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盐城同洲手外科医院做体检多少钱盐城人流那里比较好Github, an online forum for software developers that also hosts tools used by Chinese internet users to bypass censorship, has been hit by a powerful cyber attack that security experts believe originated in China.软件开发人员在线论坛网站Github遭遇强劲网络攻击,安全专家相信这次网络攻击源自中国。目前,Github网站上托管着中国互联网用户可用来绕开中国国内审查机制的工具软件。The San Francisco-based start-up said it was experiencing the largest denial-of-service attack in its history, as cyber criminals bombarded the site with traffic in an attempt to take it offline.这家总部驻旧金山的初创公司表示,该网站正经历建站以来最大规模的“拒绝务”(DoS)攻击。所谓拒绝务攻击,是指网络罪犯通过巨大的流量轰炸某个特定网站,以使其下线的网络攻击方法。In a blog post, the company said the attack had started on Thursday and involved a “wide combination of attack vectors”, including “sophisticated new techniques that use the web browsers of unsuspecting, uninvolved people to flood github.com with high levels of traffic”.该公司在一篇客文章中表示,这次网络攻击始于周四,“参与的攻击媒介涵盖范围极广”,使用了“十分复杂的新技术,通过受信任的无辜人群的网络浏览器,以极高流量水平冲击了github.com网站”。The company said that based on reports it had received, “we believe the intent of this attack is to convince us to remove a specific class of content”.该公司表示,根据它已收到的相关报告,“我们相信此次攻击的意图是说我们移除特定类别的内容”。The privately owned company would not specify what content was being targeted. The site is mainly used by software engineers and start-ups to store and collaborate on their work.这家私人控股的公司不会透露具体要求移除的内容是什么。目前,使用该网站的主要是软件工程师和初创企业,他们用它存储其工作内容并开展相互合作。But it also contains copies of some websites banned in China, including a page run by Greatfire.org that helps Chinese internet users circumvent government censorship.不过,该网站还托管着部分中国被封网站的拷贝,其中包括Greatfire.org网站运营的一个网页。Greatfire.org是一家帮助中国互联网用户绕开政府审查机制的网站。Security experts said the attack appeared to have originated in China, with the web browsers of foreign visitors to Baidu.com, the Chinese search engine, stealthily redirected to Github, overwhelming the site with traffic.多名安全专家表示,此次攻击似乎源自中国,中国搜索引擎百度网站(Baidu.com)的外国访问者的浏览器被隐秘地重定向至Github网站,从而令该网站的流量超过其承受能力。Github was temporarily blocked in China in 2013.2013年,Github网站在中国曾被临时封禁。Adam Fisk of Getlantern.org, a site that provides tools for bypassing China’s “Great Firewall” and hosts its installers on Github, said this kind of DDOS attack could cost a company hundreds of thousands of dollars a day, and might be aimed at putting pressure on Github to take down content that could not be blocked wholesale because Github is widely used by China’s technology industry.Getlantern.org网站的亚当#8226;菲斯克(Adam Fisk)表示,这种分布式拒绝务攻击(DDoS)一天就会令企业蒙受数十万美元损失。采取这种攻击方式可能旨在向Github施加压力,迫使该网站取下无法被封禁的内容。由于中国高科技产业也在广泛使用Github网站,从整体上将该网站封禁并不可行。“Github is hugely important to the whole internet, it’s where everyone keeps their code,” Mr Fisk said. “The more disturbing strategy shift this represents is that the Chinese are going after sites such as Github not through blocking but through denial of service attacks. It seems like what they are doing is trying to bend Github to their will, to intimidate them.”菲斯克表示:“Github对整个互联网都至关重要,所有人都把代码放在该网站上。这次攻击显示出,中国人正通过拒绝务实施攻击而不是封禁对付这类网站,从而将其策略转向更偏重扰乱对方运作的方式。他们的目的看起来似乎是试图恐吓Github网站,以便让该网站按照他们的意志行事。”Github has managed to keep much of the site live during the attack. It has published regular status updates showing the attention of the hackers switching between different parts of the forum and the highest levels of traffic flooding the system in waves.在此次攻击期间,Github成功地保持了网站大部分内容的运作。该网站发布了一份例行状态更新,显示出黑客的注意力在网站不同部分间不断转移,冲击其系统的最高流量水平也时高时低。The US has accused the Chinese People’s Liberation Army of hacking into American websites, with the FBI recently investigating an attack on Register.com, which manages website addresses, according to people familiar with the probe. The Chinese military denies the accusation and insists it is a victim in the recent global surge in cyber warfare.美国曾指控中国人民解放军(PLA)攻击美国网站。知情人士表示,美国联邦调查局(FBI)最近曾对管理网址的Register.com网站遭遇的网络攻击开展过调查。中国军方否认了这一指控,坚称他们是近期全球网络战激增的受害者。 /201504/367533盐城/市协和医院私密整形多少钱 Long before Sony Pictures Entertainment revealed in November that it had been hacked by a group calling itself the Guardians of Peace, another division of Sony was attacked by cyber attackers.索尼影业今年11月宣布,公司遭受了自称为“和平卫士”黑客组织的攻击。而在很早以前,索尼的另一个部门就遭遇过网络攻击。Between April and May 2011, Sony Computer Entertainment’s online gaming service, PlayStation Network, and its streaming media service, Qriocity—plus Sony Online Entertainment, the company’s in-house game developer and publisher—were hacked by LulzSec, a splinter group of Anonymous, the hacker collective.