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郴州包皮医院哪家好郴州治疗早泄手术大约需要花多少钱It#39;s the debate that has long divided animal lovers. Now scientists have confirmed that cats really are better than dogs – at least from an evolutionary perspective.一直以来,;猫和哪个更好;这一问题将动物爱好者划分为两大阵营。现在科学家已经实猫确实比更好——至少从进化的角度来看是这样。A groundbreaking study of 2,000 ancient fossils reveals that felids – the cat family – have historically been much better at surviving than the ;canid; dog clan, and often at the latter’s expense.一项对2000个古代化石进行的开拓性研究揭示了从历史上看,猫科动物家族的生存能力远远强于犬科动物家族,而且猫科动物的生存是以犬科动物的损耗为代价的。The research finds that cats have played a significant role in making 40 dog species extinct, outcompeting them for scarce food supplies because they are generally more effective hunters. But researchers found no evidence that dogs have wiped out a single cat species.这项研究发现,猫科动物在40个犬科物种的灭绝过程中发挥了重要作用。由于猫科动物通常是更有效率的捕猎者,在夺取供应不足的食物的竞争中猫科动物胜过了犬科动物。但是研究人员没有发现任何犬类动物消灭掉一个猫科物种的据。The dog family – which includes the wolves from which today’s domesticated dogs are descended – originated in North America about 40 million years ago and reached a maximum diversity around 20 million years later, when there were more than 30 species on the continent. At that point, the cat family arrived from Asia.犬科家族——包括现在的驯养的祖先狼——起源于约4000万年前的北美洲,在大约2000万年后达到了物种多样性的巅峰,当时在北美洲有超过30个犬类物种。与此同时,猫科动物也从亚洲来到此地。;The arrival of cats to North America had a deadly impact on the diversity of the dog family. We usually expect changes in climate to play the overwhelming role in the evolution of species. Instead, competition among different carnivore species proved to be even more important for the dogs,; said the report’s lead author, Dr Daniele Silvestro, of the University of Lausanne in Switzerland.这项研究报告的第一作者、瑞士洛桑大学的达妮埃尔·西尔韦斯特罗士表示:;猫科动物的到来给犬科动物的物种多样性造成致命打击。我们通常预计气候变化会在物种进化过程中发挥最重要的作用。但对于犬科动物来说,不同食肉动物物种间的竞争被明是更重要的。;The influx of cats prompted a period of dramatic decline among the dog clan. This has left North America with just nine species of wild dog today, comprising different variations of wolves and foxes, according to the fossil analysis published in the journal PNAS.猫科动物的涌入导致犬科动物数量在一段时间内大幅下降。依据这项发表在美国国家科学院院刊(PNAS)上的化石分析,这造成了如今北美洲仅存九个犬类物种,包括狼和狐狸的不同变种。Dr Silvestro says it is unclear exactly why, when times were tough, the cats were able to see off dogs so comprehensively. But he believed it could be something to do with the retractable claws that ancient cats have passed down to their domesticated descendants, but which dogs don’t have.西尔韦斯特罗士称,目前还不是十分清楚在当时的艰难岁月,猫科动物为什么能将犬科动物;驱逐;得那么彻底。但是他认为这可能跟古代猫科动物伸缩自如的爪子有关,这是犬科动物所不具有的。古代猫科动物还将这种爪子遗传给了自己的后裔家猫。Millions of years ago, some dog species, such as wolves, were effective killing machines, chasing down their prey at high speed and devouring it. All surviving dog species fall into this ;runner; camp.数百万年前,某些犬科物种(比如说狼)是有效的杀戮机器,能以高速追捕猎物并吞食掉。所有幸存的犬科动物都属于;奔跑系猎手;阵营。But other dog species ambushed their prey in a manner similar to the cat family. However, these dogs weren’t as good as the cats at this technique – and all the canid species who used it are now extinct.不过也有其他犬科动物伏击猎物的方式与猫科动物相似。然而,这些犬类动物并不像猫科动物那样擅长这项技能——所有曾使用这项技能的犬科动物现在都已经灭绝了。