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Business商业报道Social entrepreneurship in India印度的公益创业Cut from a different cloth开辟出另一片天地Building a business around solving a chronic female health-care problem创立产业以解决长期困扰的女性保健问题RATAN JADHAV, a shy, slight woman in her 30s, works on a farm in Osmanabad, a remote part of the western Indian state of Maharashtra.年过三十的Ratan Jadhav是一个害羞,纤弱的女性。她在印度奥斯曼阿巴德的一个农场工作,那里是印度马哈拉斯特拉邦的偏远地区。Her tiny mud-brick house boasts such modern conveniences as a computer bought with a loan from relatives, while arranged neatly on the kitchen window sill are her teenage daughters cosmetics.一台向亲戚借款而买的电脑也给住在低矮泥砖房的她带来了一丝现代生活的便利,而放在厨房窗台上女儿的化妆品则显得整齐有序。Yet when it comes to personal hygiene, both women prefer a cotton rag to a branded sanitary pad.然而当提及个人卫生问题上,这两位女士都偏爱棉布胜过品牌的卫生护垫。Why buy one, asks the mother, when a homespun substitute does the job?母亲不解:自己做的东西就可以替代卫生巾,为什么还要买这个?Ms Jadhav is one of300mmenstruating Indian women who eschew sanitary pads in favour of rags, dry leaves, straw or newspapers.印度有300万月经来潮的女性用碎布,干叶,枯草或者报纸来替代卫生棉条,Jadhav女士就是其中一位。AC Nielsen, a research firm, says that 70% of women in India cannot afford sanitary products.一家名为AC Nielsen的研究公司称,印度70%的女性买不起卫生用品。Many who can pay do not, as they hate having to ask for them in drugstores that are usually run by men.即使付得起,很多女性也拒绝购买。他们恨透了向药店人员索要卫生棉条,因为这些商店通常是由男性经营。This has serious consequences.这个情况后果严重。Adolescent girls miss up to 50 days of school a year.印度的青春期女孩每年旷课高达50天。Some 23% drop out altogether.大约23%的女生干脆完全退学。Working women lose their daily wages.上班族女性也会因月经缺勤被扣掉当日工资。The social and economic benefits to be had from resolving this problem are potentially so large that doing so is now a focus of social entrepreneurs in many developing countries.解决这个问题在经济和社会上的潜在利益是十分巨大的。They include Jaydeep Mandal and Sombodhi Ghosh of Aakar Innovations, a Delhi-based start-up.对于许多发展中国家,解决这个问题是公益企业家现在关注的一个焦点。They have developed a machine that produces low-cost sanitary napkins using as raw materials agri-waste such as banana fibre, bamboo and water-hyacinth pulp.企业家们已经研发出一种可以生产廉价卫生棉的机器。该棉条使用的原材料为工业废品,比如香蕉纤维,毛竹以及水葫芦纸浆。Each machine can churn out 1,600-2,000 pads a day, to be sold for 40% less than branded mass-market products.每台机器每天可以制造出1600-2000个棉片,出售价格比畅销的品牌产品要低出40%。To bypass the current female-unfriendly distribution system, Aakar aims to sell its machines for 250,000 rupees a time to groups of women.为了避开当前对女性不利的流通体系,Aakar公司计划以每台25万卢布的价格出售该机器给特定群体的女性。The finished item will be sold door-to-door by village saleswomen who also hawk solar lamps, stoves and saris.这种成品将由村民中的女销售员进行上门推销。她们还会兜售太阳能灯具,炉灶和印度莎丽。It will be distributed, too, in women-run grocery stores and beauty parlours.由女性经营的杂货店和美容院中也会有该机器出售。Aakar hopes to profit by selling the raw materials and the machines.公司Aakar希望能从销售原材料和该机器中获得利润。This is hardly a new idea.这不是什么新点子。Arunachalam Muruganantham, another Indian entrepreneur, is a pioneer of low-cost pad manufacturing.另一个印度企业家Arunachalam Muruganantham是廉价卫生棉条产业的先驱人物。Gandhigram, a non-profit organisation in Tamil Nadu, has developed similar technology in partnership with engineers at the Indian Institute of Technology in Madras.位于印度泰米尔纳德邦的非营利性组织Gandhigram已同位于马德拉斯的印度技术研究院的工程师共同合作研发出类似的工艺技术。