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楼主:周乐园 时间:2019年11月23日 06:29:34 点击:0 回复:0
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In the annals of anti-monopoly case law, Chinese rice noodle and tableware cartels do not rank up there with the Standard Oil trust, the petroleum cartel that was famously prosecuted in 1911 under the US Sherman Antitrust Act.在反垄断判例法记录中,中国的米粉和餐具消毒卡特尔不可与标准石油(Standard Oil)托拉斯同日而语。1911年,美国法院根据《谢尔曼反托拉斯法》(Sherman Antitrust Act)裁定标准石油托拉斯为非法石油垄断组织,这是一个著名的判例。But in time these two much lesser known cartels, targeted by Beijing regulators shortly after the implementation of China’s 2010 Anti-Monopoly Law, may become famous in their own right. They were among the first cases in an enforcement campaign that has since ensnared the likes of Mercedes-Benz and Qualcomm. It could also soon have implications for multinationals’ ability to safeguard intellectual property in the world’s most coveted market.然而,中国这两个鲜为人知的卡特尔或许也会因为其自身的原因扬名世界——2010年,在中国《反垄断法》(Anti-Monopoly Law)实施一年多后,它们便被北京方面的监管部门盯上了。它们是反垄断执法行动中首批被调查的对象,这之后梅赛德斯-奔驰(Mercedes-Benz)和高通(Qualcomm)之类的公司相继中。这场执法行动很快还可能威胁跨国企业在中国市场上保护自身知识产权的能力,而中国是全世界最令人垂涎的市场。In both instances, the National Development and Reform Commission imposed small penalties for price collusion on more than a dozen rice noodle makers and service providers that wash, sterilise and wrap tableware in plastic for restaurants. Stephen Harris, a competition attorney with Winston amp; Strawn in Washington DC, says both cases were a signal to Chinese companies by NDRC that “new laws exist and there’s a cop on the beat”.在两个案例中,中国的国家发改委(National Development and Reform Commission)对十多家米粉制造商以及7家为餐馆提供套装消毒餐具的餐具消毒企业处以小额罚款,原因是这些企业串通涨价。华盛顿特区温斯顿-斯特朗律师事务所(Winston amp; Strawn)的反垄断律师斯蒂芬#8226;哈里斯(Stephen Harris)称,两起案件都是发改委向中国企业发出的警告——“新法律已经实施,警察在盯着呢”。The NDRC’s investigations into allegedly anti-competitive behaviour by domestic firms culminated with an Rmb200m (.2m) fine for China’s largest liquor maker, Wuliangye, two years ago. But it takes rather more money to get the attention of multinationals, and the NDRC achieved just that in 2013 with the first in a series of investigations against foreign manufacturers of milk powder, auto parts, premium cars and semiconductors.发改委对中国本土企业所谓反竞争行为的调查,以两年前中国最大白酒制造商五粮液(Wuliangye)被处以2亿元人民币(合3220万美元)罚款达到巅峰。但是,要引起跨国企业的注意,还得开出更大的罚单。2013年,这个目的达到了——发改委开启了针对外国制造商的第一起调查,随后的一系列反垄断调查席卷了奶粉、汽车零部件、豪华车以及半导体领域的外国制造商。Foreign firms accused of anti-competitive behaviour by the NDRC have generally been hit with much higher fines than their domestic counterparts. Qualcomm agreed to pay a Rmb6.1bn penalty in February, while Mercedes and Audi were fined Rmb350m and Rmb250m respectively.被发改委指控存在反竞争行为的那些外国公司最后收到的罚单金额,一般比被罚的国内企业高得多。今年2月,高通同意付61亿元人民币的罚款,而奔驰和奥迪(Audi)则被分别处以3.5亿和2.5亿元人民币的罚款。In all three instances, the fact the penalties could have been much worse has blunted some of the criticism that the NDRC has been deliberately targeting foreign companies — a charge the regulator has consistently denied.有人批评发改委在故意拿外国企业开刀,而在以上3个案例中,罚款金额原本都可能更高,这一事实缓和了部分这样的批评。发改委对这一批评始终予以否认。