Dr Silvestro explained: ;The cats have retractable claws which they only pull out when they catch their prey. This means they don’t wear them out and they can keep them sharp. But the dogs can#39;t do this, so they are at a disadvantage to the cats in an ambush situation.;西尔韦斯特罗士解释称:;猫科动物只有在抓到猎物时才会亮出它们可伸缩的爪子,这意味着它们不会磨损并能够时刻保持锋利,但是犬科动物不能做到这一点。因此,同猫科动物相比,它们在伏击方面处于劣势。;The evolutionary success of carnivorous animals is strongly linked to their ability to obtain food, meaning that there can be significant competition for prey when there is insufficient supply for the population.食肉动物的进化成功在很大程度上与它们获取食物的能力有关,这也意味着当食肉动物的食物供应不足时,猎物的争夺将十分激烈。;Felids must have been more efficient predators than most of the extinct species in the dog family,; the report concluded.该报告总结称:;猫科动物与那些灭绝了的犬科动物相比一定是更有效的捕食者。; /201509/400172郴州治疗龟头炎多少钱 A new scientific research report has found strong evidence suggesting that man#39;s best friend originated from China some 33,000 years ago.一项最新的科学研究发现了有力据,明人类最好的朋友——,起源于大约3.3万年前的中国。The study, the findings of which were published in the science journal Cell Research, found that Chinese indigenous dogs represent an intermediate form between wolves and breed dogs, and that they have not experienced intense artificial selection.研究结果已发表在科学杂志《细胞研究》上。该研究称,中国本地是狼与的中间体,没有经历过激烈的人工选择。;Analyses of Chinese indigenous dogs therefore allow us to stratify the domestication process in dogs, and investigate the role of positive selection that occurred specifically during the first stage of domestication,; said the report.报告称:“因此,对中国本地的分析让我们可以对的驯化过程进行分类,进而调查“正向选择”在驯化第一阶段发挥的具体作用”。The researchers also found that the southern Chinese indigenous dogs together with several East Asian dogs, such as the Chow or Shar Pei, are closest to wolves.研究人员还发现,中国南方的以及一些东亚的品种(如雄狮和沙皮)更接近狼。The history of dog domestication is often depicted as a two-stage process where primitive dogs were first domesticated from their wild ancestors, the gray wolves. In the second stage, the primitive forms were further selected to form many dog breeds with specialized abilities.的驯化历史可分为两个阶段,原始的最初由它们“野生的祖先(即灰狼)”驯化而来。在第二阶段,原始种类被进一步选择,形成了很多具有特殊能力的。The researchers collected the genome sequences of 58 canids from across the world, including samples from Europe, Africa, southern and northern parts of East Asia, the Middle East, Siberia and the Americas. They found that after evolving for several thousand years in East Asia, a subgroup of dogs radiated out of southern East Asia about 15,000 years ago to the Middle East, Africa and Europe.研究人员收集了来自世界各地的58种犬科动物的基因组序列,包括来自欧洲、非洲、东亚的南部和北部、中亚、西伯利亚和美洲的样本。他们发现,类在东亚经历了几千年的发展,大约在1.5万年前,的一个子群从东亚南部发展开来,到达中亚、非洲和欧洲。;One of these out of Asia lineages then migrated back to northern China and made a series of admixtures with endemic East Asian lineages, before traveling to the Americas,; said the researchers. ;Our study, for the first time, reveals the extraordinary journey that the domestic dog has traveled on this planet during the past 33,000 years.;研究人员说:“这些脱离了亚洲血统的,有一些又迁移回到了中国北方,形成了一系列有东亚血统的杂交。之后,它们又迁徙到了美洲地区。我们的研究首次揭示了驯化在过去3.3万年里在地球上非同寻常的旅程。”However, the researchers acknowledged that several basic aspects about the dog#39;s origin and evolution are still debated over by scientists. For example, several different geographical regions have been proposed as the birthplace of domestic dogs, and the date of divergence between wolves and dogs has been estimated between 32,000 years ago and 10,000 years ago, according to the report.不过研究人员承认,科学家们在起源和进化的几个基本方面仍在存在争议。比如,家犬的发源地就有好几个不同版本,而狼和的分化时间也从3.2万年前至1万年前不等。;The exact history of dog domestication thus remains to be fully resolved.;“因此,驯化的确切过程仍有待进一步研究。” /201512/417939郴州市第一人民医院北院男科挂号