Goonj, an NGO, sews and sterilises discarded old clothes into sanitary pads.民营机构Goonj则将废弃的旧衣进行缝纫消毒制成了卫生护垫。Many start-ups process cotton fibre from old knitwear into pads.许多新兴企业通过加工棉布纤维将旧的针织品制成了护垫。Mr Muruganantham reckons that the country is awash with hundreds of local brands.先生Muruganantham认为印度已经充斥着成百上千种本土品牌的卫生护垫了。Yet, unusually, Aakars product meets the standards of the Western world and can compete with all global brands, says Ronald van het Hof of Women on Wings, a Dutch-based consultancy focused on creating jobs for women.来自挥着翅膀女人的Ronald van het Hof称,Aakar的产品却出乎意料的达到了西方国家的卫生标准并且可以与所有的国际品牌一较高低。挥着翅膀的女人是一个位于荷兰的咨询公司,其致力于为女性增创就业机会。After studying sanitary-pad markets in four states, Bihar, West Bengal, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu, the Dutch outfit decided to help Aakar grow.通过对印度的比哈尔,西孟加拉,马哈拉施特拉和泰米尔纳德这四个邦的卫生护垫市场进行研究,这个荷兰公司决定扶持Aakar发展壮大。Aakars founders see a big opportunity.Aakar公司的创立者们看到了巨大的商机。Despite the challenges, the 13.5 billion rupee sanitary-pad industry in India is growing fast.尽管竞争激烈,印度总资产达到135亿卢布的卫生护垫产业也在迅猛发展。Established firms, including global giants such as Procter amp; Gamble, hold sway in towns and cities, though still only 25% of women use their products.上市公司在印度城镇地区的地位不可动摇,其中包括诸如宝洁公司在内的国际巨头。但是,仍然只有25%的女性在使用它们的产品。In the countryside the proportion is lower still.在乡村地区这些产品所占份额则会更小。By bypassing middlemen and using existing rural retail networks the founders believe they can win6mcustomers and provide direct employment to 11,000 women in the next five years.通过避免雇佣中年男子和借用现存的乡村零售网络的方法,公司创立者们相信在接下来的五年里,他们可以赢得6百万客户并为11000位女性提供直接的就业岗位。Yet many similar ventures have failed due to problems ranging from a lack of standardisation to inadequate saleswomen.但仍有很多人遭遇了创业失败。或是因为标准化系统的缺失,或是合格女推销员的匮乏。Aakar has forged a partnership with Swayam Shikshan Prayog, an NGO in Osmanabad which will be responsible for manufacture and distribution.公司Aakar已经与Swayam Shikshan Prayog 达成合作关系。后者是一个设在奥斯马纳巴德的非政府组织,它将负责产品的生产和分销。It will also promote awareness by asking local doctors and health-care workers to push the pads at workshops and monthly village gatherings.它还会请当地医师和保健部门的工作人员在工作间及每月的村庄集会时推广卫生护垫产品,借此提高公众的卫生意识。A start will be made next month in Osmanabad, with the aim of catering to about 20,000 women.首次活动将会于下个月在奥斯马纳巴德邦举行,该活动的目的在于迎合约20000名女性的需求。This may reveal whether the pad has genuine appeal in Indias hinterland.这个活动可能会检验这些卫生护垫是否能真正引起生活在印度穷乡僻壤的女性们的注意。It surely will, says Devkanya Jagdale, leader of a group of local saleswomen.它绝对会有吸引力,当地某女性推销员组织的领导Devkanya Jagdale称。And Ratan Jadhav will be my first customer.而且Ratan Jadhav将会是我的第一个客户。 /201309/256957And this is my stuff,I am very happy about that,little camera is working.我们在海草床拍到很多好东西,我很开心,真的很不错,这个小相机干的不错。Using the pole can was a two man operation.这个相机需要两个人操作。The camera no larger than the water bottle,was operated by Ben.这部相机的水下镜头由本操作,Live images of the dolphins were then fed back to Nick who was watching on a small monitor.然后海豚的图像反馈给尼克,他在观看小监视器。He was able then to guide Ben towards the dolphins.他可以引导本追踪海豚。Thats a beautiful shot,look at that.拍的不错,看啊。But the team didnt have it all their own way.但摄制组不可能一直用这种方法。The film was immensely challenging,电影的拍摄是很有挑战性的,Shark Bay is one of the windiest place in Australia,鲨鱼湾是澳大利亚风最多的地方,when we did get on the water,the visibility was often terrible and dolphins are very difficult to get close to,our patience was severely tested.