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2019年06月26日 00:12:07 | 作者:百度在线 | 来源:新华社
性格外向者易肥胖Are you obese? Well, blame it on your social nature.Outgoing people tend to be overweight, while anxious types are more likely to be thin, according to Japanese researchers who examined the links between personality and body mass index.More than 30,000 people in northeastern Japan aged between 40 and 64 were quizzed about their height and weight, and given a personality test, according to a study published in the Journal of Psychosomatic Research.The results showed that outgoing people were far more likely than other people to have a body mass index (BMI) of more than 25, a WHO definition of overweight, said Masako Kakizaki of Tohoku University, who led the analysis.After controlling for other factors, such as smoking, men in the most extrovert category were 1.73 times more likely to be obese than their most introvert counterparts. Extrovert women were 1.53 times as likely to be obese.People ranked as having the most anxious personalities were twice as likely as the least anxious to be underweight, or have a BMI of less than 18.5, the study found."These results may provide clues to devising more effective measures for preventing overweight, obesity or underweight," the researchers said in their paper. 觉得自己太胖?那就要怪你天生外向的性格了。日本研究人员对人的性格与体重指数之间的关系进行了探究,并发现性格外向的人容易肥胖,而焦虑不安的人则易瘦。《身心健康研究》期刊中的一篇论文称,研究人员对日本东北部地区3万多名年龄在40岁至64岁之间受访者的身高和体重进行了调查,并对他们进行了性格测试。据研究负责人、日本东北大学的Masako Kakizaki介绍,研究结果表明,性格外向的人体重指数大于25的几率远远高于其他性格类型的人。根据世界卫生组织的标准,体重指数大于25即为“超重”。在排除抽烟等其它因素的影响后,研究人员发现,最外向型男性肥胖的几率为最内向型的1.73倍,最外向女性肥胖的几率为最内向女性的1.53倍。研究发现,最易焦虑的人体重不达标的可能性更大,其体重指数小于18.5的几率为性格不焦虑型的两倍。研究人员在研究论文中提到:“研究结果也许能为找到更有效预防体重超标、肥胖或体重不足的办法提供线索。” /200803/31593The Christmas pudding we recognise today is a Victorian dish made from suet, dried fruit, candied peel, bcrumbs, spices, egg and grated carrots and apples.我们现在经常见到的圣诞布丁,最早起源于维多利亚时代。其主要成分包括(牛羊腰部的)板油、干果、蜜饯果皮、面包屑、香料、鸡蛋、磨碎的胡萝卜和苹果。The Victorians shaped their puddings into a spherical shape and boiled them in a muslin cloth.维多利亚时期的人把布丁弄成球型,并用棉布包着放在水里煮。‘Stir up Sunday’ (the last Sunday before Advent) has become associated with the start of the pudding-making process, in order to allow it least a month to mature before being consumed on Christmas Day.唤醒星期日(基督降临日前最后一个星期日)一般标志着圣诞布丁制作过程的开始,因为布丁最后做好需要至少1个月的时间。这个时候开始制作可以确保在圣诞节当天大家能够享用圣诞布丁。At Christmas, the pudding is doused in brandy and set alight.圣诞节当天,布丁会被淋上白兰地(烧酒)然后点着火、点亮,然后端上桌。 /201312/269281It isn#39;t just the beer that contributes to beer bellies. It could also be the extra calories, fat and unhealthy eating choices that may come with moderate drinking. 啤酒肚的形成并不只是因为啤酒本身。饮酒会使人摄入额外的卡路里和脂肪、选择不健康的饮食,这些也都是形成啤酒肚的帮凶。 A recent study found that men consume an additional 433 calories (equivalent to a McDonald#39;s double cheeseburger) on days they drink a moderate amount of alcohol. About 61% of the caloric increase comes from the alcohol itself. Men also report eating higher amounts of saturated fats and meat, and less fruit and milk, on those days than on days when they aren#39;t drinking, the study showed. 近期一项研究发现,男性在饮酒量适中的情况下,会额外摄入433卡路里热量(相当于一个麦当劳双层吉士汉堡)。约61%的多余热量来自酒类本身。研究还表明,男性在饮酒时会比平日摄入更多饱和脂肪和肉类,而减少水果和牛奶的食用量。 