郴州苏仙区泌尿系统在线咨询郴州前列腺炎手术多少钱 William Lindesay, 59, has written five books on the Great Wall of China. His most recent, “The Great Wall in 50 Objects,” has just been published by Penguin China, and it will be released in Britain and the ed States next year. In an interview, Mr. Lindesay, a native of Wallasey, England, discussed a bronze warrior’s face, a recalcitrant curator at the Vatican Museums and how he first got interested in the wall.59岁的威廉·林赛(William Lindesay)写过五本关于中国长城的书籍。企鹅图书中国(Penguin China)刚刚出版了他的新书《虚拟长城展:50件长城文物》(The Great Wall in 50 Objects),该书将于明年在英国和美国发布。林赛在英国沃拉西出生长大,他在采访中谈到了一块青铜的士兵面部塑像,梵蒂冈物馆一位难以对付的策展人,以及他最初是如何对长城发生兴趣的。Q. You’ve been living in China for 30 years. What got you interested?问:你在中国生活了30年。什么让你对中国产生了兴趣?A. My first headmaster, who was a church minister, said we should have three books at our bedsides: a Bible, a prayer book and an atlas. I vividly recall seeing in the “Oxford School Atlas” the Great Wall with its battlement symbol. From that moment, I had in my mind that when I grew up I’d go to China and walk along the Great Wall from end to end.答:我上学时的第一位校长是个牧师,他说我们床头应该摆放三本书:《圣经》、祈祷书和地图册。我清楚地记得我在《牛津学生地图册》(Oxford School Atlas)中看到了长城的雉堞线。从那刻起,我就萌生了长大后要去中国,沿着长城从一端走到另一端的想法。Like most childhood dreams, that was almost forgotten. But then in my 20s, my brother suggested running the length of Hadrian’s Wall, from Newcastle to Carlisle. During a break, he turned to me and said, “Hey, Will, you should go to China and do the wall!” It was 1984, China was open, there were stories about China in the press. China was on the map, but kind of the great unknown. I thought, well, I am not going to have this chance again. I had no loves or loans to hold me back. I was in good shape — a two-hour, 39-minute marathoner — so I set off.就像大部分儿时梦想一样,这个想法也几乎被淡忘了。但在我20多岁的时候,我的兄弟提议沿着哈德良长城(Hadrian’s Wall)从纽卡斯尔跑到卡莱尔。途中休息期间,他转过头来对我说,“威廉,你应该去中国走一遍长城!”那是1984年,中国已经对外开放。媒体有报道中国的故事。从地图上也能看到中国,但中国对我来说是一个巨大的未知数。我想,好吧,我以后不会有这样的机会了。我没有恋人或贷款的牵绊,我状态很好——跑马拉松花了2小时39分钟,所以我就出发了。Q. You’d written four books aly on the Great Wall. Why another?问:你已经写了四本有关长城的书。为什么还要再写一本?A. Thus far I’ve studied the wall by looking at its grand remains, the ruins. You see ruins. You see things are missing, but what and where? Naturally, I visited museums and saw many relics behind glass. Many of the objects just had a name and a date and a place where they were found. Sometimes they would have a tantalizing label like “an important relic for understanding life on the Han dynasty Great Wall,” but they didn’t explain why. So I thought, I’ll have to do that one day. I want to let these objects speak. I also saw objects in Mongolia, realizing that, although the Great Wall as a building is Chinese, as a story it has two sides.答:到目前为止,我一直通过观察宏伟的遗迹,或者说废墟来研究长城。你看到了那些遗迹。发现缺失了一些东西,但缺失的是什么,它们去哪了?自然而然地,我又参观了物馆,看到了很多玻璃展窗里的文物。很多文物都只有名称、日期及被发现的地点。它们有时候会被贴上引人遐想的标签,比如“有助于了解汉长城沿线生活的重要文物”,但没有说明原因。所以我想,我将来有一天要做这件事情。