当我们需要在水上拍摄时,能见度很低,很难靠近海豚,我们的耐心受到了极大考验。The teams biggest challenge was trying to film young Samu.摄制组最大的挑战是拍摄小莎木。He appeared to play games with the crew.它和摄制组人员玩捉迷藏。Coming tantalizing close to the both before swimming away.在它游走前,快点靠近它。 201407/311128Science and technology科学技术Synaesthesia通感Smells like Beethoven闻起来像贝多芬Using the word note to describe an odour may be more than just metaphor用音符来描述气味可能并不仅仅是个隐喻What do you hear?你闻到了什么?THAT some people make weird associations between the senses has been acknowledged for over a century.有些人的感觉之间存在着奇怪的联系,这种情况一百多年来已为世人所知;The condition has even been given a name: synaesthesia.它甚至还有了个名字,叫做通感。Odd as it may seem to those not so gifted,也许常人会觉得奇怪,synaesthetes insist that spoken sounds and the symbols which represent them give rise to specific colours or that individual musical notes have their own hues.通感者却坚持说听到说话的声音时,他们脑子里出现的是特殊的颜色,还会说每个音符都有自己的色。Yet there may be a little of this cross-modal association in everyone.其实所有人可能都有点这种跨感官感知联合现象。Most people agree that loud sounds are brighter than soft ones.大多数人都同意响亮的声音比轻柔的声音亮些。Likewise, low-pitched sounds are reminiscent of large objects and high-pitched ones evoke smallness.同样,低音让人联想起宏大的物体,高音给人渺小的感觉。Anne-Sylvie Crisinel and Charles Spence of Oxford University think something similar is true between sound and smell.牛津大学的Anne-Sylvie Crisinel和Charles Spence认为,气味和声音之间也存在类似的联系。Ms Crisinel and Dr Spence wanted to know whether an odour sniffed from a bottle could be linked to a specific pitch, and even a specific instrument.Ms Crisinel 和Dr Spence想弄清楚瓶装的气味能否与特定的音调甚至乐器联系起来。To find out, they asked 30 people to inhale 20 smells—ranging from apple to violet and wood smoke—which came from a teaching kit for wine-tasting.为了找出,他们测试了30人,让每人吸入20种气味从苹果、紫罗兰的气味到木材烟尘这些气味来自品酒师教材。After giving each sample a good sniff, volunteers had to click their way through 52 sounds of varying pitches, played by piano, woodwind, string or brass,在认真体味每种气味后,志愿者要从52种音调不同、and identify which best matched the smell.音色各异的声音中点选出听起来感觉与气味最相配的。The results of this study, to be published later this month in Chemical Senses, are intriguing.研究结果十分有趣,本月将被发表在《Chemical Senses》杂志上。The researchers’ first finding was that the volunteers did not think their request utterly ridiculous.第一,研究者发现志愿者并不认为这项实验荒唐透顶。It rather made sense, they told them afterwards.试验结束后,志愿者们说实验还是有点意义的。The second was that there was significant agreement between volunteers.第二,志愿者的意见有重要的共同点。Sweet and sour smells were rated as higher-pitched, smoky and woody ones as lower-pitched.他们认为酸、甜的气味音调高,烟味和木头的气味音调低;Blackberry and raspberry were very piano.黑莓味和覆盆子味闻起来很像钢琴,Vanilla had elements of both piano and woodwind.香草味像钢琴和木管乐的混合体,Musk was strongly brass.麝香味则非常像铜管乐。It is not immediately clear why people employ their musical senses in this way to help their assessment of a smell.为什么人们会用乐感来帮助自己评价味道?并不能被立刻揭晓。But gone are the days when science assumed each sense worked in isolation.但是科学已不再认为人的各种感觉之间没有联系了。People live, say Dr Spence and Ms Crisinel,士Dr Spence和Ms Crisinel说:in a multisensory world and their brains tirelessly combine information from all sources to make sense, as it were, of what is going on around them.