Qualcomm’s penalty could have required much more costly changes to its business model. The San Diego company’s shares actually rose on the news. Mercedes and Audi, meanwhile, were penalised for infractions in just one province each. In theory, they could have had to pay much more had NDRC’s investigators ferreted out wrongdoing in all of China’s 32 provinces, autonomous regions and directly administered municipalities.对高通的处罚原本可能包括要求其改变商业模式,那样的话代价要高昂得多。被罚的消息公布后,这家总部位于美国圣地亚哥的公司的股价事实上还上涨了。与此同时,奔驰和奥迪受到的处罚分别针对它们各自在仅一个省份的不法行为。理论上讲,如果发改委查出它们在中国内地全部的32个省、自治区和直辖市的不法行为,它们被处以的罚款可能会高得多。That suggests the NDRC’s investigations of multi#173;nationals, like the ones into domestic firms before them, were to a large degree motivated by the desire to send a wake-up call to the foreign investment community rather than secure maximum fines.这意味着,发改委对跨国企业的调查,很大程度上是出于想要敲打一下外企,而非想要获得尽可能高的罚金,正如发改委之前对国内企业的调查一样。So what next now that the NDRC has so effectively got its intended message across? Only one previously disclosed investigation has yet to be resolved — that involving Microsoft and the State Administration of Industry and Commerce, which also polices aspects of the 2010 Anti#173;Monopoly Law.既然发改委已经颇有成效地传达了其意图,那么接下来会发生什么?目前只有一个之前披露过的调查尚未有结果——该调查涉及微软(Microsoft)和中国国家工商行政管理总局(State Administration of Industry and Commerce,简称工商总局),后者也是反垄断执法机构。Mr Harris and his colleagues at Winston amp; Strawn — who represent both Qualcomm and Microsoft but said they could not comment on either case — are warning multinationals about a new set of SAIC guidelines that could force them to share intellectual property with their Chinese competitors. The rules, designed to “prohibit abuse of intellectual property rights to eliminate or restrict competition”, were promulgated early last month and take effect on August 1. Just as western regulators have occasionally forced operators of telecoms networks and electricity grids to share their “essential facilities” with competitors, the SAIC could compel “dominant” companies to share intellectual property when it constitutes “an essential facility of manufacturing and business operations”.温斯顿-斯特朗律师事务所的哈里斯及其同事们同时代理高通和微软,但是他们表示两起案件均无法置评。他们警告跨国企业称,中国工商总局的新一套指导方针可能会强迫它们将知识产权共享给中国竞争对手。《关于禁止滥用知识产权排除、限制竞争行为的规定》于上个月公布,将于8月1日生效。就像西方监管部门偶尔迫使电信网络和电力网络运营商与竞争者共享其“关键设施”一样,当这些知识产权构成“制造和商业运营的关键设施”时,中国工商总局可能会迫使“占主导地位的”企业把知识产权分享出来。If it were to do so, the SAIC would be following the EU in applying the essential facilities doctrine to intellectual property. But the EU has only forced companies to share intellectual property in a very small number of exceptional circumstances, while the US has refused to do so.若果真如此,中国工商总局将步欧盟(EU)后尘,将关键设施理论应用到知识产权上。但是,欧盟只是在极少数特殊情况下强迫企业共享知识产权,而美国则拒绝这么做。In a rare public comment on the new rules, one SAIC official has said the regulator will be “cautious” in applying them. For multinationals wary of being forced to transfer technology in China, the uncertainty is a worrying but useful reminder that the country’s anti-monopoly law is very much a work in progress. Very few if any of them took note of the implications for their own industries of the NDRC’s prosecutions of the domestic rice noodle and tableware cartels. It is a mistake that they should not make twice.在就新规发表的一次罕见公开中,中国工商总局一名官员称该部门将“谨慎”应用新规。对于担心在中国被强迫转让技术的跨国企业而言,这种不确定性是个令人担忧、也很有用的提醒,即中国的反垄断法很大程度上还是半成品。发改委起诉国内米粉和餐具消毒卡特尔的时候,跨国企业中很少(如果有的话)有哪家注意到了此事对它们自己所在行业的影响。