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时间:2019年09月16日 06:14:15

In fact, he did face it, the last few days,事实上 在他生命的最后几天里with considerable courage.他确实非常勇敢He goes about dying他不停地说like a good Christian, like a good king,要像一个虔诚的基督教徒和好国王那样死去dying, in fact, like Louis XIV.像路易十四一样死去When the announcement came, no-one seemed to care.当宣布国王驾崩的消息时 无人在意When he actually dies, you can hear a stampede,当路易十五过世之际 可以听见人们almost a thunder of running feet,蜂拥逃离的巨响as everybody abandons the antechamber where hes lying.逃离路易十五去世的房间The death of every king, you had to have an autopsy,每个国王去世 都需要解剖and the Kings physician offers this to the ceremonial offices,御医向礼仪部门提议解剖and they dont want to know, at all.但他们根本就不想管They turned their back and run rather fast,他们捂着鼻子 转身clutching their noses,匆忙逃离as they do so, and the King is sealed into an iron coffin.路易十五就这样封存于钢铁棺木之中Once the news of his death was known,国王驾崩的消息一传开there was great celebration.举国欢庆There was a general sense of relief对于人民来说 这是一种解脱that the man who had once been那位曾经受人爱戴的Louis the Well-Beloved, had gone.路易国王去世了201206/186017

The battle cry went up.狩猎口号由此兴起Hokahey! Which means ;to charge.; and the hunters went in for the kill.当喊道;Hokahey;意为攻击,猎手们便一齐蜂拥而上射杀猎物On horse back, the bow is the weapon of choice.在马背上弓箭是最佳武器And the time it takes to reload a gun,a warrior can ride 300 yards,and fire 20 arrows.重新装弹所用的的时间,足够一名战士策马狂奔300码,张弓发箭20Buffalo can run at 35 miles an hour.野牛奔跑时速高达35英里Hunts cover hundreds of miles over many days.狩猎范围方圆几百英里,时间长达数日It can take 15 arrows to kill a buffalo.射死一头野牛需要15箭White hunters like Frank Mayer use a single cartridge.而像法兰克·梅尔这样的白人猎手只需子弹一发He aims for the lungs,a clean kill drops a buffalo without disturbing the herd.对准肺部,干净利落地放倒一头牛丝毫不曾惊动牛群30 Million are killed in a little over a decade.短短十几年,3000万头野牛死在口下After hunters take the hides,train loads of men arrive to pick their carcasses.在猎手剥下牛皮之后火车载着工人接踵而至拉走剩下的残骸They make buttons from bones and grind down skeletons for fertilizer and porcelain.他们利用牛骨做扣子,把骨架打磨成粉用作肥料或是制作瓷器The primary resource keeping Native Americans alive is gone.原住民靠天吃饭赖地穿衣的日子一去不复返了Facing starvation, theyre forced on to reservations.面对着灭顶的饥荒,他们被迫迁往保留地My great-great-grandmother, Grandma Big Eagle was alive when buffalo hunting ended.我的曾曾祖母,巨鹰太祖在捕猎野牛时代终结时还活着They werent just saying good-bye to kind of food stuff.他们挥别的不仅是赖以生存的食物They were saying good-bye to a way of being in the world.同时也是在挥别整个种族的生存方式I think for them to look back on that was just unspeakably sad.我想当他们回顾那段历史时只会是难以言表的悲愤In 1889, just 85 wild buffalo exist in the whole ed States.1889年,全美仅存85头野牛The men who ride the great iron horse are taming the wilderness.人类驾着铁骑践踏着自然,征着每一寸荒野The railroad will bring another modern American icon to the Great Plains.铁路,把新时代美国的另一标志烙在了大平原上The last of the great frontiers man.他们是最后的开拓者The cowboy.牛仔 /201211/210628