人们生活在这个世界上,万事万物会引起各种感觉。大脑似乎在不停地综合来自各方面的信息,判断周围发生的事情。Nor is this response restricted to humans.这种反应也不仅仅发生在人类身上。Studies of the brains of mice show that regions involved in olfaction also react to sound.研究显示,老鼠大脑的嗅觉区同样会对声音做出反应。Taste, too, seems linked to hearing.味觉似乎也与听觉有关联。Ms Crisinel and Dr Spence have previously established that sweet and sour tastes, like smells, are linked to high pitch, while bitter tastes bring lower pitches to mind.此前Ms Crisinel和Dr Spence已经确定,酸味、甜味就像酸、甜的气味一样与高音相关;苦味则带来低音的感觉。Now they have gone further.如今他们走得更远。In a study that will be published later this year they and their colleagues show how altering the pitch and instruments used in background music can alter the way food tastes.在今年计划发表的一项试验中,二人与同事揭示了背景音乐中乐器和音调的改变会如何引起食物味道的改变。In this experiment, each volunteer was given four pieces of toffee.在这项试验中,每位志愿者得到了四块太妃糖。They consumed the other two, however, to the accompaniment of a higher-pitched piano piece.他们在忧郁低沉的铜管乐声中吃掉两块,又听着音调较高的钢琴曲吃掉另外两块。Volunteers rated the toffee eaten during low-pitched music as more bitter than that consumed during the high-pitched rendition.志愿者评价说,音乐的音调低时吃的糖较苦,音调高时吃的糖较甜。The toffee was, of course, identical.当然,所有的太妃糖都一样。It was the sound that tasted different.声音才是尝起来味道不一样的东西。 /201403/279795Buses公共汽车Up to speed提升速度Copying the capital is even harder than it looks模仿首都易,实则苦难言FEW Britons feel passionate about buses. Unlike the railways, they spur few protests or angry letters in local newspapers. On August 26th IPPR, a left-leaning think-tank influential in Labour circles, attempted to change this. Buses “seem to be the forgotten aspect of public transport”, the authors of a new report sighed. But their proposed prescription is almost as doddery as an old Routemaster.少有不列颠人对公共汽车表示愤怒的。不像铁路,他们很少在当地报纸上对公共汽车提出抗议或者向报社投寄发泄怒气的信件。在8月26日,公共政策研究所—一个在工党圈内有影响力的左倾智库——试图改变这种状况。在一则新报道中,有作者叹道公共汽车“看来已经成了公共交通系统中被遗忘的一环”。不过他们提出的建议基本上跟老司路者一样老掉牙了。In London, bus use is soaring. Some 7m journeys are made there each day, on a bus network that is highly regulated by Transport for London (TfL), a body that oversees public transport in the city, as well as many roads. But outside the capital the deregulated bus network can be patchy, with multiple ticketing systems and buses prone to get stuck in traffic, and use is falling.在伦敦,对公共汽车的使用飙升。每天约有7百万人次到此观光,故而公共汽车系统为伦敦运输局(TfL)高效管理,这个组织管辖伦敦城内公共运输系统以及相当多的道路。不过在首都之外的公交网络,由于缺乏管理变得差强人意,相应的大量的售票系统和公共汽车在交通中发生拥堵,因而对公共汽车的使用量下降。The sharp contrast between London and the rest suggests to IPPR that large transport bodies similar to TfL ought to be set up, particularly in big metropolises. This would allow both better co-ordination and more effective lobbying of the Treasury. Since TfL was created in 2000 London’s bus network has been pumped with cash. Although it has fallen back slightly, net public support to London’s buses, at 809m in 2012-13, is still far higher than the amount doled out to other big cities.伦敦及其他地区的强烈对比使得IPPR认为类似于 TfL 的大型交通组织应当建立起来,特别是在大都市。这有利于更好地协调合作以及更为有效地游说财政部以获得资金持。自从2000年以来TfL 建立,伦敦的公交网络来钱如井喷,虽然现在有些许回落,但公共交通网络在2012~2013年间给伦敦公交共资助了八千九百万英镑,远高于给予其他大城市的资金拨款。