitigate global warming, so developing countries will have to take over. This is necessary, they say, because global warming will affect developing countries more than rich ones, partly because tropical and subtropical lands are more sensitive to warming than cold or temperate ones, and partly because rich people can afford better flood controls and drought-resistant seeds than poor ones. One estimate by William Cline, an economist, found that a rise of 2.5% in global temperatures would cut agricultural productivity by 6% in America but by 38% in India. In light of their disproportionate vulnerability, emerging giants will have to push rich countries to make more environmental compromises. To make these demands credible, they themselves will have to make some changes too.但本书最吸引人的地方在于它并没有受制于宿命论。作者认为,西方国家未能减缓全球变暖,因此发展中国家要接过这个重任。他们说这是必要的,因为全球变暖对发展中国家的影响远大于富裕国家,一部分原因在于热带和亚热带大陆比寒带或温带大陆对温度升高更为敏感,另一部分原因在与贫穷国家相比,富裕国家的人能买得起有更好的防洪抗旱能力的种子。一位叫威廉卡莱恩的经济学家预测发现,全球温度上升2.5%,美国的农作物产量会降低6%,而印度的会降低38%。鉴于两国对气温变化的承受能力相差如此悬殊,新兴的巨头将必须迫使富裕国家在环境问题上作出更多的妥协。为了表明这些要求合理,他们自身也要做出一些改变。The trouble, as the authors admit, is that emissions cuts will also be costly for China and India. Messrs Mattoo and Subramanian estimate that if the two countries were to reduce emissions by 30% by 2020 (compared with doing nothing), their manufacturing output would fall by 6-7% and their manufactured exports by more than that. As still relatively poor countries, they are less able to bear the pain.但麻烦在于,正如作者承认的,减少废气排放对中国和印度来说,代价也很高。马图先生和苏布拉曼尼恩先生预测如果中印两国在2020年前能把废气排放减低30%,那么他们的制造业产值将会降低6%-7%,而他们制造业出口降幅将更大。作为相对贫穷的国家,中印两国无法承受那样的代价。These challenges help to explain why it is so difficult for India and China to take the lead on climate change. After considering different ways to allocate emissions cuts among nations, the authors concede that the fairest approach would be to allow developing countries to consume as much energy as rich ones did during their own industrial revolutions. But if the aim is to limit the rise in global temperatures to two degrees, which most scientists think necessary, this would allow developing-country emissions to rise by 200% whereas rich-country emissions would have to fall by an amount that is politically inconceivable.这些挑战也解释了为什么印度和中国在气候变化问题上不愿主动带头。该如何分配不同国家的减排任务,经过仔细考虑,作者也作出了让步,他们认为最公平的方法就是允许发展中国家在进行工业化的过程中消耗的能源与富裕国家持平。但如果目标是把全球温度上升控制在2摄氏度以内,这是多数的科学家认为必要的,那么发展中国家的排放量可上升200%而富裕国家的排放量则相应降低,而这个降低的数量从政治的角度考虑是难以想象的。The authors supply more reasonable solutions. They reckon that China and others could and should invest more in new technologies, such as carbon capture and storage, in order to boost improvements in clean energy. They also provide a detailed and convincing case for rich countries to put a price on carbon by introducing a modest border tax on imports from developing countries.作者提供了更多合理的解决方法。他们认为中国和其他发展中国家应投入更多的资金和资源于新技术,像碳捕获和碳储存技术,以促进清洁能源的发展。他们也提供了一个详细的有信力的案例,富裕国家通过对发展中国家的进口商品征收适当的边境税以便对碳标价。The book does not quite provide the promised “greenprint” for developing countries to reduce emissions. But that would be a tall order. As a first stab at analysing one of the worlds most intractable problems, it provides a wealth of analysis and fuel for thought.对于发展中国家降低碳排放,本书并未提供如标题所示的“绿色印记”。但那是一个过高的要求。本书首次深入世界上最棘手的问题之一,作了大量的分析,并为人们思考这个问题提供了动力。 /201406/307821襄樊铁路中心医院能做三镜一丝手术吗 襄阳中心医院做割包皮怎么样?

