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青岛接睫毛最好的多少钱Made in Spain西班牙制造A pressing issue迫在眉睫The government frets about foreign hands on the nations olive-presses外国人插手本国橄榄油产业让政府很不安These are Spanish, not Italian这些是产自西班牙的橄榄,不是产自意大利的THE French government once scuttled a possible foreign bid for Danone, a big dairy firm, on the ground that it was a national industrial “jewel”. If yogurt is strategic for the French, olive oil has the same exalted status inSpain. Four savings banks wanted to sell their combined 31% stake in Deoleo, the countrys largest producer, and under Spains stockmarket rules anyone buying such a large stake has to bid for the whole company. Earlier this month, when it emerged that all the bidders were foreign, ministers said they would prefer that it remained in Spanish hands, and raised the possibility of the state taking a stake in the firm.达能集团是法国一家大型乳制品公司。法国政府曾以它是法国工业的“瑰宝”为理由,否决一项可能达成的国外买家对它的收购案。如果把酸奶产业看作是法国的战略产业,那么橄榄油产业在西班牙拥有同样高的地位。Deoleo是西班牙最大的橄榄油生产商,四家储蓄想抛售他们所持有共计31%的Deoleo股份,而根据西班牙股市交易规则,不论是谁购入如此大额的股份,他都必须向整个公司股东发出收购要约。本月初,当发现所有的竞购者都来自国外,部长们表示他们更希望Deoleo公司的所有权留在西班牙手中,随即提出了国家参股的可能性。On April 10th a British private-equity firm, CVC Capital, won the backing of Deoleos board after making the highest offer, valuing it at 439m. But given the controversy over selling to foreigners, two of the four would-be sellers now look like keeping their stakes. CVC will end up owning 30% of Deoleo but will later seek to buy the rest.4月10日英国一家私募股权公司CVC Capital以4.93亿欧元的最高价竞投,赢得了Deoleo董事会的持。但考虑到买家是外国人而引发的争议,现在四家储蓄中的两家看来要拒绝出售他们所持有的股份。CVC公司最终将拥有Deoleo 公司30%的股份,但之后将寻求购买其余股份的机会。Olive oil accounts for a mere 0.8% ofSpains exports. Yet it is an extra-sensitive matter. The country is the worlds largest producer of the oil, but one-third of its exports are sent in bulk toItalywhere it is bottled and sold, often for a significant markup, under Italian labels. Some of the oil sold with the Bertolli brand, one ofItalys andAmericas favourites, is in fact pressed by Deoleo from the fruits of Spanish olive groves.橄榄油出口额仅占西班牙出口额的0.8%。然而它却是一个特别敏感的问题。西班牙是世界上最大的橄榄油生产国,但是其出口的橄榄油有三分之一是批量发送到意大利的,在那里橄榄油以装瓶出售,通常带着明显的意大利标签,以意大利自有品牌进行销售。Bertolli是意大利人和美国人最青睐品牌之一,然而,有些冠以Bertolli的品牌出售的橄榄油,实际上是使用产自西班牙橄榄园的橄榄,由Deoleo公司压榨的。It is a similar story for wine.Spainhas overtakenFranceandItalyto become the worlds largest producer, but sells almost half of its exports in bulk to markets likeFrance, some of which is retailed under French labels. French- and Italian-labelled wines typically fetch higher prices than Spanish-labelled ones, though the gap is narrowing. And despite the global success of Spanish fashion retailers such as Inditex and Mango, the fancy handbags turned out by artisans in the small Andalusian town ofUbriqueare sold under French and Italian labels. Stuart Weitzman, an American shoe designer who makes his products inSpain, says the country produces the worlds best footwear, but its domestic labels have barely left a footprint on the world stage.对于葡萄酒,情况也类似。西班牙已经超过法国和意大利,成为世界上最大的葡萄酒生产国,但其出口的葡萄酒有几乎一半都批量送往国外零售市场,如法国零售市场,其中一些葡萄酒被冠以法国品牌出售。被冠以法国和意大利品牌标签的葡萄酒通常比西班牙品牌的葡萄酒售价更高,但这一差距正在缩小。尽管西班牙快时尚零售商在全球取得了成功,例如Inditex集团和芒果饰,但是由乌夫克里的安达卢西亚小镇中的工匠所制作的高档手袋,却被冠以法国和意大利的品牌销售。美国的鞋设计师斯图尔特.威兹曼在西班牙生产他的产品,他说:西班牙出产全世界最好的鞋,但其本土品牌却鲜有在世界舞台上留下足迹。Spainhas come a long way, compared with the relatively closed economy it had before joining the European Union in 1986. More recently, rising exports have helped pull the country out of a deep recession, with the economy returning to growth in the third quarter of 2013. Exports are now 34% of Spains GDP, up from 24% in . Its olive oil is winning new customers in places likeChinaandMexico. Prominent chefs like Ferran Adria have raised the profile of Spanish cuisine and attracted foodie tourists. But the country clearly has some way to go in raising the prestige of the “Made inSpain” label.1986年加入欧盟前,西班牙还是个相对封闭的经济体,到如今,它已取得很大进展。最近,出口的增长已帮助西班牙走出了深度的经济衰退。随着2013年第三季度经济回暖,日益增长的出口逐步拉动西班牙走出大萧条的泥沼。年,西班牙的出口额仅占国内生产总值的24%,如今已增长到34%。其橄榄油产品正在赢得中国和墨西哥等国顾客的青睐。像Ferran Adria这样的著名厨师提高了西班牙美食的知名度,也吸引了美食游客的到来。但显然,对于提高“西班牙制造”的声望,西班牙还有一段路要走。 /201404/293152青岛高密腿部抽脂手术的价格 青岛市公立三甲医院是正规的