这个错误它们不应再犯第二次。 /201505/376507After software engineering and financial engineering comes linguistic engineering. Google this week raised its market capitalisation by bn by shuffling around some executive jobs and changing its name to Alphabet. Who knew that swapping your tiles in a game of corporate Scrabble was worth so much?搞过了软件工程和金融工程之后,谷歌(Google)又搞起了语言工程。本周谷歌对管理层进行了一些调整,同时将公司名称改成Alphabet,结果市值增加了250亿美元。谁能料到在企业版拼字游戏(Scrabble)中换个名字就能赚这么多呢?Everyone s what they want into the new letters. For Larry Page, Google’s restless co-founder, Alphabet means jettisoning the cares of running a corporation and becoming a full-time inventor and venture capitalist, while Sundar Pichai takes the leadership of Google. For employees, it brings the hope of more valuable share options. For Wall Street, it spells clarity.所有人都从这一新名称中看到了他们想要的。对于求新求变的联合创始人拉里椠奇(Larry Page)来说,Alphabet意味着抛下管理企业的烦恼,成为一个全职发明家和风险投资家,谷歌的领导权则交由桑德尔皮查伊(Sundar Pichai)。对于员工而言,Alphabet带来了提高认股权价值的希望。对于华尔街,Alphabet更加清晰明了。Only governance renegades would invent a structure with one board for Google and Alphabet, the founding triumvirate — Eric Schmidt, Sergey Brin and Mr Page — stacked above Mr Pichai, and Ruth Porat as chief financial officer of both. “Google is not a conventional company,” wrote Mr Brin and Mr Page in their 2004 founders’ letter, and by heavens they meant it.只有在治理上离经叛道的管理者能发明出这种结构,谷歌和Alphabet共享一个董事会,皮查伊上面排着创业三巨头埃里克施密特(Eric Schmidt)、谢尔盖布林(Sergey Brin)和佩奇,露丝波拉特(Ruth Porat)担任两家公司的首席财务官(CFO)。布林和佩奇曾在2004年的创始人来信中写道:“谷歌不是一家传统公司。”想不到他们是认真的。Still, being conventional is not the best way to build an innovative business or to make profits. Warren Buffett runs a unique combination of industrial conglomerate and investment fund at Berkshire Hathaway, and it has worked well for him. He made his largest ever acquisition this week, buying Precision Castparts for bn.不过,坚持传统的确不是建立一个创新企业或实现盈利的最佳途径。沃伦巴菲特(Warren Buffett)掌管着一个独特的组合,他所执掌的伯克希尔哈撒韦公司(Berkshire Hathaway)结合了工业集团与投资基金业务,结果很不错。本周他做出了有生以来最大规模的收购,以320亿美元买下了精密铸件公司(Precision Castparts)。Berkshire and Alphabet are different kinds of businesses. Mr Buffett values cash flow and mature brands; Mr Page prefers to create things. One of the purposes of this week’s reshuffle is to prove to investors that not as much as they fear is being spent on experimental start-up projects, such as Project Loon’s high-altitude balloons providing internet access to remote areas.伯克希尔哈撒韦公司与Alphabet是不同类型的企业。巴菲特重视现金流和成熟品牌,佩奇则喜欢创造新事物。谷歌本周重组的目的之一,是想向投资者明,花在实验性初创项目上的钱没有他们所担心的多,比如向偏远地区提供互联网接入务的Project Loon高空气球计划。Mr Page’s naming of Mr Buffett as a role model in providing “long-term, patient capital” to an array of businesses is not idle. He thinks that a multi-business group with a guiding intelligence at the centre can beat the single-sector company favoured by investors. The “conglomerate discount” applied by Wall Street can be defeated.佩奇视巴菲特为榜样,称巴菲特向大批企业提供“长期以及耐心的资本”。这并非泛泛而谈,佩奇认为有着核心指导智慧的多元化企业集团,可以打败投资者所青睐的专注于单一行业的企业。华尔街所采用的“多元化企业折让”(conglomerate discount)是可以被战胜的。In principle, that is an odd thing for Mr Page to believe. Google’s technology, after all, uses online auctions and markets — the wisdom of the crowd, not human curation. Why should conglomerates such as Alphabet, with their entrenched interests and fiefdoms, be better than capital markets at allocating capital efficiently? Does he trust in inside knowledge only when the insider is himself?