TEXT:Today more than 10% of all Americans can trace their ancestry back to the Mayflower. For a time, Plymouth provides the sanctuary they sought. “Edward! Edward! Edward, please go and look over there!” But like Jamestown, there were others here first. April 1621. The Pilgrims have been in the New World for five months. Barely half survive the first winter. But theyre not the first Europeans to arrive on this coast. Five years before, European ships brought light-skinned people and plague. Almost nine out of ten of the local people a re wiped out. The Pokanoket people dont need enemies. They make peace with the Pilgrims. They teach the English how to grow crops in sandy soil, using fish for fertilizer. But they want something inreturn. They have a common enemy -- a rival tribe. And the English have powerful weapons. The Pilgrims arent soldiers. But in the New World, they have to fight to survive. On August 14, 1621, Pilgrims and Pokanoket, shoulder to shoulder, will launch a surprise attack that will seal their future in this new land. It was resolved to send 14 men, well-armed, and to fall upon them in the night. The captain gave charge: Let none pass out. The rival tribe doesnt know what hit them. Surrounded, they have no answer for English firepower. Pokanoket and Pilgrims find comm on ground and a chance to survive. 译文:在今天,超过10%的美国人家谱可以追溯到;五月花号;上。普利茅斯一度成为了他们所寻求的避难所。爱德华,爱德华,爱德华,快去看看那边。但和詹姆斯敦一样,他们也不是这里的主人。 1621年4月,清教徒们来到新世界已经五个月了,只有一半的人挺过了第一年冬天,但他们不是第一批来到这片海岸的欧洲人。五年前,欧洲轮船带来了白人移民和瘟疫,几乎九成的原住民因此丧生。 波卡诺基特人不需要敌人,他们和清教徒和平共处。他们教会了英国人,如何用鱼做肥料,在沙土中种庄稼,但他们想要回报。他们有一个宿敌,另一个敌对部落,而英国人拥有强大的武器。 清教徒们并不是军人,但在这个新世界,他们不得不为了生存而战。1621年8月14日,清教徒和波卡诺基特人准备联手发动一次突袭,这次突袭将决定他们在这片土地的未来。 这次一共出动了14名男子装备精良,准备在深夜一举擒下这个部落。首领下了命令,不要放过任何一个。对方部落猝不及防被团团包围,对英国火毫无还手之力。波卡诺基特人和清教徒们,找到了彼此之间的共同点也发现了共同生存的机会。(精下期继续...)《美国简史》系本纪录片历史背景背景知识:;五月花号;与感恩节的故事(中)(接上一期)稍事休整后,五月花号继续沿海岸线前进。由于逆风和时差,它没有能到达预定的目的地——弗吉尼亚的詹姆斯敦,反而在圣诞节后的第一天,把他们送上了新英格兰的土地。有意思的是,在这次充满危险的远征中,所有探险者只有一人死亡。但由于旅途中诞生了一名婴儿,使到达美洲的人不多不少,仍然是102名。移民都是虔诚的教徒,无不手划十字,衷心感谢上帝的眷顾。现在,呈现在他们面前的,完全是一块陌生的土地,蜿蜒曲折的海岸线,显得沉寂、荒凉。因此,大约在一个月内,移民们不敢贸然靠岸,仍然以船为家。在此期间,他们派出了侦察队,乘坐小船在科德角湾沿线寻找定居地。一天,正在大家焦急等待的时候,侦察队返回来报告说,他们发现了一个适合移民们居住的、真正的“天堂”。“天堂”就是今天的普利茅斯港,这是一个天然的良港,非常适合五月花号停泊。港口附近有一个优良的渔场,可以提供大量的海产品。不远处一片连绵起伏的小山,就像一道天然屏障,把这块土地环绕起来。在明亮的阳光下,结了冰的小溪反射着晶莹的光泽,可以为移民们提供充足的淡水。开垦过的肥沃农田,一块一块整整齐齐地排列着。除此之外,他们还看到了一片虽然残破,却足以遮风避雨,帮助他们度过严冬的房屋……看起来,一切都不错,而且不能再好了。唯一令他们感到迷惘的是,这片到处都有人类生活遗迹的土地,竟然看不到一个人影,一缕炊烟,显得是那样荒凉,倒好似事先就为他们准备的一样。后来才知道,这里原来是一个相当繁荣的印第安村落。几年前天花流行,全村人无一幸免,这才使它成了这群异国漂泊者的最佳避难所。几天后,五月花号渡过了科德角湾,在普利茅斯港抛下了锚链。移民们划着小艇登陆时,按照古老的航海传统,首先登上了一块高耸于海面上的大礁石。五月花号上礼炮轰鸣,人声鼎沸,共同庆祝新生活的开始。后来,这块礁石就被称为“普利茅斯石”,成为美洲新英格兰第一个永久性殖民地的历史见。不过,对这些渴望幸福的移民来说,第一个冬天并不美好。从大西洋上吹来的凛冽寒风,像魔鬼一样在空中嘶鸣,漫天的冰雪,无情地拍打着简陋的住房。在这一片冰天雪地里,移民们缺少必要的装备,也缺乏在这片土地上生活的经验。在繁忙劳动的重压下,不少人累倒了,累病了,恶劣的饮食,难以忍受的严寒,使更多的人倒地不起。接踵而来的传染病,夺去许多人的生命。一个冬天过去,历尽千难万险来到美洲的102名移民,只剩下了50个。几乎每天都有人死去,几乎天天都有一家或几家在做丧事。刚刚踏上这片土地时的欢乐没有了。每个人、的心头,都被一种空前绝望的气氛所笼罩。一个梦,一个刚刚开始的美梦,难道就这样被打破了吗?每个人都在思索着。