青岛401医院预约挂号系统Science and technology科学技术The nature of humanity人类本质Whats a man?什么是人类Studies of brain genetics are starting to reveal what makes humans human大脑遗传研究,为你解开人之所以为人的奥秘THE problem with understanding human uniqueness is precisely that it is unique.研究人类独特性的难题在于这个独特性本身就很独特。Though the proper study of mankind may be man, that study will yield little if there is no reference point to compare man with.虽然人类研究的主体对象是人,但是如果没有比照对象的参与,研究很难有所突破。That, at least, is the philosophy of Svante Paabo of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, in Leipzig.至少,来自莱比锡马克斯普朗克进化人类研究所的斯万特帕珀是这样认为的。Dr Paabo, whose work on fossil DNA was the inspiration for Jurassic Park,帕珀士主要研究化石的DNA,正是受到《侏罗纪公园》启发,has since become interested in human evolution.他对人类进化史产生了浓厚的兴趣。To this end, he and his colleagues have sequenced the DNA of both Neanderthal man and an Asian species of prehistoric human,为了一探究竟,他和同事将穴居人和史前亚洲人种,the Denisovians, which Dr Paabos own work identified.帕珀士将其定义为丹尼索维亚人的DNA按序排列。Now he has turned his attentions to modern Homo sapiens.现在他又将注意力转移到了现代智人身上。In collaboration with a team from the Chinese Academy of Sciences,帕珀士和同事菲利普卡托维奇与中国科学院的科学家们相互合作,Dr Paabo and his colleague Philipp Khaitovich have compared genetic activity over the course of a lifetime in the brains of humans, chimpanzees and rhesus monkeys.将人类,猩猩,以及恒河猴有生之年的大脑遗传活动进行了比对。They have then matched what they found with what is known of Neanderthals,随后,他们将研究成果同穴居人研究成果相配对,and think they have thus discovered at least part of the genetic difference between Homo sapiens and the others that creates human uniqueness.并发现了智人和其他物种的差异,至少是部分差异。正是这些差异造就了人类独一无二的特性。Dr Paabo and his colleagues focused their examination,帕珀士和同事十分重视实验,just published in Genome Research, on two parts of the brain.他们只在《基因研究》杂志上刊登了大脑两个区域的研究成果。One was the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex,区域一是大脑背外侧前额皮层,which is the seat of abstract reasoning and social behaviour,things that humans are particularly good at.主管抽象思考和社交行为一类人类尤为擅长的活动。The other was the lateral cerebellar cortex, which is more to do with manual abilities.区域二是同动手能力联系密切的外侧小脑皮层。They extracted cells, post mortem, from people, chimps and monkeys of many ages, and looked at which genes had been active in these cells when the owners were alive.他们从不同年龄层的人类,黑猩猩以及猴子尸体上提取相关细胞,然后观察哪些基因在宿主存活时表现活跃。The vortex of the cortex皮层漩涡They did this by examining the RNA in the cells.他们通过检验细胞中的RNA来进行观察。RNA molecules are single-stranded copies of the double-helical DNA genes in the cell nucleus.RNA分子是细胞核内的双螺旋DNA基因的单链拷贝。Their job is to carry instructions from the genes to a cells protein-making machinery.RNA的工作是把基因的指令带到细胞的蛋白质形成机构内。Most primate genes have now been identified,现在大部分灵长类动物的基因都已被识别出来,so it is possible to make chips covered with complementary strands to the RNA messengers,所以人类可以制作一张芯片,在上面布满结构互补的单链RNA,to which these messengers will uniquely stick, and which thus act as probes for particular messenger molecules.因为信使RNA会与其紧密结合,所以可以专门用该芯片来搜寻携带遗传信息的分子。Using such chips, Dr Khaitovich and Dr Paabo were able to find out when, during the course of life, particular genes were active,卡托维奇士和帕珀士计算出了不同年龄段的不同个体的大脑的特定区域内每个基因细胞里的RNA数量,by working out how much RNA from each gene cells from particular parts of the brains of individuals of different ages contained.并利用该芯片,找出了一生中表现活跃的几个特定基因。Their results fell into six categories.以下是他们的六大发现。First, they found some genes whose expression patterns over a lifetime were uniquely human and others that were uniquely chimpanzee.发现一,有的基因的表达方式为人类特有,有的为猩猩特有,Second, they discovered that there were more uniquely human expression patterns than uniquely chimp ones.发现二,人类特有的基因表达要多于猩猩。Third, unique human expression patterns were more common in the prefrontal cortex than in the cerebellum.