我想让这些文物开口说话。我还在蒙古国看到了相关文物,我意识到虽然长城是中国的建筑,但作为一个故事,它有两面。Q. You make a point of telling the nomads’ side of the story, too.问:你也从游牧民的角度讲述了这个故事。A. I went to Mongolia in 2011 and realized that for 20 years I had largely studied the wall from just the Chinese side. I was Sinocentric. I visited a private museum there and saw a tiny, yet amazing, bronze belt decoration depicting a Xiongnu warrior’s face, which is Object 3 in the book. These were the people who had attacked the Han dynasty [206 B.C.-220 A.D.] for centuries, but this was the first time I’d seen a representation of what one looked like. This object humanized them.答:我在2011年去了蒙古国,认识到自己在20年的时间里主要从中国那一面研究长城。我是以中国为中心的。我在蒙古参观了一家私人物馆,在那里看到一个微小但令人惊叹的铜制腰带装饰,它描绘了一个匈奴士兵的面部,也就是书中的“文物3”。这些人在长达几个世纪的时间里攻击汉朝[公元前206年至公元220年],但那是我第一次看到他们的模样。这一文物赋予了他们人性。Q. Your method of focusing on objects reminds me of the podcasts and book published by Neil MacGregor of the British Museum, “A History of the World in 100 Objects.”问:你这种关注文物的做法,让我想起了大英物馆的尼尔·麦格雷戈(Neil MacGregor)推出的播客和他出版的《大英物馆世界简史》(A History of the World in 100 Objects)。A. I’m a great fan of his. He’s a fantastic interpreter of history. Out of the millions of objects in the British Museum, he chose 100 and enthralled people around the world. He showed objects that seem unrelated, but which have so many connections. He showed that the formula worked. But only when you try to do it yourself do you realize how much hard work it is!答:我是他的铁杆粉丝。他是一个非常棒的历史解读者。他从大英物馆的数百万件藏品中挑出100件,令世界各地的人着迷。他展现了一些看似无关的文物,但它们之间又有很多联系。他的经验表明这种做法是有效的。但只有当你设法做这些事情的时候,才会认识到它有多难。Q. You order your objects chronologically, but start with eight that give an overview.问:你在书中按照年代编排了这些文物,但开篇却利用八件文物进行了综述。A. I started out with objects to illustrate how Europeans first heard about the wall, and how Chinese did. For foreigners, it was through maps. For the Chinese, it was through the heartbreaking legend of Meng Jiangnu, whose tears of mourning for her husband, a wall builder, caused the fortification to collapse.答:在书的开头,我用这些文物说明欧洲人第一次听说长城的途径,以及中国人是如何听说的。外国人是通过地图了解的。中国人则是通过有关孟姜女的悲情传说了解的,孟姜女为了悼念修筑长城的丈夫而痛哭城下,导致那段长城就此坍塌。Also, in the opening group of objects I introduced two of the most common building materials. In the west of China I showed that water was a key building material as evidenced by the plethora of broken water pots. Every museum has rooms of pots you have to go through before you get to the gold and jade, but actually pots tell you a hell of a lot.在开篇中,我还介绍了两种最普遍的建筑材料。我指出,在中国西部,水是很重要的建筑材料,大量破水罐就可以说明这一点。每个物馆都有展览各种罐子的展厅,在抵达黄金、玉器展厅前,肯定要先经过陶罐,实际上通过这些罐子可以了解很多事。Q. What was the most challenging section of the book?问:书中最有挑战性的哪个章节?A. I have a section called “Intrusions.’’ This is the middle period of the Great Wall’s 2,300-yearlong story, after the collapse of the Han dynasty and before the rise of the Ming [1368-1644] and its famous wall. I learned a lot, such as why the Tang [dynasty, 618-907] didn’t build a wall. This is often considered China’s “golden era.” I chose a gorgeous triglazed camel figurine carrying a small group of foreign musicians to illustrate the prosperous trade on the Silk Road, which brought in the taxation to fund alternatives to ultracostly walls, namely pacification policies and military offensives.答:有一章叫“入侵”。