Women fared a bit better, taking in an extra 300 calories on moderate-drinking days, from the alcohol and eating fattier foods. But women#39;s increase in calories from additional eating wasn#39;t statistically significant, the study said. 女性的情况略好,适量饮酒时会多摄入300卡路里,来源于酒和油腻食物。研究也指出,从数据上来看,女性因食物摄入量增加而造成的热量摄入增加并不显著。 #39;Men and women ate less healthily on days they drank alcohol,#39; said Rosalind Breslow, an epidemiologist with the federal National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and lead author of the study. #39;Poorer food choices on drinking days have public-health implications,#39; she said. 流行病学家罗莎琳德#12539;布雷斯洛(Rosalind Breslow)说:“男性和女性喝酒的时候吃得都不太健康。”她是这项研究的带头人,效力于美国国家酒精滥用及酗酒问题研究所(National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism)。她说:“是饮酒时的食物选择不当给公众健康造成了隐患。” The findings dovetail with controlled lab studies in which participants generally eat more food after consuming alcohol. Researchers suggest that alcohol may enhance #39;the short-term rewarding effects#39; of consuming food, according to a 2010 report in the journal Physiology amp; Behavior that reviewed previous studies on alcohol, appetite and obesity. 研究发现与实验室对照实验相吻合,在实验中,参与者往往在喝酒之后食量更大。《生理学与行为学》(Physiology amp; Behavior)期刊在2010年发表了一项关于酒精、食欲与肥胖的报告,研究者认为酒精会增进摄入食物时的“短期奖赏效应”。 But other studies have pointed to a different trend. Moderate drinkers gain less weight over time than either heavy drinkers or people who abstain from alcohol, particularly women, this research has shown. Moderate drinking is considered having about two drinks a day for men and one for women. 但是其他研究的结果却截然相反。一项研究表明,长期以来,适量饮酒的人体重增长比酒量大或者滴酒不沾的人更慢,特别是在女性群体中。适量饮酒指的是,男性每天大约喝两杯酒,女性为一杯。 #39;People who gain the least weight are moderate drinkers, regardless of [alcoholic] beverage choice,#39; said Eric Rimm, an associate professor of epidemiology and nutrition at Harvard Medical School and chairman of the 2010 review of alcohol in the federal dietary guidelines. The weight-gain difference is modest, and #39;starting to drink is not a weight-loss diet,#39; he said. 埃里克#12539;利姆(Eric Rimm)说:“体重增长最少的人都是适量饮酒的人,无论选择的是何种(酒精)饮料。”他是哈佛医学院(Harvard Medical School)流行病学与营养学副教授,也是2010年美国饮食指南酒类的主席。他说,体重增长的差异并不显著,所以“开始喝酒并不是个减肥办法。” The various research efforts form part of a long-standing debate about how alcohol affects people#39;s appetites, weight and overall health. Researchers say there aren#39;t simple answers, and suggest that individuals#39; metabolism, drinking patterns and gender may play a role. 各种各样的研究促成了持久的争论:到底酒精是如何作用于人的食欲、体重和整体健康的。研究者们说并不是单一的,每个人的新陈代谢、饮酒方式和性别都会有一定的影响。 Alcohol is #39;a real wild card when it comes to weight management,#39; said Karen Miller-Kovach, chief scientific officer of Weight Watchers International. At seven calories per gram, alcohol is closer to fat than to carbohydrate or protein in caloric content, she said. Alcohol tends to lower restraint, she notes, causing a person to become more indulgent with what they#39;re eating. Weight Watchers International首席科学官卡伦#12539;米勒-科瓦奇(Karen Miller-Kovach)说,酒精的确是“控制体重时的一个未知数” 。她说,以每克七卡路里来计算,酒精的卡路里含量比起碳水化合物和蛋白质更接近脂肪。她还提到,酒精会减弱人们的自制力,这使得人在吃东西时更加放纵自己。 Research bolstering the role of moderate drinking in helping to control weight gain was published in 2004 in the journal Obesity Research. That study followed nearly 50,000 women over eight years. An earlier study, published in the American Journal of Epidemiology in 1994, followed more than 7,000 people for 10 years and found that moderate drinkers gained less weight than nondrinkers. Studies comparing changes in waist circumference among different groups have yielded similar results. 