湖北化学纤维厂职工医院治疗女性不孕多少钱Finance and economics财经商业South Koreas housing market韩国住房市场Lumping it多轨并行Landlords are having to ditch a century-old rental system房东们正不得不抛弃持续了一个世纪的租房系统Jeonses future is hazy Jeonse的租房方式看不到未来MOST South Korean urbanites would leap at the chance to part with 0,000 to rent a smallish flat for three years in Seoul, the capital.大多数韩国城市居民可能利用这一机会放弃在其首都首尔以150,000美元的价格租住一间小型公寓三年。These days, however, most Korean landlords would spurn such a measly deposit.然而,近日大多数韩国的房东可能摒弃这一少得可怜的保金。Koreas unusual rental system, known as jeonse, does not involve monthly rental payments.韩国特殊的租房系统,被称为Jeonse,并不持付月租。Instead, tenants provide landlords with a deposit, typically between a quarter and half of the propertys value, to invest for the duration of the lease.相反,房客向房东提供一笔保金,保金的数额一般在房产价值的四分之一到一半,让他们在租期进行投资。Property owners keep the returns and then repay the lump sum at the end of the tenancy.房产所有者保存收益并在租期结束后,退还总额。Average deposits have now risen for 76 consecutive weeks in Korea, the longest streak ever.韩国平均保金现在已经连续上升了76周,这是有史以来历时最长的增长。Thousands of jeonse leases in the capital are now as high as 90% of the value of the house; they sometimes exceed it in areas where property prices have fallen since leases were agreed.在首都成千上万的Jeonse 租约价值现在高达房屋价值的90%,在有些房价下降的地区,他们有时候超过这个比例,因为租约在过去已经达成。The jeonse system was once prized by both tenants and landlords.Jeonse体系曾广受租客和房东的赞誉。In the 1960s rapid urbanisation drew farmers to Koreas thriving cities, boosting demand for homes at a time when capital was being mobilised for state-led industrial development.在1960年,高速的城市化促使农民前往新兴城市,对房屋的需求在资本因为政府主导的工业发展而被调动起来时呈现爆炸性的增长。The government thought property unproductive, so restricted banks from lending to developers, homeowners and tenants, says Son Jae-young, a professor of real estate at Konkuk University in Seoul.首尔建国大学不动产方面的Son Jae-young教授这样说道:政府认为房产对于生产力发展增益不大,因此限制向开发商、房屋所有人和租客贷款。In response jeonse emerged as a self-help funding mechanism.Jeonse 体系因此衍生为一个自助融资机制。Tenants deposits financed landlords properties, interest-free, while pushing renters to pool savings: over time, the deposit would become their own home-purchase fund. For decades, monthly rental was synonymous with poverty.租客的保金增长了房东的财产,而且没有利息,同时促使租房者积蓄存款;随着时间的发展,这些保金会成为他们自己的购房基金。在过去的几十年时间里,付月租是贫穷的代名词。Yet interest rates and property prices have sunk since 2008.然而利率以及房价自从2008年开始已经下降。To earn a decent return on their investments, landlords have been raising jeonse prices.为了赢取一个可观的投资回报,房主一直在提高 Jeonse的价格。Tenants have tended to take out low-interest loans to cover the hike.房客趋向于用低息贷款来付不断攀高的价格。Since such borrowing has almost doubled, from 33.5 trillion won to 60 trillion won, according to the Bank of Korea, the central bank.根据韩国中央—韩国的统计,自年以来,这样的借款几乎加倍,从33.5万亿韩元(31.5亿美元)增长到了60万亿韩元。That undermines one of the main advantages of this unusual system.该举削弱了这个独特系统的一个主要优势。Previously the large cash deposits that tenants had to build up helped shelter the Korean property market from bubbles, by restraining price increases, and from busts, by providing buyers with y pots of cash.之前租客累积的大额现金保金通过限制价格上涨避免韩国房产市场的泡沫并通过为卖方提供大量准备的现金防止破产。It also helped protect the banking system from losses on risky mortgages.它也有助于保护系统,免受高风险抵押贷款的威胁。Long considered a deal between individuals, the deposits are still not included in Koreas household debt statistics, nor in calculations of average loan-to-value ratios.因为长期以来被认为是个体间的交易,这项保金既不被纳入韩国家庭债务统计,也不被用于计算平均住房担保贷款率中。Central bank data on jeonse loans only go back to .中央有关jeonse贷款的数据只能追溯到年。But Sun Dae-in, the author of a recent book on Koreas housing market, says the deposits held by landlords must be seen as debts.