在2011年4月至5月期间,索尼电脑公司的在线游戏务平台PlayStation Network、流媒体务Qriocity,以及索尼内部的游戏开发和发行部门索尼在线公司,相继遭到黑客团体匿名者的分组织LulzSec的攻击。The online services were shut down between April 20 and May 15 as Sony attempted to secure the breach, which put the sensitive personal data for over 100 million customers at risk. The chief executive of Sony Computer Entertainment America at the time, Kazuo Hirai, wrote the following on the PlayStation blog:当年4月20日至5月15日,索尼关闭了上述在线务,试图修复漏洞,以切实保护超过1亿用户的敏感个人信息。时任索尼(美国)电脑公司首席执行官平井一夫在PlayStation的客上写道:“We are taking a number of steps to prevent future breaches, including enhanced levels of data protection and encryption; enhanced ability to detect software intrusions, unauthorized access and unusual activity patterns; additional firewalls; establishment of a new data center in an undisclosed location with increased security; and the naming of a new Chief Information Security Officer (CISO).”“我们采取了许多措施来阻止未来产生漏洞,包括提高数据保护和加密级别,增强发现软件入侵、越权存取和异常活动的能力,加设防火墙,在秘密地点建立安全级别更高的全新数据中心,任命新的首席信息安全官(CISO)。”Hirai is now president and CEO of Sony.如今,平井一夫已是索尼集团的首席执行官。Philip Reitinger was appointed CISO of Sony Corporation America in September 2011, shortly after that year’s breach. This September, he left Sony to start his own security consulting business, VisionSpear. John Scimone replaced him.在被黑不久后的2011年9月,菲利普o雷丁格被任命为索尼(美国)公司首席信息安全官。而在今年9月,菲利普离开索尼,创立了自己的安全咨询公司VisionSpear。约翰o希莫内接替了他的工作。Globally, Sony has more than 140,000 employees and more than 100 subsidiaries. “Not only did Reitinger have his hands full,” says Gary S. Miliefsky, CEO of cyber security firm SnoopWall, “but some people say that his team could not manage all the corporate network ‘touch points.’ So there was no centralization of security events information management.” Reitinger’s departure this year also created a security leadership gap at Sony when the company needed it most, Miliefsky adds.索尼在全球拥有超过14万名员工和100多家子公司。网络安全公司SnoopWall的首席执行官加里oSo米里夫斯基表示:“尽管雷丁格忙得焦头烂额,但有些人认为,他的团队无力管理公司网络的所有‘接触点’。所以说,索尼并没有集中管理安全事件信息。”米里夫斯基补充道,雷丁格今年的离职也造成了索尼安全部门领导层的空缺,而当时恰恰是索尼最需要这个岗位发挥作用的时候。Sony Computer Entertainment and Sony Pictures Entertainment declined to comment.索尼电脑公司和索尼影视公司拒绝发表。Sony SNE 2.21% learned a lot of painful lessons from the 2011 breach, says Lewis Ward, research director for gaming at the market research firm IDC. The company reported a hard cost of 1 million, but Ward estimates that the hack ended up costing Sony more than 0 million through the end of 2012 as it worked to clean up the mess and reinforce its defenses. “On the gaming side, nothing like the PlayStation Network attack had happened before, or has happened since,” he says. “It was unprecedented in gaming.”市场研究公司IDC的游戏研究总监路易斯o沃德表示,索尼从2011年的风波中得到了许多惨痛的教训。该公司宣布黑客攻击造成的直接损失达到1.71亿美元,但沃德估算说,截止2012年底,被黑事件造成的损失要超过2.5亿美元,因为该公司还要收拾残局、加强防卫。沃德称:“在游戏界,类似索尼PlayStation Network被黑的事件之前没有过,之后也没再发生过。这是游戏界空间绝后的一例。”Sony and Microsoft MSFT -0.64% have experienced smaller breaches of their online gaming networks since 2011, including another PlayStation Network attack in October 2011 and a PlayStation Store attack earlier this month. But the April 2011 attack stands alone for its size and scope.自2011年以来,索尼和微软的在线游戏网络相继遭遇一些小规模的攻击。比如,2011年10月,PlayStation Network再次遭袭,就在本月早些时候,PlayStation Store也遭到黑客攻击。但无论是就规模,还是就范围而言,2011年4月发生的那次被黑事件都是独一无二的。That’s because the PlayStation Network suffered multiple kinds of attacks, Miliefsky says. One was a classic data breach—the release of otherwise secure information. The second was a distributed denial-of-service attack, or DDoS, that left the network inaccessible to gamers. Sony has since improved its stance against both attack types—for example, it’s now a strong partner of Amazon Web Services, the dominant cloud computing player, improving its odds against a DDoS—and Hirai has improved collaboration across Sony’s many divisions since taking the company’s top job.米里夫斯基表示,这是因为PlayStation Network那次遭受了多种类型的攻击。其中之一是经典的数据泄露——原本安全的数据被黑客公布。第二种是分布式拒绝务攻击,这种攻击会让玩家无法访问网络。从那以后,索尼就强化了应对这两种攻击的防护措施。比如,索尼如今携手统治级的云计算产品亚马逊网络务系统,提高了防御分布式拒绝务攻击的成功率。此外,在出任索尼集团掌门人之后,平井一夫着手改善了公司各个部门的合作方式。