原则上,佩奇的这种想法相当奇怪。毕竟谷歌的技术所用到的在线拍卖和在线市场属于群体智慧,而不是人工筛选。为什么Alphabet这类拥有稳定的利益和市场主导地位的企业集团,在有效配置资本方面会胜过资本市场?难道只有当他自己是内部人时,他才会相信内幕消息?But he is right. Conglomerates can outperform when they exploit their advantages and remain disciplined rather than falling prey to empire-building. Their ability to build a cadre of skilled managers and to pick the right investment projects is strongest in research-intensive industries that invest in intellectual property, which is Alphabet’s territory.但佩奇是正确的。如果企业集团能够利用优势并遵守行为准则,不因打造商业帝国而陷入困境,是可以胜过单一公司的。在专注于知识产权的研究密集型产业——这正是Alphabet的领域——企业集团最擅长建立起经验丰富的管理骨干队伍,以及挑选合适的投资项目。Neil Bhattacharya, a professor at Southern Methodist University in Texas, found in a study that multi-business companies ran operations more efficiently than single-sector ones. They had particular advantages in areas such as software and life sciences because managers could judge more accurately than stock markets which projects were likely to succeed.美国德克萨斯州南卫理公会大学(Southern Methodist University)教授尼尔巴塔查里亚(Neil Bhattacharya)在一项研究中发现,多元化企业比单一企业在经营上效率更高,前者在软件和生命科学等领域具有独特优势,因为企业管理者比股市更能准确判断哪些项目可能获得成功。This is counterintuitive, given US investors’ liking for simplicity, and view of conglomerates as inefficient. Public conglomerates in the US are valued at discounts of 10 to 15 per cent to single-sector companies, according to Boston Consulting Group — though the discount is lower in Europe, and Asian conglomerates often trade at a premium.鉴于美国投资者喜欢简单的东西,并认为企业集团效率低下,巴塔查里亚教授的发现似乎与人们的直觉相反。根据波士顿咨询集团(Boston Consulting Group)的数据,在美国,上市企业集团的估值相对于单一企业会折让10%—15%,不过欧洲的这种估值差距要小一些,而亚洲的企业集团往往会溢价交易。The suspicion originates in the 1970s and 1980s, the era of companies such as ITT and RJR Nabisco. Michael Jensen, a Harvard professor, later criticised the “billions in unproductive capital expenditures and organisational inefficiencies” at conglomerates, praising the trend toward “smaller, more focused, more efficient” enterprises.怀疑始于上世纪七、八十年代,那是美国国际电话电报公司(ITT)和RJR纳比斯科(RJR Nabisco)等公司的时代。哈佛大学(Harvard University)教授迈克尔礠森(Michael Jensen)后来批评企业集团存在“数十亿非生产性的资本出和组织效率低下现象”,赞扬了企业朝着“更小、更集中、更高效”的方向演变的趋势。Big corporations remain prey to temptation. Boston Consulting Group found that the conglomerate discount is partly due to conservatism. They tend to invest heavily in their original businesses, which may be stagnant or in decline, while undervaluing newer divisions with more potential. Microsoft, for example, suffered from trying to reinforce its Windows franchise.大企业依然难抵挡诱惑。波士顿咨询集团发现,造成多元化企业折让的部分原因是保守。企业集团倾向于低看拥有更大潜力的新业务,而大举投资它们最初的业务,然而这些业务可能是停滞乃至下滑的。比如,微软(Microsoft)因试图强化其Windows操作系统授权业务而受挫。Yet even investors who are suspicious of ed conglomerates delegate capital allocation and management oversight in private markets to informed insiders. Venture capital and private equity funds are both forms of conglomerate — they invest capital in a broad portfolio of businesses on behalf of outsiders who believe that such funds possess superior expertise.然而,即使是对上市的企业集团抱怀疑态度的投资者,也会将私人市场上的资金配置和管理监督的事宜委派给知情的内部人士。风险资本和私人股本基金都是企业集团的形式——它们代表外部人士投资广泛的业务领域,外部人士则相信这类基金拥有出色的专业知识。