《肥胖研究》(Obesity Research)期刊在2004年发表的一项研究肯定了适度饮酒在帮助控制体重增长中的作用。这项研究在八年间追踪了近50,000名女性。更早的一项研究发表于1994年的《美国流行病学杂志》(American Journal of Epidemiology),该研究对7,000人进行了10年的追踪,并发现适量饮酒的人比不喝酒的人体重增长得更少。两项研究都对不同组别腰围的变化进行了比较,并得出了相似的结论。 Dr. Rimm said it isn#39;t clear why moderate drinking may be protective against typical weight gain, but it could have to do with metabolic adjustments. After people drink alcohol, their heart rate increases so they burn more calories in the following hour. 利姆说适量饮酒者似乎可以抵抗一般的体重增长,其原因尚不明确,但可能与代谢调节有关。人们饮酒后,心跳加快,所以他们会在接下来的一小时里燃烧更多卡路里。 #39;It#39;s a modest amount,#39; he said. #39;But if you take an individual that eats 100 calories instead of a glass of wine, the person drinking the glass of wine will have a slight increase in the amount of calories burned.#39; “这一消耗量并不算高”,他说。“但是如果一个人吃了100卡食物,而另一个人喝了一杯酒,喝酒的人消耗的卡路里会略多一些。” Food choices could also play a role. Some studies suggest that women who drink alcohol eat fewer sweet foods, possibly because alcohol stimulates the same pleasure center in the brain as sweets, said Dr. Rimm. That isn#39;t seen as consistently in men. 酒后对于食物的选择也有一定影响。利姆说,一些研究表明,女性在饮酒后较少吃甜食,很可能是由于酒精与甜食一样刺激了脑部愉悦中枢。这一点在男性身上并无明显规律。 Men have more of the alcohol dehydrogenase group of enzymes that metabolize some alcohol in the stomach than women, said Andrea N. Giancoli, spokeswoman for the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, a professional organization. 安德烈娅#12539;N#12539;詹科利(Andrea N. Giancoli)说,相较于女性,男性体内拥有更多乙醇脱氢?,可将胃里的酒精分解代谢。她是专业机构营养与饮食学会(Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics)的新闻发言人。 One theory for what this might mean is that women#39;s bodies divert alcohol not being broken down in the stomach to a different metabolic pathway that results in more calories being burned, said Ms. Giancoli, a registered dietitian near Los Angeles. As a result, fewer calories from alcohol may be stored in women as fat, she said. 这位身处洛杉矶附近的营养学家詹科利还说,有一个理论可以解释这种说法,女性的身体会将酒精转移,而不是在胃里分解输送到不同的代谢通道,这会导致消耗更多卡路里。她说,结果是,较少的来自酒类中的卡路里会被转化为脂肪储存于女性体内。 Another factor is drinking patterns. A 2005 study in the American Journal of Epidemiology looked at data from 45,896 drinkers. It found that as the quantity of drinking increased from one to four drinks in a day, the subjects#39; body-mass index increased. 另一个影响因素是饮酒习惯。《美国流行病学杂志》2005年的一项研究参照了45,896名饮酒者的数据。结果表明,随着每日饮酒量从一杯到四杯逐渐递增,饮酒者的身体质量指数也会上升。 #39;People who drank the least often but drank more on the days that they drank had higher BMI,#39; said Dr. Breslow, who co-authored the study. 研究合着者布雷斯洛说:“平时很少喝酒但偶尔大量饮酒的人身体质量指数更高。” Dr. Breslow#39;s latest study, which found caloric intake increases with moderate drinking, didn#39;t look at associations between alcohol and body weight or track food choices and diets over time. She suggested that people who increase their caloric intake with moderate drinking one day might compensate the next day by consuming less. 布雷斯洛的最新研究发现,卡路里吸收会因适量饮酒而增多,但研究并未考察酒精和体重之间的联系,也未追踪食物选择和长时间的饮食规律。她认为因适量饮酒而摄入了更多卡路里的人会在第二天少吃一点作为弥补。 