But there’s one major factor that prevented Sony from better using those 2011 lessons in 2014: organizational structure. The company has long had a reputation for operating in silos, says Michael Pachter, a game analyst at Wedbush Securities, and no silo is more isolated than Sony Pictures Entertainment. “It’s the [Sony] movie guys who don’t talk to anybody,” Pachter says. “They learned nothing from the PlayStation Network breach. I don’t know the movie guys, but the game people have been very friendly and open-minded and would love to work with the Sony movie guys.”然而,有一个重要因素使得索尼在2014年没能更好地利用2011年得到的惨痛教训,那就是该公司的组织结构。韦德布什券公司分析师迈克尔o帕切特表示,索尼多年来以孤岛式的运营闻名,而索尼影视公司则是那个最孤立的岛屿。帕切特说:“从不与其他任何人说话的,就是(索尼)那些搞电影的家伙。他们没有从PlayStation Network被攻击中吸取教训。我不了解那些搞电影的员工,但索尼游戏部门的员工一直很友好很开放,应该会愿意同电影部门的员工合作才是。”This type of corporate structure is hardly limited to Sony, but it helps explain why such a challenging period in 2011 didn’t better prepare the company to avoid a similar scenario in 2014. “Most organizations are in silos,” says Tim Eades, CEO of the security company vArmour. “They need better sharing and collaboration solution in security between their divisions and their supply chain. If Sony had that, it would have been stronger.”这种公司结构并非索尼公司所独有,但它有助于解释索尼为何在2011年遭遇这样的挑战后,仍没有做好更充分的准备以避免在2014年重蹈覆辙。安全公司vArmour的首席执行官蒂姆o伊德斯表示:“大多数机构都是孤岛式的。他们需要更好地在各个部门和供应链之间分享安全问题的解决方案,并展开更有效的合作。如果索尼这么做了,它就会更加强大。”The problem? Sony didn’t address its organizational issues fast enough after the 2011 hack, Miliesky says. “From that moment on, their CIO should have implemented corporate-wide protection measures and beefed up info-sec training for employees that would be standardized across the organization,” he says. “The tools and techniques they decided to use to protect the public-facing PlayStation Network was a reactive approach—’We were attacked at point X by Y, so let’s defend point X with tools to stop successful exploitation by these kinds of Y attacks.’ It was completely reactive, not proactive.”问题在哪?米里夫斯基表示,在2011年被黑客袭击后,索尼没有足够迅速地处理组织结构问题。他说:“从那时起,他们的首席信息官就应该在全公司推行防护措施,加强员工的信息安全培训,这些应当成为公司上下的标准化培训内容。就面向大众的PlayStation Network而言,索尼采用了完全被动的防护措施——‘我们在X点被Y攻击了,所以我们用各种工具来强化X点,避免让与Y类似的攻击再次得逞。’这完全是被动防御,而不是主动防御。”It’s a particularly knotty issue for a company as large as Sony. “The attack surface that Sony has is vast and requires significant investment and, unfortunately, time to deploy,” Eades says.对于索尼这样的大公司而言,做好防御尤其困难。伊德斯表示:“索尼可以被攻击的面很广,需要大量投资和时间来部署防御,这的确令人遗憾。”The email correspondence that leaked in the wake of the recent hack showed that Sony Pictures Entertainment may have been operating without adequate protection against phishing attacks, remote-access Trojans, password management policies, proper use of encryption, data storage, and backups, Miliesky says.米里夫斯基称,在最近的黑客攻击中泄露的电子邮件通讯,明索尼影视公司没有采取足够措施来防范网络钓鱼攻击和远程访问木马,没有有效的密码管理策略,也没有恰当地进行加密、数据储存和备份操作。“Ultimately, SPE was wide open,” Miliesky says. “They probably had a firewall and antivirus and told their CISO ‘everything is safe and secure over here,” if that conversation even happened. A proper inventory control, vulnerability assessment, and employee training at SPE would have revealed much to the CISO.”米里夫斯基表示:“最后,索尼影视公司等于是门户大开。他们很可能只是装了个防火墙和杀毒软件,然后告诉他们的首席信息安全官‘这里一切安全’——如果真的有这类对话的话。如果索尼影视公司有恰当的存储控制、漏洞评估和员工培训机制,首席信息安全官本可以知道得更多。”Sony has improved its internal coordination, thanks to both Hirai’s leadership and the return of Andrew House as president and Group CEO of Sony Computer Entertainment, Pachter says. For example, Sony Pictures Television is currently filming the original live action television series, Powers, for the PlayStation Network. But the budding synergy between divisions wasn’t enough to stop the most recent cyber attack against Sony, says P.J. McNealy, CEO of the market research firm Digital World Research.帕切特表示,拜平井一夫的领导和安德鲁o豪斯重新担任索尼电脑公司总裁和集团首席执行官所赐,索尼的内部协调已经得到了改善。比如,索尼影视电视公司目前就正在为PlayStation Network拍摄原创实景真人系列电视剧Powers。然而,市场调研公司Digital World Research的首席执行官P. J. 麦克尼利表示:仍处于萌芽期的部门合作尚不足以阻止近来针对索尼的网络攻击。In 2011, Sony Computer Entertainment worked hard to win back the trust of its gaming customers, and today it leads both Microsoft and Nintendo in the gaming console market with its PlayStation 4. “Consumers are quick to forgive on this front because at the end of the day it’s an entertainment product,” McNealy says. “I was surprised at how quickly the user numbers spiked back after the patch was fixed and the network went back online [in May 2011]. Consumers are accepting that this is the new world we live in, where hacks take place.”2011年,索尼电脑公司做出了大量努力来赢回其游戏消费者的信赖。如今,索尼借PlayStation 4在游戏主机市场取得了对微软和任天堂的领先。麦克尼利说:“消费者在这方面很容易原谅,因为到头来这只是个产品。在(2011年5月)打好补丁,PS主机平台网络重新上线后,消费者回归的速度让我感到十分惊讶。