但是,近期出版的有关韩国住房市场一书的作者Sun Dae-in 这样说道:被房东持有的保金必须被视作为债务。He estimates that about half of all jeonse money is used to finance a second or third property.他估计大约一半的Jeonse被用作购进第二或第三处房产。If added to housing loans, the average LTV ratio would jump from just under 50% to over 75%.如果增加到住房贷款,平均住房担保贷款 比率会从低于50%的水平攀升至超过75%。Last November the Bank of Korea estimated that a tenth of Koreas 3.7m jeonse landlords may find it hard to repay tenants deposits.上个十一月份,韩国估计370万 Jeonse房东的十分之一或许会发现付租客的保金有困难。Aly more landlords are choosing to rent their properties for a monthly fee: 40% did so last year, up from 34% in 2012.已经有越来越多的房东选择按月费的方式来出租他们的房产。But some homeowners would rather not ditch jeonse entirely: more than a quarter are using its hefty sums to pay off a mortgage on the rented property, according to the Bank of Korea.但是一些房屋所有者不愿意完全放弃Jeonse:根据韩国的数据,超过四分之一的人正通过其庞大的总量来偿还抵押他们已经出租的房产的贷款。They often offer tenants the option to substitute a monthly payment for an increase in the deposit.他们通常提供租客用月付方式来替代保金的增长的选择。A hybrid system, still unique to Korea, is taking root.一个依然有着韩国特色的混合系统正在生根发芽。 /201402/276299 During the last ice age, rapid swings in temperature occurred within decades or less, meaning populations of organisms had to adjust quickly to new environments or face extinction.在最后一个冰河世纪中,温度在数十年甚至更短的时间内迅速变化,这意味着生物种群不得不快速调整来适应新的环境,否则等待它们的只有种族灭绝。Scientists knew there wasnt time for the genetic code to mutate within individuals and sp throughout large populations. So, how did animals respond? Ancient bison preserved in the Canadian arctic have given scientists a clue.科学家知道那时基因编码没有时间在个体中产生变异并在种群中大范围地传播。那么,动物们是如何应对的?在加拿大北极圈内保留的古代野牛标本给科学家们提供了一些线索。When genes were first identified, scientists thought they were hard wired. One gene made one protein and was unalterable. Today we know the story is much more complex. Part of that complexity is known as epigenetics, a process by which genes are modified by environmental factors.第一次识别古代野牛的基因时,科学家们认为它们是固定相连的。一个基因对应一个蛋白质并且无法改变。如今我们知道故事远没有那么简单。其中一部分复杂性来自表观遗传学,它是基因通过环境因素发生改变的过程。The genetic code stays the same, but certain molecules attach to the code to prevent specific genes from working or to change how they are expressed. Other molecules can affect the chromosome and alter the way the DNA unwinds, affecting how genes work.基因密码保持不变,但是某个为阻止某个特定基因工作或变更的密码附属分子发生了变化。而其它分子可以通过影响染色体并改变DNA解旋的方式来影响基因的表达。Extracting DNAScientists examining twenty six thousand year old bison bones looked for evidence of epigenetic changes in extracted DNA. They analyzed the genetic code for a particular kind of epigenetic change called DNA methylation. They not only found methylations, they found them in locations where they occur in modern cattle. That suggested they werent due to DNA degradation, but were true epigenetic changes.DNA提取科学家检查了已有26000年历史的古代野牛的骨头,试 图在提取的DNA中找到表观遗传变异的据。他们分析了一种特定种类的表观变化(被称为DNA甲基化)的基因密码。他们不但找到了甲基化,而且发现它们跟 现代牛群体内发现的位置是一样的。这表明它们不是发生了DNA退化,而是真正的表观遗传变异。This is just the first step in solving the ice age adaptation puzzle. Scientists plan to gather more DNA samples from animals that lived before and after the dramatic climatic shifts. That way theyll have genetic snapshots to compare. If comparisons prove successful, the next step will be to determine exactly how the epigenetic alterations changed the gene expression.这仅仅是解决冰河世纪适应谜团的第一步。科学家计划在气候剧烈变化前后生存过的动物身上收集更多的DNA样本。如此一来,他们就有更多的基因用来比较。如果比较的结果明是之前的推断是正确的,那么下一步是确定表观变化是如何影响基因表达的。 /201305/240484鱼梁洲开发区妇幼保健院中医院肛肠科襄樊市襄阳区人民医院是私立还是公立的?



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