在长城2300年的历史中,那一章的内容发生在中期,是在汉朝灭亡,明朝[1368年至1644年]和著名的明长城建起之前。我学到了很多,比如唐代[618年至907年]为什么没有修长城。这个时期通常被认为是中国的“黄金时代”。我选了一件非常漂亮的三釉骆驼雕像来表现丝绸之路上繁荣的贸易,骆驼驮着一小群外国乐师。繁荣的贸易带来了税收,从而为安抚政策和军事进攻提供了资金,以此替代了花费昂贵的长城。Q. I note that the heart of your book centers on the Ming Great Wall.问:我注意到你这本书的核心是在明长城上。A. Yes, Objects 27 to 41 cover the Ming. Most people who come to China see the Ming wall, typically the brick-and-stone “dragon” snaking through the mountains north of Beijing. That’s the core, the zenith of the story.答:是的,第27号到第41号文物涉及的都是明朝。来中国的大部分人看到的都是明长城,典型的是那条在北京北部的山岭间蜿蜒盘旋的砖石“巨龙”。这是本书的核心,是故事的高潮。Q. Were all the museums you approached helpful?问:你接洽的所有物馆都乐于帮忙吗?A. Museums in Mongolia were most helpful. When I started, my rule was to be able to see each object, and examine it up close. They allowed that. They’d take the plate glass off the display case with suction pads and lift the object out and take it to the office and let me look at it. The national museum’s curator said the only thing we haven’t got here is live horses, but you must include this in your 50 objects. Without the Mongolian horse, he said, there would be no nomads attacking China, no cavalry, no means of conquering. I included it as a “living antiquity.’’答:蒙古国的物馆是最愿意帮忙的。一开始,我的要求就是要能看到每一件文物,并且近距离地观察。他们允许了。他们会用吸盘取下展示柜的厚玻璃板,取出文物并将其带到办公室让观察。国家物馆的馆长说,我们唯一没带来的就是活马了,但你必须把马收进你的50件文物里。他说,没有蒙古马,就不会有游牧部族袭击中国的行动,不会有骑兵,不会有征的手段。我把它当做“活的文物”收录进了书里。Q. Which museum was the least cooperative?问:哪家物馆最不配合?A. I was very keen to include a 7-meter-long [23 feet] map that was in the Vatican Museums, listed there as the Borgia Great Wall Scroll and dating from circa 1695. I wrote to them, but they didn’t reply. I wrote in Italian, but still no reply. I went there, but not at the right time. It had been sent overseas on loan for the first time.答:我非常渴望把梵蒂冈物馆(Vatican Museums)一幅七米长的地图收录进来。那幅地图被该物馆命名为《波吉亚长城古卷》(Borgia Great Wall Scroll),可追溯至大约1695年。我写信给他们,但对方没回信。我又用意大利语写,还是没收到回信。我亲自去了,但时间又不对。那幅地图首次被借到外国去了。I later saw the museum was soliciting money to conserve it, and asking for donors. So I raised the money, ,000, and offered to help. I was astonished when they told me that another group had pledged to fund the map’s repair. Never giving up, I wrote again to the curator — who finally gave me a reply, but a rather nasty and unfriendly one. He didn’t want to let any outsider in, least of all one who is considered a friend of China, as I am, for the conservation contributions I have made to the Great Wall.后来,我看到梵蒂冈物馆在为保护那幅地图筹集资金,请人捐款。于是我筹集了2.5万美元,表示愿意帮忙。没料到他们告诉我,另一个团体已经承诺为地图的修复出资了。我不肯放弃,又给那个策展人写信。对方最后回信了,但回信态度恶劣,很不友好。他不想让任何外人参与进去,尤其是像我这样一个被认为是中国的朋友的人——因为对保护长城做出了贡献,我也的确是中国的朋友。Museums are the best classrooms for knowledge and education, but some curators are like prison wardens, holding the keys, keeping the antiquities imprisoned, not allowing visitors, trying to keep people out.物馆是学知识、受教育的最好的课堂。但有些策展人就像监狱里的看守一样,手拿着钥匙,把文物关起来,不允许有人参观,想方设法地把人拒之门外。 /201512/416228郴州嘉禾县治疗阳痿早泄