消费者已经开始接受这样一个事实:我们所在的是一个全新的世界,黑客攻击总是难免的。”Experts agree that while Sony’s reputation is suffering in the wake of the most recent attack, it is hardly the only company at risk from such issues.专家也承认,尽管由于最近的被黑事件,索尼蒙受了名誉损失,但它不是唯一一家由于这类问题而陷入危机的公司。“Can any corporation really firewall itself to be invulnerable to attacks today?” McNealy asked. “We’ve now seen hackers breach major corporations and major retailers. Everyone’s a target for hackers. There’s been a real shift in the hacking community from unleashing viruses through emails on select holidays to attract headlines 10 years ago, to trying to grab personal data and information.”麦克尼利问道:“如今真的有公司能保自己不遭受黑客攻击吗?我们现在亲眼看到,黑客能攻破大型公司和零售商。每个人都是黑客的目标。黑客的行为已经有了真正的转变,他们不再像10年前那样通过在特定节日发送病毒邮件来取头条,如今他们正试图窃取个人数据和信息。”Joseph Demarest, assistant director of the cyber division of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, earlier this month declared to members of Congress that 90% of businesses could not have stopped the Sony Pictures Entertainment attack.联邦调查局网络安全部副主任约瑟夫o德马雷斯特于本月早些时候对国会表示,90%的公司都无法抵御索尼影视公司遭受的攻击。“I agree with that number,” Miliefsky says. “But the real issue is today’s security posture and employee training. The biggest weakness at Sony Pictures Entertainment was the employees. If you can’t train them to behave better, then what can you expect but another successful breach?”米里夫斯基说:“我同意这个比例。但真正的问题是如今的安全态势和员工培训。索尼影视公司最大的弱点在于员工。如果你不能加强员工培训,让他们改善自己的行为,那么除了等着被黑客再次成功入侵,你还能指望什么?”(财富中文网) /201412/350914建湖县治疗妇科疾病哪家医院最好的

江苏省阜宁县人民医院专家When the concept of “peer-to-peer” lending popped up a decade ago, libertarians and leftwing idealists alike cheered. For the idea of using the internet to match borrowers who needed cash with lenders seemed to epitomise the sharing economy.10年前“个人对个人”(peer-to-peer,简称P2P)贷款突然兴起时,自由主义者和左翼理想主义者都为之欢呼。这是因为,利用互联网为需要资金的借款者与贷款者牵线搭桥似乎带有“分享型经济”的特征。What made P2P sound doubly exciting — at least in the aftermath of the 2008 crisis — was that these platforms also appeared to thumb a nose at the banks. Or, to use the technical term, P2P threatened to “disintermediate” mainstream finance, in a democratic way.令P2P听起来更加激动人心的是——至少在2008年经济危机之后的一段时期里——这些平台似乎也对嗤之以鼻。或者,用专业术语来说,P2P以民主的方式威胁着将主流金融“去中介化”。But that utopian ideal is starting to be turned upside down. True, if you look at the profile of who is providing loans on America’s biggest P2P platforms today, such as Lending Club and Prosper Marketplace, you will still see wealthy “mom and pop” investors, attracted by the hope of good returns in a low interest rate world. Since 2009 loans on the big P2P platforms have generated yields of between 5 and 9 per cent.但是现在,这种不切实际的想法即将被颠覆。没错,如果看看美国各大P2P平台上——如Lending Club和Prosper Marketplace——贷款方的介绍,你还是会看到富有的“夫妻店”投资者——在当今的低利率时代,对高回报率的期待把他们吸引到互联网平台上。自2009年以来,大型P2P平台贷款产生的收益率在5%至9%之间。But those plucky individuals are in a minority — and a shrinking one. These days, four-fifths of the finance on P2P platforms [all of them? says just Lending Club in source i can find our story dated December 14.2014]comes from institutions, such as hedge funds, or arms of the established banks.但是,大胆的个人投资者毕竟是少数——而且越来越少。如今,P2P平台上五分之四的资金来自机构,如对冲基金,或者老牌的分。Indeed, hedge funds and banks are now moving into this sector with such a vengeance that they are not only repackaging those P2P loans into new instruments, via securitisation; they are lending via these platforms too.的确,对冲基金和正在大张旗鼓地进入P2P领域——不仅通过券化把P2P贷款重新包装为新的金融工具,还通过这些平台从事贷款业务。Earlier this year, for example, Citigroup agreed a 0m tie-up with Lending Club, to finance loans. Citizens Bank has bought 0m of loans from SoFi, a big student loan-focused marketplace lender, and committed to buy 0m more. Instead of thumbing their nose at banks, in other words, P2P lenders are co-opting them, if not being co-opted too. In financial terms, this is like Uber quietly cutting deals with established taxi companies.例如,今年早些时候,花旗集团(Citigroup)与Lending Club签署一项价值1.5亿美元的贷款融资合作协议。美国国民(Citizens Bank)从专注学生贷款市场的大型网贷平台SoFi购买了2亿美元贷款,并承诺再购买3亿美元。换句话说,P2P贷款平台非但没有对嗤之以鼻,反而要么拉拢、要么被拉拢。这就好比Uber与出租车公司悄然达成协议。Does this matter? The answer to that question depends on what you think the main priority for modern finance should be. If you think that the system needs to provide more credit to the economy, in order to to boost growth, this quiet transformation should seem welcome.这有关系吗?取决于你对现代金融的首要任务怎么看。如果你认为金融体系需要为经济提供更多信贷以刺激增长的话,这种悄然转变似乎应该受到欢迎。