The bigger-body plan, though, is likely to remain a theory. Even in Manchester, the most go-ahead big city outside London, a combined authority representing local governments is only just getting limited powers over transport. London is exceedingly unusual and hard to copy. It has a high-profile elected mayor, a large congestion-charging zone and a young, fast-growing population that shuns cars. Bus use is rising even though they are no longer particularly cheap. Fares are now, by one measure, some of the highest in Britain. Since 2005 they have increased by 23%, only slightly less than in other metropolitan areas.不过这种扩大组织的计划,很可能会停留在纸面上。即便像曼彻斯特这种除伦敦之外走在前列的城市,当地联合执政的政府对于交通运输业的管辖权力依然有限。伦敦过于特殊,难以复制。它有高调选举产生的市长,一大片拥堵收费的区域以及一群迅速成长起来的年轻、买不起车的人。尽管公共交通出行已经不是特别便宜了,但是对公共交通系统使用数量仍在上升。据一项调查表明,如今的公共汽车出行费用,有些在不列颠都是最高的。公交费用自2005年以来已经增长了23%,仅次于其他大城市地区。Buses are doing well in a few other spots, too. As the report notes, they are popular in Oxford and Brighton, congested cities with high parking fees. In East Kent 29m passenger trips were made on buses run by Stagecoach, Britain’s biggest bus operator, in 2011, up from 14m in 2003. Punctuality is improving in many areas. Routes have been cut back outside London—but many of them were publicly subsidised ones squeezed by austerity.如报道中提到的,在牛津和布莱顿这些停车费用很高的拥挤的城市里,公共交通也十分流行。在东肯特,出行使用“驿站马车”公司公交车的人次由2003年的140万上升至2011年的290万。该公司乃是不列颠最大的公交运营商。在诸多区域不准时的状况正在改善。伦敦之外的线路已经砍掉不少—不过很多是由于财政紧缩政策而被排除出局的。Rather than try and replicate TfL, local authorities might be encouraged to impose stricter parking regulations and work harder with bus companies to improve service. Concessionary fares, overseen by individual councils, could be simplified and targeted at the poor far more efficiently. But in some areas it would be wise to accept that bus use will just continue to decline, says David Leeder, a bus expert. In regions such as north-east England, where unemployment is the highest in the country, car ownership has traditionally been low. But it is starting to catch up as the economy recovers. That is more bad news for buses.与其尝试复制TfL模式,不如鼓励地方当局制定更为严格的停车条例并与公交公司共同致力改善务。由个别理事会监督下的优惠收费项目可以简化,并有效地向穷困人员倾斜。公交研究专家戴维德·李德说,不过在一些区域,接受公交车使用量减少也许是明智的。在诸如英格兰东北部的一些区域,那里是整个国家失业率最高的地方,私车拥有量从来很低。而当经济复苏的时候,私车拥有量也开始上扬。这对于公交车事业来说无异于雪上加霜。 /201409/326420

Yaeuml;l: Hey Don, whatcha doing?嘿,Don, 你在干什么?Don: Booking a trip to Glacier National Park. I want to go there before the glaciers disappear.订张去冰川国家国家公园的票。在冰川融化之前我想去那儿一趟。Y: What do you mean?你是什么意思啊?D: Scientists predict that within twenty years the parks remaining glaciers will melt away.科学家们预测20年之内这个公园内的冰川将渐渐融化。Y: Why?为什么啊?D: Whether its because of human industry or natural cycles, temperatures are rising. And when temperatures rise, glaciers melt.不管是因为人类工业还是自然循环,气温都在逐渐上升。而当气温上升时,冰川就会融化。Y: Forgive me for sounding insensitive, but so what? Glaciers are nice to look at, but what difference will it make if they melt?原谅我的后知后觉,但是那又如何?冰川看起来很漂亮,但是如果它们融化又会有什么不同呢?D: Glaciers are more than just pretty pictures. Theyre the main sources for many rivers that people depend on for drinking water, irrigation, and hydroelectric power.冰川不只是壮美这么简单。它们是许多河流的源头。人们的饮用水、灌溉和水力电气的能源都需要依赖这些河流。Y: So are rivers drying up?那么,河流会变得干涸吗?D: Not yet, but the amount of glacier water affects a rivers flow volume. 还不确定,但冰川水的量会影响河水的流量。