The study, which appeared in the May issue of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, analyzed data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and included 1,864 mostly moderate drinkers. 这项研究发表于5月的《美国临床营养学杂志》(American Journal of Clinical Nutrition),其对美国国家健康与营养检测调查(National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey)中1,864名通常适量饮酒的人的数据进行了分析。 Another study, which looked at data from nearly 16,000 individuals over a year, concluded that as alcohol consumption increased there was a decline in diet quality. 另一项研究参考了近16,000人全年的数据,得出的结论是饮食的质量随着酒精摄入量的增加而降低。 That research was published in the Journal of the American Dietetic Association in 2010. 这项研究刊登在2010年的《美国营养协会杂志》(Journal of the American Dietetic Association)上。 David Jensen, a 56-year-old who considers himself overweight, says cutting his daily drink or two helped him reduce nighttime snacking. #39;You have a glass of wine and then it#39;s, oh man, I need cheese with that, or I need chocolate. You end up eating all this other stuff,#39; said Mr. Jensen, who lives near Seattle and works as a translator for financial clients. 今年56岁的大卫#12539;詹森(David Jensen)认为自己体重超标,他说减少日常饮酒量有助于少吃夜宵。詹森说:“如果你喝了一杯酒,就会想,哎呀,我需要配一块奶酪下酒,或者我要一块巧克力。”他住在西雅图附近,为金融客户提供翻译务。 Last year he stopped drinking for five months and lost just over 10 pounds #39;with really no effort,#39; Mr. Jensen said. 詹森说,去年他戒酒五个月,体重“不费吹灰之力”地减轻10磅有余(约合4.5公斤)。 But once he started drinking again his weight went up and he is back to where he started. 但是当他重新开始喝酒时,体重立刻反弹回到了原点。 /201309/256026

It's the biggest party of the year 全年最大的欢庆聚会 New Year celebrations in London   For lots of people in Britain, the 31st of December, or New Year's Eve as we call it, is the biggest party of the year. It's a time to get together with friends or family and welcome in the coming year.   New Year's parties can take place at a number of different venues. Some people hold a house party; others attend street parties, while some just go to their local for a few drinks with their mates. Big cities, like London, have large and spectacular fireworks displays.  New Year's parties can take place at a number of different venues. Some people hold a house party; others attend street parties, while some just go to their local for a few drinks with their mates. Big cities, like London, have large and spectacular fireworks displays.   New Year celebrations in London   There's one thing that all New Year's Eve parties have in common: the countdown to midnight. When the clock strikes twelve, revellers give a loud cheer, pop champagne corks and give each other a kiss.   They then link arms and sing a song called Auld Lang's Syne, by a Scottish poet called Robert Burns. Not many people can remember all the lyrics, but the tune is well known, so lots of people just hum along.   The parties then continue into the early hours of the morning with lots of dancing and drinking. Because of this, for a lot of people New Year's Day starts with a hangover. Other people might spend the day visiting relatives or friends they haven't managed to catch up with for a while. Whatever happens, New Year's Day tends to be very relaxed.   In Britain, it's popular to make a promise to yourself about something you are going to do, or want to stop doing, in the New Year. This is called a New Year's resolution. Typical resolutions include giving up smoking and joining a gym to get fit. However, the promise is often broken quite quickly and people are back into their bad habits within weeks or days.   