After all, the arrival of banks and hedge funds will enable the sector to expand more rapidly. And borrower demand seems sky high; PwC predicts that P2P lending will swell to 0bn by 2025, from .5bn in 2014.毕竟,和对冲基金进入有利于该行业更快扩张。而且借款人的需求似乎非常旺盛;普华永道(PwC)预计,到2025年,P2P网贷规模将由2014年的55亿美元暴增至1500亿美元。But if you think that the main goal of finance should be to create safe, clear rules for capital flows, then this pattern might also make you weep. If you ask bankers why they are moving into P2P lending, some will point to the high returns they hope to earn (since the average loan commands an interest rate of around 13 per cent, margins are high). Others will cite the need for banks to copy clever technology ideas and become more entrepreneurial.但是,如果你认为金融业的主要目标应该是为资金流动制定安全、明确的规则,那么这种模式或许会让你失望。如果你问家为什么要进入P2P网贷行业,一些人会说想要获得高回报(因为平均而言贷款的利率为13%左右,息差很高)。其他人会称,需要学习聪明的技术理念并更具创业精神。But there is another, grubbier motive: regulatory arbitrage. “We like P2P because we can do things there that we can’t do in our main bank,” as a senior New York banker recently (and sheepishly) explained at a conference.但是,还有另外一个更卑鄙的动机:监管套利。“我们喜欢P2P,因为我们在那里可以做一些我们在没法做的事,”纽约一名高管最近在一次会议上(带点不好意思地)解释称。Sharp-eyed ers might feel a sense of déjà vu. The idea of using innovations to dance around tough capital rules is hardly new: in the early years of the past decade, banks used structured investment vehicles and collateralised debt obligations in the same way.眼尖的读者或许会有一种似曾相识的感觉。利用创新在严格的资本规则下打擦边球的想法并不新鲜:在过去十年的头几年,以相同方式利用结构化投资工具和债务抵押债券(CDO)来规避监管。They also took advantage of cracks in regulatory structures to create products that policymakers could not easily monitor or control (it was unclear, for instance, who was supposed to oversee mortgage derivatives).它们还利用监管结构中的漏洞,创造了政策制定者不易监管或控制的产品(抵押贷款衍生品由谁监管在那时并不明确)。A sense of fragmentation is hampering policymakers again. And as Kara Stein, a commissioner at the US Securities and Exchange Commission, has observed: “We can’t afford a fragmented regulatory architecture.”一种分散的感觉再次困扰政策制定者。正如美国交会(SEC)委员卡拉斯坦(Kara Stein)所说的:“我们负担不起一个离破碎的监管体系的后果。”It is unclear whether the regulators’ remit covers all the upstarts.现在尚不清楚监管部门的职责范围是否覆盖所有新平台。Perhaps this does not matter. The P2P sector is a tiddler compared to the overall financial world (or the pile of mortgage derivatives which sowed havoc in 2008). And unlike the pension funds which were exposed to mortgage-backed securities in 2006, for example, the banks and hedge funds understand the dangers of credit losses. So even if P2P loans turn bad in the future, this should not pose wider risks.也许这并不重要。与整个金融世界(或者引发2008年灾难的抵押贷款衍生品的规模)相比,P2P行业就像一条小鱼。比如,与在2006年存在抵押贷款持券相关敞口的养老基金不同,和对冲基金知道信贷损失的危险。因此,即使P2P贷款在未来变成坏账,也不会构成更大范围的风险。Nevertheless, history suggests that whenever innovation and regulatory arbitrage are combined in an era of ultra cheap money, it often ends in tears — somewhere. If nothing else, that suggests that policymakers need to find ways to stop activity falling between the regulatory cracks; not least because financiers are endlessly creative at dancing in those gaps.尽管如此,历史表明,在资金极其廉价的时代,一旦创新和监管套利结合在一起,通常会以眼泪收场——在某个地方。这至少表明,政策制定者必须想办法阻止某些活动偷偷钻了监管漏洞;尤其是因为金融家在钻空子方面拥有无限的创造力。 /201510/404890盐城/市割痔疮多少钱 Antarctic Science Inspection南极考察On November 19, 1984, the Chinese first Antarctic science inspection team started on a journey to Antarctica by the oceanographic research ship ;Xiangyanghong-X; from the Port of Shanghai. The expedition consisting of 591 members from all over China, covered a voyage of 26433.7 sea miles and this joumey lasted 142 days. The members of the Chinese Antarctic Expedition carried out scientific research on biology, geology, physiognomy, upper-atmospheric physics, seismology, meteorology, mapping and marine science as well as making routine observations on such subjects as human medicine and environmental science, etc. Chinese Antarctic Great Wall Station was built on Feb. 20, 1985, located at the southern tip of King George Island in the Shetland Islands of West Antarctica at 62012#39;59;S, 58057#39;52;W. Chinese Antarctic Zhongshan Station built on Feb. 26, 1989, is located at the Larsemann Hills of Princess Elizabeth Land, East Antarctica at 69022#39;24;S, 76022#39;40;E. China is planning to set up a third station at the summit of Dome A, Antarctica, during 2008 ~ 2010.1984年11月19日,中国南极考察委员会派出的第一南极考察队从上海乘“向阳红10号”出发,赴南极洲和南太平洋进行综合性科学考察。这考察队由来自全国591人组成。考察活动历时142天,航程26433.7海里。考察队进行了生物、地质、地貌、高层大气物理、地震、气象、测绘和海洋科学等领域的考察及医药和环境状况的多学科调查。1985年2月20日,中国首次在南极洲南端得兰群岛的乔治王岛上建成中国第一个南极科学考察基地——中国南极长城站,站址在南纬62 012 #39;59”,西经58057#39;52”处。1989年2月26日,又在东南极大陆拉斯曼丘陵上建成中国第二个科学考察基地——中国南极中山站,其坐标为南纬69022#39;24”、东经760 22#39;40”。中国从2008年起开始在南极内陆冰盖建立第三个南极科学考察站,计划2010年建成。 /201603/430109盐城协和男性医院预约