The lower the flow volume the less water there is for drinking, power, and everything else people depend on rivers for. 流量越少,供人们饮用,发电以及做其他一切事的水就会越少。Also, greater water volume helps dilute a rivers chemical content. 另外,丰富的水量可以帮助稀释河流内的化学物质。The less water a river has, the higher the chemical concentration, which can pollute a lake fed by the river.一条河的水量越少,其内的化学物质浓度就会越高。这会污染这条河注入的湖泊。Y: I didnt know that. But how about this...Higher temperatures mean that more water will evaporate from the oceans, which means more precipitation, including snow. 我倒不清楚那个。但这个呢?温度越高就意味着海洋的水将会有更多被蒸发,也就是说降水量也会增多,包括雪。So maybe some glaciers will actually grow even though its getting warmer.所以说尽管气候是在变暖,但冰川的数量还可能会增加。D: Some scientists make that argument, but most dont buy it. 有些科学家做出了那样的论断,但大部分人并不认同。Sure, some glaciers are growing temporarily thanks to unusual amounts of snow, but theyre the exception to the rule. 确实,一些冰川的暂时性生长是因为不寻常的降雪数量,但这只是冰川生成过程中的例外情况。Generally, glaciers grow when the amount of snow that melts in the summer is less than the amount that falls in the winter. 一般来说,夏天雪融化的数量少于冬天降雪的数量时才会生成冰川。Right now, more snow is melting than falling.现在,融化的雪量比降雪量多。Y: I guess you should book that trip. 我想你该订下这趟旅程。201308/251506

Have you ever taken a good look at your dog and wondered, where did this creature come from?你是否曾仔细观察过你的,迫切想知道汪星人这种生物到底来自哪里?Sure, you know your dog came from the local shelter or a pet store, but what about before that?当然,你清楚它们是来自当地避难所或宠物商店,但是在这之前呢?If you were able to trace your dogs lineage back to its origins, what would you find? 如果你能够跟踪的血统回到它的起源,你会有何发现?Until recently, scientists believed that domestic dogs originated in the Middle East.直到最近,科学家们相信国内的起源于中东地区。But reports suggest that almost all domestic dogs began in East Asia as the offspring of three lineages.但报告显示,几乎所有国内的都是东亚血统三代之后。Virtually all domesticated dogs in the ed States descend from dogs brought over by ancient people that crossed the Bering land bridge from Asia to North America.几乎所有美国家养的都是从亚洲到北美穿过白令海峡大陆桥的古代人们带过来繁衍生息下来的子孙。Although the New World had a healthy wolf population that might have given rise to a New World strain of domesticated dogs, by and large these ancient immigrants stuck with the dogs of Asian origin.虽然新世界繁殖良好的狼可能会为国内带来新的压力,但总的来说,这些古代移民无法摆脱自己的亚裔血统。How, you may wonder, have scientists come to these conclusions?怎么样,你是不是会觉得奇怪,科学家哪来的这些结论?The same way forensic specialists increasingly solve crimes-through DNA evidence.这就如同法医专家通过DNA据破案一样。Since mitochondria are cellular elements passed from mother to pup, mitochondrial DNA ily reveal genetic footprints stretching back into prehistoric times.线粒体是通过母亲传递的细胞元素,线粒体DNA揭示伸展回到史前时代的遗传印记。Scientists from the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. collected DNA samples from the remains of ancient Old World dogs, ancient New World dogs, and ancient New World wolves.华盛顿特区史密森学会的科学家们从古老旧世界的,古代新世界及古代的狼的遗体中收集DNA样本。Test showed decisively that the New World dogs were genetically more similar to Old World dogs than to New World wolves, effectively proving that the dogs we save from local shelters originally hail from the far East rather than the woods of North America. 试验表明新世界的基因相比新世界的狼更类似于旧世界,这有力的明我们从当地避难所中救助的最初来自远东而非北美的森林。201310/259453

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