New Year's Day is the last bank holiday of the festive season, which means most people have to go to work the next day: bright and fresh and y for the new year ahead!   Notes:  New Year's Eve 元旦前夜  welcome in 迎接   venues 地点   attend 参加  local 当地的  mates 伙伴;好朋友  fireworks displays 烟花展  countdown 倒计时  revellers 欢庆聚会者  pop (香槟酒)瓶塞弹跳而出  Auld Lang's Syne 友谊地久天长  lyrics 歌词  hum 哼哼(小调)  New Year's Day 元旦日  hangover 喝醉酒后隔天早上醒来头痛  New Year's resolution 新年决心  get fit 健身  bad habits 恶习  bank holiday 公共假日  festive season 节日气氛浓厚的季节 /200803/28882

Young, single men are fed up with being typecast as immature, insensitive and sex-obsessed, with a survey finding that the majority believe in having a soul mate, aren't scared of commitment, and say real men can cry.A poll of 70,000 men with an average age of 28 debunked many of the standard stereotypes to show that the modern man is driven by a sense of values, loyalty and family.The survey, by men's lifestyle website AskMen.com, found that 77 percent of respondents look for girlfriends with "wife potential" while 75 percent believe they have a soul mate and 69 percent would never cheat on their partner."These survey results will be surprising to many women, most of whom have a completely different perspective of what the average man thinks and feels," James Bassil, editor-in-chief of AskMen.com, said."The idea that young guys only want to be single and jump from girlfriend to girlfriend is not true at all."The online survey, conducted over a five-week period, found that six out of 10 men were fed up with inaccurate commercial descriptions of them.Bassil said the images of men on television and in advertisements had not changed for decades whereas the image of women in the media was always changing as their roles in the home and the workplace altered."In TV sitcoms and in adverts, young men are portrayed as immature, frat boys who are always trying to get around their wives or girlfriends finding out about their bad behavior. This is just not the case," he said.The survey by AskMen.com, a unit of Fox Interactive Media, found that 56 percent of men believed that being a good father or husband made them "manly."It also found that 75 percent admitted to crying over a woman while 57 percent of men cook at home and enjoy doing it."There really seems to be a revival of traditional values among men which goes against everything you see in the media," said Bassil. 年轻的单身男士们受够了被人说成幼稚、迟钝和沉湎于性。据一项最新调查显示,大多数年轻男士认为应该拥有灵魂伴侣,不怕作出承诺,而且真正的男人是会流泪的。该项调查有7万名平均年龄为28岁的男士参加。调查结果显示现代男性有自己的价值观、对爱情忠诚,并有家庭责任感,这打破了以往人们对现代男性的很多固有看法。这项由男士生活网站AskMen.com开展的调查发现,77%的受访者希望找到“能成为妻子”的女朋友,75%的人称自己有灵魂伴侣,而69%的人则表示不会背叛自己的另一半。AskMen网站主编詹姆斯#8226;巴希尔说:“这些调查结果一定会让很多女性感到惊讶,多数女性对现代男性的想法和看法有截然不同的观点。”“那些认为年轻男士只想过单身生活,频繁换女朋友的看法根本不符合事实。”这项为期五周的在线调查发现,60%的男性受够了媒体和广告对他们形象的不实描述。巴希尔说,电视和广告中所宣传的男性形象几十年来都没得到过改变,而女性在媒体中的形象却一直随着她们在家庭和工作中角色的变化而改变。他说:“电视情景喜剧和广告中总是把年轻男士描述为不成熟、爱拉帮结伙,对妻子或女友不老实。但事实不是这样的。”这项由福克斯互动传媒旗下的AskMen网站开展的调查发现,56%的男士认为做个好父亲或者好丈夫会让他们变得更“男人“。此外,调查发现,75%的男士承认自己为女人哭过,另有57%的人称自己下厨房并且很享受这一过程。巴希尔说:“与媒体所宣传的相反,男性的传统价值观似乎正在复苏。” /200807/45057

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