在盐城做人流手术哪家医院好LONDON — A loyal Volkswagen owner for years, Jane Kelley was “shocked,” she says, by recent revelations that the German company had cheated on emissions tests in the ed States.伦敦——作为大众(Volkswagen)多年的忠实车主,简·凯利(Jane Kelley)说,最近得知这家德国公司被曝曾在美国的排放检测中作弊,令她感到“震惊”。Snug in Ms. Kelley’s garage in North London recently was a white 2013 Passat powered by a 2-liter diesel engine. The company says that as many as 11 million of its cars — Volkswagens, Audis, Skodas and SEATs with diesel engines — were equipped with software designed to fool emissions testers.在凯利位于伦敦北部的家中,车库里最近停放的是一辆配有2升柴油发动机的2013年款帕萨特。大众表示,该公司有多达1100万辆车——包括配有柴油发动机的大众、奥迪(Audi)、斯柯达(Skoda)和西雅特(SEAT)品牌车型——装载有可以误导排放检测员的软件。But as disturbed as she was to learn that Volkswagen had cheated, Ms. Kelley does not necessarily want anything done about it. “Are they going to take my car away and fiddle with the engine?” she said with a worried tone, as she served tea in her sunlit dining room.尽管在得知大众曾经作弊之后感到不安,但凯利却不见得希望有人为此做些什么。“他们会把我的车开走,摆弄它的引擎吗?”她一边担忧地说着,一边在自己阳光普照的餐厅给来客端上茶水。As with at least some European diesel drivers, Ms. Kelley is in no hurry to abandon the car just because it may spew more noxious fumes than she originally thought. “I do feel that it is a very safe car,” she said. She also admires the acceleration of the turbocharged diesel, which she credits with helping her recently escape a potential hazard. “There was a guy weaving, maybe drunk, so I just shot by,” she recalled.和至少一部分欧洲柴油车车主一样,凯利并不想仅仅因为它排放的有毒气体可能比自己原先想象的多,就急着抛弃它。“我真的感觉它是一辆非常安全的车,”她说。她也很中意这辆车的涡轮增压柴油发动机所具备的加速能力,还把它归为自己最近能逃脱一次潜在危险的原因。“当时有辆车左摇右摆的,大概司机是喝醉了,所以我就飞速开了过去,”她回忆道。Ms. Kelley is one of millions of fans of diesel cars across Europe, where fuel prices and taxes make the cost of filling an automobile’s tank much higher than in the ed States. Drawn by diesels’ superior fuel economy over gasoline engines and the lower price of diesel fuel, European consumers have long leaned toward diesel cars — a collective habit that might be difficult to break, despite the new scrutiny the Volkswagen scandal has given to diesel’s dark side.在整个欧洲,像凯利这样的柴油车爱好者有数百万,那里燃油价格和税费高,使得加满一箱油的费用比在美国高出很多。而柴油机节油性能比汽油发动机强,而且柴油价格比汽油低,所以欧洲消费者长期以来一直倾向于购买柴油车——这一共同习惯可能不容易打破,虽然大众丑闻让人们开始重新审视柴油机不好的一面。While diesels have struggled in the ed States to overcome a reputation as smoke-belching clunkers — they represent about 3 percent of the American car market — they have rolled to dominance across the Atlantic. Diesels accounted for more than half the new cars sold in Western Europe last year, compared with 14 percent in 1990.柴油发动机在美国一直难以摆脱“喷烟老机器”的名声——柴油车在美国汽车市场的份额只有大约3%,但在大西洋的对岸却占据主导地位。去年西欧销售的新车有一多半都是柴油车,而这一比例在1990年时还只有14%。Europeans’ embrace of diesels has encouraged manufacturers to improve the engines’ performance, and it has motivated governments, especially those of Germany and France, to support their auto industries’ diesel efforts. Although environmentalists have been sounding alarms for years, the forces propelling diesel were so strong that it might explain why drivers, carmakers and regulators have been willing at times to overlook diesels’ tendency to be bigger polluters than gasoline cars.欧洲人对柴油车的偏好促使汽车厂商进一步提高柴高发动机的性能,也刺激政府,尤其是德国和法国政府,持本国汽车业推广柴油车。尽管环保人士多年来一直在敲警钟,但推动使用柴油机的力量太过强大,它或许可以解释为什么柴油车往往比汽油车的污染大这一点,时常会被驾车人士、汽车厂商和监管机构无视。“Ban diesels? You can’t be serious,” Ségolène Royal, the French environment and energy minister, said recently, responding to a suggestion by a member of the Green Party. “We can’t treat problems of this gravity with ideological slogans at the expense of French interests,” Ms. Royal said, noting that more than half the cars on French roads were diesels.“禁用柴油机?少开玩笑了,”法国环境和能源部长塞戈莱纳·罗亚尔(Ségolène Royal)最近回应一位绿党(Green Party)成员的一项建议时说道。“我们不能以牺牲法国利益为代价,用意识形态口号解决如此重大的问题,”罗亚尔说,她还指出,行驶在法国街道上的车辆有超过一半都是柴油车。In fact, the percentage in France is around 64 percent, even higher than in Germany, with French-made Renault, Peugeot and Citro渀 diesels joining Volkswagens on the road. There has been no indication that the French automakers cheated on emissions tests.事实上,柴油车在法国车辆中的比例大约为64%,甚至比德国还高。除了大众车以外,法国的道路上行驶的还有本国制造的雷诺(Renault)、标致(Peugeot)和雪铁龙(Citro渀)柴油车。没有信息显示,这些法国汽车厂商曾在排放检测中作弊。