在郴州割个包皮多少钱Director-General Bokova, ladies and gentlemen,尊敬的科娃总干事,女士们、先生们:It gives me a great pleasure to join you for this important initiative as the UN marks its 70th anniversary。我非常高兴在联合国成立70周年之际,出席这一教育高级别会议。Education is very close in my heart. My father grew up in a very small village in China. In those days, not many villagers could . So my father opened a night school to teach them how to . With his help, many people learned to write their own names; with his help many people learned to newspapers for the first time; with his help, many women were able to teach their children how to 。我非常关注教育,我的父亲生长在中国的一个小山村,那个时候许多农民都不识字,当时我的父亲是村夜校校长,专门帮助扫盲,在他的帮助下,许多人第一次写出了自己的名字,第一次看懂了报纸和书刊。在他的帮助下,许多女性也能够把自己学会的字教给他们的孩子们。As his daughter, I know what education means to the people, especially those without it. After generations of hard work, China has come a long way in education. I myself am a beneficiary of that progress.Otherwise I would never become a soprano and a professor of musical。在父亲的教导下,我自幼就清楚地意识到教育对每个人,尤其是对得不到教育的人来说是多么重要。经过了几代人的努力,中国的教育事业取得了显著成就,我自己就是中国教育发展的受益者,否则的话,我永远都不可能成为一个女高音歌唱家和一个音乐教师。I am following my father’s footsteps by teaching at China’s Conservatory of Music to help continue China’s success story. I want to thank Director-General Bokova and UNESCO for naming me the Special Envoy for Women and Girls Education. I am truly honored to work with the UN and do something about Global Education. I have visited many schools around the world. I’ve seen first-hand on how much we can do for education。我现在也追随我父亲的脚步,投 身教育工作,为推动中国教育事业发展尽绵薄之力。我想要感谢科娃总干事和教科文组织,授予我促进女童和妇女教育特使称号,我非常荣幸能够与联合国组织共 同为全球教育贡献一己之力。我走访了世界很多国家的学校,我也亲眼看到了在教育方面,我们可以做出更多的努力。教育要关注妇女和女童,女童一定要上学,这 个很重要的,因为她们长大之后,会成为自己孩子的第一位老师。Education is about women and the girls. It is important for girls to go to school because they will become their children’s first teacher some day. But women still account for over half of the world’s poor in population and 60% of adults who can’t 。但是全球贫困者中,女性过半,而全球成年文盲中,女性人占60%以上,教育是改变女性不公平待遇的重要途径,中国的春蕾计划,帮助了三百多万女童重返学校,其中很多人已经从高校毕业,并且成为社会的有用之材和优秀分子。Education is crucial in the addressing such in equalities. In China, Spring Bud Education Program has helped over 3 million girls go back to school. Many of them have finished university education and they are doing well at work. Education is about equality. In poor countries and regions the number of school dropouts is astonishing. We call for more educational resources to these places.Education is about the young people. Young people are the future. Education is important because it not only gave young people knowledge and skills but also help them become responsible citizens. As the UNESCO special envoy and the mother myself my commitment to education for all will never change。教育要倡导公平公正,在许多的贫困的国家和地区,辍学比例很高,我们呼吁加大对这些地区的教育投入,教育要面向青年,青年是我们的未来,教育之所以重要,因为它不仅要教授知识和技能,而且也帮助青年人成长为具有强烈社会责任感的公民,作为教科文组织的一名特使和一名母亲,我也愿意恪尽职守,实现教育的进展和进步。Many years ago my father made a small difference in his village. Together we can make a big difference in the world. I was once asked about my Chinese dream. I said I hope all children especially girls can have access to good education. This is my Chinese dream. I believe one day education first will no longer be a dream, it will be a reality enjoyed by every young woman on this planet。多年前我的父亲通过他的努力,改变了他所在的小村庄,今天只要大家携手努力,就能改变世界。有人问过什么是我的中国梦,我说我希望所有的孩子,特别是女孩,都能接受良好的教育,这就是我的中国梦。我坚信总有一天,教育第一的梦想将不会是一个梦想,将会成为全世界共享的美好现实。Thank you very much。谢谢大家。 /201509/401566 资兴人民中妇幼保健医院治疗前列腺炎多少钱郴州治疗生殖器感染专科医院



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