Why, though, should investors seeking exposure to new companies buy shares in Alphabet, which then channels Google’s surplus cash into its own venture and growth funds, Project Loon, self-driving cars and life sciences? They could instead invest money directly in a venture capital fund. Why take the longer and less-direct road?尽管如此,寻求投资新企业的人为何要购买Alphabet的股票,这家集团会把谷歌的现金盈余投入到其风险项目、成长基金、高空气球计划、无人驾驶汽车和生命科学等?他们可以直接投资一个风险资本基金。为何要选择一条更远的弯路呢?It depends on trust. Investors could also have bought shares in Precision Castparts last week for less than Berkshire Hathaway paid this week, but they do not complain because they trust Mr Buffett. Alphabet’s shareholders must believe in Mr Page and Mr Brin’s ability to use their intelligence and avoid the traditional pitfalls.关键在于信任。在本周伯克希尔哈撒韦公司出手收购之前,投资者本来也可以在上周用更低的价格买入精密铸件公司股票,但他们并没有抱怨,因为他们信任巴菲特。Alphabet的股东必然也相信佩奇和布里有能力运用他们的智慧并避开传统的陷阱。To judge by the shares this week, they prefer a conglomerate called Alphabet to a company that had not made plain what it was. Strange as it seems, it is a rational choice.从本周的股价来看,比起一家没有说清楚自己是什么的公司,股东们更青睐一个叫Alphabet的企业集团。尽管似乎有点奇怪,但这是一个理性选择。 /201508/392900

SINGAPORE — Savir Singh’s taxi rolled into downtown Singapore, taking an overpass that provides a stunning view of the popular hotels and tourist attractions around Marina Bay.新加坡——萨维尔·辛格(Savir Singh)的出租车驶进新加坡市中心,开上了一座立交桥。那里景色壮丽,人们可以将滨海湾周边的热门酒店和旅游景点一览眼底。The only problem was that he could barely see them. Thick haze from forest fires set in neighboring Indonesia to clear land for agriculture has blanketed this island state for weeks, and has sp to Malaysia and southern Thailand.唯一的问题是,他几乎看不到那些美景。数周来,邻国印度尼西亚烧林垦荒造成的浓重烟雾笼罩着这个岛国,并已向马来西亚和泰国南部扩散。While many Singaporeans have sought refuge from the pollution in their homes, offices or shopping malls, Mr. Singh’s only haven is his mobile workplace, and a small bottle of eyedrops lying near his armrest.为了躲避污染,很多新加坡人待在家、办公室或商场里,但对辛格来说,出租车这个移动工作场所,和车座扶手旁边放着的一瓶滴眼液,是他仅有的庇护。“Look at this,” he said, pointing to the partly obscured Singapore Flyer, a 540-foot-tall Ferris wheel. “I wish they had haze in Jakarta. Then the government there would do something about it.”“你看看,”他指着有些模糊的新加坡天观景轮(Singapore Flyer)说。“我希望雅加达也有雾霾。这样那里的政府就会采取点行动了。”新加坡天观景轮是一座高540英尺(约合165米)的天轮。Mr. Singh’s anger is part and parcel of a near-annual ritual: Fires set in Sumatra and the Indonesian side of Borneo blanket parts of Southeast Asia with smoke for weeks. While this has been going on for decades, an especially long dry season this year coupled with the effects of El Ni漀, threaten to make it the worst on record, scientists say.辛格的愤怒是一项几近年度仪式中必不可少的一部分:苏门答腊岛和婆罗洲印尼一侧点燃的大火,让东南亚部分地区数周都处在浓烟的笼罩下。这种情况已经持续了数十年,但科学家称,今年的干季特别漫长,再加上厄尔尼诺现象的影响,可能会造成有记载以来最恶劣的后果。Around the region, flights have been grounded, schools have been closed, and tens of thousands of people have sought medical treatment for respiratory problems, allergies, eczema and other ailments. The first night of an international sports competition, the FINA Swimming World Cup, set for last Saturday and hosted by Singapore, was canceled because of health concerns — as was a marathon in Kuala Lumpur, the Malaysia capital, set to be run the next morning.