So far, Volkswagen has not said how it plans to deal with the deceptive software problem, although the German government has set an Oct. 7 deadline for the company to propose a solution. Unlike in the ed States, where lawyers are aly recruiting car owners in hopes of filing class-action lawsuits, there is no similar tradition in Europe that would encourage consumers to collectively demand financial redress.目前,大众还没有对外宣布它计划如何解决这一欺诈软件问题,尽管德国政府已经给出了最后期限,要求它最晚在10月7日拿出解决方案。美国已经有律师在征集车主,以期对大众提起集体诉讼,而欧洲与美国不同,这里没有这类鼓励消费者集体寻求经济赔偿的传统。Volkswagen said on Tuesday that it would prepare a plan by early October to improve the emissions of affected vehicles. Owners will be notified in the weeks and months after the plan has been approved by authorities, the company said.周二,大众表示,它将在十月初准备一项计划,用以改善涉事车辆的排放问题。该公司还表示,它会在这项计划得到当局批准后的几周和几月内,向车主们发出通知。“If there is a recall, I would be happy if my car is not included in it,” said Tony Novak, a retired editor for the B who lives in Reading, England. In Britain, just over half of new cars sold are diesels.“如果他们要召回车辆,我希望自己的车不在此列,”现在居住在苏格兰雷丁市的B退休编辑托尼·诺瓦克(Tony Novak)说。在英国,新销售车辆中柴油车的比例刚刚过半。“Diesels used to be terrible — they used to be dirty and slow,” he said. “Now they are brilliant.” Mr. Novak had owned diesel cars previously, but when he bought his 2014 Volkswagen Golf diesel, “I was really surprised by how good it was — you really notice the difference in acceleration.”“柴油车过去很糟糕——又脏又慢,”他说。“现在棒极了。”诺瓦克以前有好几辆柴油车,但在2014年买了2014年款大众高尔夫柴油车之后,“我特别惊讶于它的优越——加速的时候真的能感觉到区别。”That Volkswagen might have achieved that performance by cheating — it is still not clear whether the company needed the deceptive software to pass Europe’s emissions tests, which are much less strict than the ed States’ — is not what matters most to Mr. Novak. “I worry that if they tweak the computer, the performance will deteriorate,” he said.但大众有可能是通过欺诈而实现较高加速性能这一点,并不是诺瓦克最在乎的。目前还不清楚,大众是否需要在车上安装欺诈软件以通过欧洲的排放检测,后者的标准比美国宽松得多。“我担心他们在计算机上进行调整之后,车辆的性能会下降,”他说。About five million of the affected cars are Golfs, Passats and other Volkswagen-brand cars. An additional two million are Audi brand cars, and the rest or Skoda and SEAT brand cars, or light commercial vehicles.有大约500万涉事车辆是高尔夫、帕萨特和其他大众品牌车型。另有200万辆是奥迪品牌车型,剩下的是斯柯达和西雅特,或轻型商务车。Matthias Müller, a company insider who was appointed chief executive of Volkswagen last week, told top managers late Monday that the deceptive software was activated in only a portion of the 11 million vehicles that have the so-called EA 189 diesel motors. But Volkswagen did not specify how many cars were designed to cheat on emissions tests.上周,大众内部人士马蒂亚斯·穆勒(Matthias Müller)被任命为首席执行官,他在周一晚间告诉公司高层管理人员,在配备所谓EA 189柴油发动机的1100万辆车中,只有一部分车上安装的欺诈软件被激活。但大众没有明确指出,它对多少辆车进行了此类设计,可以在排放检测中作弊。Some industry experts say that the Volkswagen scandal could prove a turning point in the diesel love affair, if the new scrutiny of European emissions standards and testing makes it easier for the environmentalists to be heard.一些行业专家表示,如果对欧洲排放标准和检测的新一轮审视让人们更容易听取环保人士的呼吁,大众丑闻就有可能会成为柴油机热的一个转折点。The premise of the “clean diesel” notion that Volkswagen promoted was partly based on the fact that on a per-mile basis, diesel engines emit less carbon dioxide — a big contributor to climate change — than gasoline engines. But diesel exhausts, unless cleaned in ways that Volkswagen’s software was designed to sidestep, produce larger quantities of other harmful gases — nitrogen oxides — along with fine particles that contribute to stubbornly persistent air quality problems in European cities.大众宣传“清洁柴油”概念,有一部分是基于这样一个事实,即车辆每行驶一英里,柴油发动机排放的二氧化碳比汽油发动机少,而二氧化碳是气候变化的一大因素。但除非像大众那样以特别设计的软件进行欺诈显示出经过“净化”的结果,否则柴油车排放的尾气中会包含更多氮氧化物等其他有害气体,还有更多细微颗粒物质,后者是一些欧洲城市难以消除的空气质量问题的成因之一。“There is a recognition that, fundamentally, it is going to be difficult to control all of the problems with diesel — smoke production is not going to go away,” said Peter Wells, co-director of the center for automotive industry research at Cardiff Business School. “In the very long term, diesel has had its day.”“人们有一种共识,即很难从根本上控制柴油机存在的所有问题——烟气排放不会消失,”卡迪夫大学商学院(Cardiff Business School)汽车工业研究中心联席主任彼得·韦尔斯(Peter Wells)说。“从比较长远来看,柴油机的好日子已经过去。”According to the European Environment Agency, which monitors air quality, 20 to 30 percent of urban residents in Europe are exposed to particle levels — mainly from diesel exhaust fumes — above those considered safe by the European Union, while about 10 percent are exposed to unsafe levels of nitrogen oxides.