发现三,人类特有的基因表达多出现与前额叶皮层,而不是小脑。Fourth, though these uniquely expressed genes were most active in the young of all species,发现四,尽管这些物种特有的表达基因最活跃的时期都在青年期,their period of activity was several years longer in humans than in the others.但是人类基因的活跃期较长,能持续数年。Fifth, the activities of a lot of the uniquely active genes seemed to be correlated:发现五,许多活跃基因所进行的活动是相互联系的:the researchers identified seven groups of genes which each seemed to be working as a module.研究者发现了七组基因,似乎每一组都是独立的单元。And sixth, these modular genes seem to be involved in the crucial job of linking nerve cells together through junctions called synapses.发现六:这些单位基因组似乎在担子不轻,它们要经过各个枢纽将神经细胞连接到一起,这些枢纽名叫突触。To summarise, human beings have suites of genes that probably cause their brains to be plastic,总之,人类特有的一套套基因让大脑具备了可塑性,and thus receptive to change far longer than is true for chimps or monkeys.而且应变能力的维持时间要远远长于猩猩和猴子的大脑。Moreover, Dr Khaitovich was able to work out how the expression of these modules of genes was co-ordinated,另外,卡托维奇士通过观察控制基因单位的开关,by looking at the switches, known as transcription factors, that turn them on and off.也就是众所周知的转录因子,已经能够解答各个基因单位的表达是如何协调的问题。Indeed, by comparing modern genomes with their discoveries about Neanderthals Dr Paabos group has found that the regulatory process for one of the modules came into existence after the modern human and Neanderthal lines separated from one another, about 300,000 years ago.的确,通过比对现代人基因组和穴居人研究成果,帕珀士一行人已经发现了某组基因的调节过程,早在30万年前,当现代人类从穴居人家系中分离出来时,该组基因就已存在。Unfortunately, it is not possible to look at the expression pattern of genes in Neanderthals, and it probably never will be.然而不幸的是,现在已经无法观察穴居人的基因表达方式,而且可能再也看不到了。But it might be possible, as knowledge advances, to reconstruct part of it from a better understanding of that extinct speciess DNA.但是随着知识的积累,科学倒是家可以凭借对已消亡的物种的DNA更深入的了解,将穴居人的部分基因重现出来。Pleistocene Park, anybody?拍一部《更新世公园》,怎么样? /201403/280499 Have you ever heard that we humans use only ten percent of our brains? This oft-ed myth holds a certain appeal because if it were true, then we could instantly become ten times more intelligent just by firing up that sleepy majority of the brain!你是否曾经听说过我们人类只使用了大脑的百分之十?这个被经常引用的神话般的说法颇具吸引力,因为如果这种说法属实,那么我们只要激活沉睡的大部分大脑就可以比现在聪明十倍!Animals Experiments动物实验The idea that we use only a small fraction of the brain dates back to animal experiments in the 19th century. When scientists stimulated a specific part of the brain, the animal moved its leg or tail. If a tiny part of the brain could do something so grand, what was the use of the rest of the brain? Some scientists assumed (rather unscientifically) that large parts of the brain were simply useless.人类只使用了大脑很小一部分的观点可以追溯到19世纪的动物实验。当科学家刺激动物大脑的某个特殊部分时,动物的腿部或尾巴就会动弹。如果大脑这微小的一部分就可以引起这么大的动作,那么大脑其它部分有什么作用呢?一些科学家则假设(其实相当不科学)大脑的大部分没有任何作用。Then, in the early 20th century, scientists observed that stimulating certain regions of the brain had no physical effects. They dubbed these seemingly useless parts of the brain the “silent cortex.” Today we know that in humans, much of the “silent cortex” is actually devoted to complex activities like language, learning, and imagining.到了20世纪早期,科学家观察到,刺激动物大脑某个区域其身体没有任何反应。于是他们把这部分看起来无用的大脑称作“沉默的皮质”。如今我们都知道,在人类大脑中,许多“沉默的皮质”实际上在一些复杂活动诸如语言、学习和想象等方面发挥着重要的作用。Brain Scans脑部扫描Brain scans have shown that different parts of the brain crackle into heightened activity as we shift our attention and focus, but even as we sleep, many areas of the brain are extremely active. Would you be smarter if your entire brain constantly worked to maximum capacity? Interestingly enough, the opposite is probably true. The less brain activity you need to perform a given task, the more the brain as a whole is capable of doing.脑部扫描表明,当我们转移注意力或聚精会神时,大脑不同部位顿时提高活动强度,即使我们睡觉时,大脑的许多区域也极其活跃。如果整个大脑充分持续运转,人是否就会更聪明?有趣的是,结果恰恰相反。执行一项既定任务时脑部活动越少,大脑作为一个整体能做的事情就越多。 /201304/236945山东省青岛荣成隆鼻整容山东省青岛莱州减肥哪里好



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