Clean Plastic Surfaces. A quick way to get your kitchen looking instantly cleaner.清洁塑料表面,瞬间让你的厨房看上去焕然一新。Step 1: You will need1.你需要multipurpose kitchen spray多用途厨房喷雾a double-sided household sponge双面家用海绵a soft cloth软布and paper towels纸巾Step 2: Upper cabinets2.上层橱柜As with all cleaning tasks, start at the top and work your way down. Spray a little multipurpose kitchen spray onto the dirty areas. Gentle scrub with the abrasive side of a sponge to remove any marks and smudges. Be thorough around the handles as this is where germs can fester. Remove the cleaning product and wipe dry with a soft cloth. Jacqueline advises giving the surface a final wipe with a paper towel, this will polish to a shine without leaving lint.与所有清洁任务一样,按照从上到下的顺序进行。向比较脏的地方洒一点多用途厨房喷雾。用海绵研磨作用较强的一面轻轻擦掉任何污迹。把手处要彻底擦拭,因为细菌很容易在这些地方滋生。擦掉清洁产品,用软布擦干。Jacqueline建议最后用纸巾再擦一遍,这样可以抛光,不会留下绒毛。Step 3: Work surfaces3.工作台Squirt the multipurpose kitchen spray onto the work area and scrub the entire area. Use the other, sponge side to remove the product. Dry with a soft cloth and finally buff with a paper towel.向工作台上喷一些多用途厨房喷雾,擦拭整个区域。用海绵的另外一面擦干净。用软布擦干,最后用纸巾抛光。Step 4: Lower drawers and cabinets4.较低的抽屉和橱柜Repeat the same pattern to the lower kitchen surfaces. Spray, scrub, wipe and buff. Pay special attention to the areas which are handled the most and the bottom which can get knocked by feet.厨房中位置较低的表面也重复相同的工作。喷洒,用力擦,擦干和抛光。要特别注意把手的位置和脚能够踢到的较低的位置。Step 5: Remove any drips5.擦干任何痕迹If any of the cleaning product has dripped onto the floor wipe away with a paper towel for a spotless finish. Clean, shiny and germ free.如果清洁产品滴到地板上,用纸巾擦掉,这样你的厨房就一尘不染,闪闪发光,也没有细菌了。Thanks for watching How To Clean Plastic Surfaces.感谢收看“怎样清洁厨房塑料表面”视频节目。201302/226955


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