进行空气质量监测的欧洲环境署(European Environment Agency)的数据显示,有20%至30%的欧洲城市居民被暴露在高于欧盟安全标准的颗粒物质污染中——主要源自柴油机排放的废气,而被暴露于达到不安全标准的氮氧化物中的人群比例约为10%。London and Paris have among the highest pollution levels in terms of nitrogen oxides. In March of this year and last, the smog in Paris reached such levels that the authorities were forced to temporarily limit the number of cars on the road each day.伦敦和巴黎是氮氧化物污染最严重的地区之一。去年和今年的3月,巴黎的烟雾严重到当局被迫暂时对每日上路的车辆数量进行了限制。Anne Hidalgo, the mayor of Paris, which is playing host to the ed Nations climate conference in November, is among those who have suggested an eventual ban on diesels in the city.巴黎是即将于11月份举行的联合国气候会议的主办地,该市市长安妮·伊达尔戈(Anne Hidalgo)是建议巴黎最终禁用柴油机的人士之一。The mayor of London, Boris Johnson, plans to establish an ultralow emissions zone in London by 2020 where older diesels will be penalized. A recent report by the environmental committee of the London Assembly, the city’s legislature, said the mayor should consider banning all diesels from the zone.伦敦市长鲍里斯·约翰逊(Boris Johnson)计划在2020年结束之前在伦敦建立一个超低排放区,在那里驾驶老一代柴油机车辆上路将被予以处罚。该市立法机构伦敦议会(London Assembly)下设的环境委员会发布的最新报告写道,市长应该考虑在该区域禁行所有柴油车。But environmental efforts must contend with deeply rooted diesel economics. Automotive fuel in Europe costs several times as much as in the ed States, mainly because of higher taxes. The average price of gasoline in London in August, for example, was 521 pence, or about .92, per gallon. In most of Continental Europe, diesel sells for about 15 percent less than gasoline.但环境保护方面的努力必须和根深蒂固的柴油经济相抗争。在欧洲,汽车燃油费用比美国高好几倍,主要是因为税费更高。比如,8月份伦敦汽油平均价格是每升521便士(约合50人民币)。在欧洲大陆大多数国家,柴油的价格大约比汽油低15%。Part of that difference is because the taxes that help keep fuel prices high are typically lower on diesel fuel.之所以有这种差别,部分原因在于导致欧洲燃油价格高的税费,在柴油类别中通常相对更低。In Germany, the lower taxes on diesel fuel amount to an annual subsidy of 7 billion euros, or about .8 billion, for diesel owners, said Daniel Moser, a transportation analyst for the environmental group Greenpeace.环境保护组织绿色和平(Greenpeace)的交通运输分析师丹尼尔·莫泽(Daniel Moser)表示,在德国,柴油税费更低,其差额总计相当于给所有柴油车车主提供了每年高达70亿欧元的补贴。“These policies are not in accordance with what we would have to do to protect the environment and people’s health,” he said.“这些政策与我们为保护环境和人们的健康所该做的事,是不一致的,”他说。And then there are vehicle tax breaks that various governments offer to diesel owners, because of the cars’ lower emissions of carbon dioxide.而且,欧洲各国政府还制定了给柴油车车主减免车辆税的政策,因为这些车辆排放的二氧化碳更少。Also, new diesels are often only slightly more expensive than their gasoline counterparts. In Britain, a Volkswagen Golf Match with a 1.4-liter, turbocharged gasoline engine sells for 20,955, or about ,800, while a similar model with a 1.6-liter diesel engine sells for 21,960, according to Carbuyer, a British website.而且,新柴油车的价格往往只比同等汽油发动机车辆略微高一些。英国汽车网站Carbuyer的数据显示,在英国,一辆配备1.4升涡轮增压汽油发动机的大众高尔夫Match售价为20955英镑(约合20.2万元人民币),而类似车型的1.6升柴油发动机车售价为21960英镑(约合21.2万人民币)。With all those factors taken into account, owning and operating a diesel car in Europe is the more affordable way to go.考虑到所有这些因素,在欧洲购买和驾驶一辆柴油车要更划算。In the ed States, with much lower gasoline prices, “there is no point at the margin, buying a diesel,” said Garel Rhys, a professor emeritus at Cardiff University. He said Europeans’ embrace of diesels made perfect sense. “Essentially, growth came because consumers are economically rational individuals,” Professor Rhys said.在美国,因为汽油价格低得多,“没必要购买柴油车,”卡迪夫大学荣休教授加勒尔·里斯(Garel Rhys)说。他还表示,欧洲人更接受柴油车是完全说得通的。“从本质上讲,购买柴油车的人数会增加,是因为消费者在经济考量上都是比较理性的个体,”里斯说。But a continued yen for diesels may not necessarily translate into an abiding love of Volkswagen, for some Europeans at least.但是人们对柴油机有持续购买欲望,不一定就意味着他们会永远喜爱大众,至少对一些欧洲人来说是这样。Jon Devereux, who drives a diesel-engine Volkswagen Touareg, manages a hotel in Milford on Sea, in southern England. Each winter, he takes the four-wheel-drive vehicle to his winter home in the French Alps. The Touareg, he said, has “been brilliant for 10 years.”在南英格兰米尔福德港(Milford)经营酒店的乔恩·德弗罗(Jon Devereux)拥有一辆配备柴油发动机的大众途锐(Touareg)。每年冬天,他都会驾驶这辆四驱车去他在法国阿尔卑斯山的冬季别墅。他说,这辆途锐“在过去十年表现得一直很不错。”But when it comes time to replace it, his next diesel will not be a Volkswagen. The emissions scandal has soured Mr. Devereux on the carmaker. “Would you buy a VW car or any car in the VW group?’’ he asked.但说到替换这辆车,他要买的下一辆柴油车不会是大众。这起排放丑闻让德弗罗对这家汽车厂商感到失望。“你会买一辆大众车或大众集团旗下的任何品牌吗?”他问。 /201510/402135 阜宁县处女膜修复多少钱盐城/市盐都区第二人民医院治疗睾丸炎多少钱

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