在该地区各地,航班停飞,学校停课,数万人因呼吸疾病、过敏、湿疹和其他病症而求医。出于健康方面的考虑,由新加坡主办、定于上周六举行的国际性体育赛事国际泳联世界杯短池游泳赛(FINA Swimming World Cup)第一天晚上的活动被取消。此外,定于第二天早上在马来西亚首都吉隆坡举行的一场马拉松比赛也被取消。This year, there have been more vocal complaints from people affected in Singapore, Malaysia and even in Indonesia. There has also been high-profile sniping among government leaders, along with lawsuits, investigations and arrests of accused fire-starters — a familiar replay from 2013, when the region suffered its last major bout of haze.今年,在新加坡、马来西亚乃至印度尼西亚,受到影响的人们表示了更强烈的不满。政府领导人也进行了高调的抨击,此外还出现了诉讼、调查和被控点火的人遭到逮捕的情况。这一幕很眼熟,实际上是2013年,也就是该地区上一次深受浓烟之苦时的情景再现。After the skies cleared in 2013, the issue was once again forgotten — until last month, when the crisis erupted anew.在2013年,碧空重现后,这个问题就被抛之脑后,直到上个月危机再次爆发。The consensus this year is the same as it was then: The slash-and-burn techniques used in Indonesia’s palm oil industry are continuing unabated, and there is no magic bullet for ending the practice — or the haze it causes — in the short term.人们今年所持的一致看法和那时一样:印尼棕榈油行业使用的刀耕火种做法保持不减,且短期没有灵丹妙药能结束这种做法,及其带来的浓烟。Finding the long-term solution requires reducing agriculture in Indonesia’s carbon-rich peatland, curtailing slash-and-burn methods for clearing land and halting the conversions of forests to agricultural uses including palm oil, said Peter Holmgren, director general of the Center for International Forestry Research, a global scientific organization with its headquarters in Bogor, Indonesia.总部位于印尼茂物的全球性科学组织国际林业研究中心(Center for International Forestry Research)总干事彼得·霍姆格伦(Peter Holmgren)表示,找到长期解决办法需要减少印尼在碳含量丰富的泥炭地的农业种植、限制砍烧这种开荒方式,并停止把林地变成农业用地和生产棕榈油的土地。“Fire is the most cost-effective way of clearing, which is why it is done,” he said.“放火烧是最省钱的开荒方式,这就是个中缘由,”他说。Finding a permanent solution is daunting enough, but more than a month into the crisis, it seems that the region cannot curb the haze in the short term. Indonesia says that its military personnel are battling more than 1,000 forest-fire clusters, while Greenpeace says that figure does not include fires that started aboveground on peatland and are now burning out of control.找到永久性的解决办法是很难,但危机已出现一月有余,而该地区似乎无法在短期内控制烟雾。印尼称,该国军事人员正在1000多个林火现场奋战,但绿色和平(Greenpeace)表示,这个数字未包括泥炭地上燃烧起来的,以及眼下火势失控的大火。Up until Wednesday, Indonesia had rebuffed offers by neighbors to help it battle the blazes and had even admonished Singaporean and Malaysian leaders for daring to complain about the haze.在周三之前,印度尼西亚都还在断然回绝邻国协助灭火的提议,甚至还斥责新加坡和马来西亚领导人竟敢抱怨浓烟。On Thursday, President Joko Widodo of Indonesia said his government had requested “help and assistance” the day before from Singapore and Malaysia, as well as Russia and Japan, in getting the peatland fires under control, according to a statement released by his cabinet secretariat.不过,印尼总统佐科·威多多(Joko Widodo)的内阁秘书处已经发表声明,说总统周四表示,他领导的政府已于前一天请求新加坡和马来西亚,以及俄罗斯和日本,在控制泥炭地上的火势上提供“帮助和援”。Mr. Joko said his government had specifically requested firefighting aircraft with a water-carrying capacity of 12 to 15 tons, saying that Indonesian planes currently fighting the blazes have carrying capacities of between two and three tons.佐科表示,以他为首的政府明确请求获得载水量在12到15吨之间的消防飞机的援,称眼下参与灭火的印尼飞机的承载能力只有两到三吨。The aid request seemed to reflect a new seriousness from the Indonesian government.求援似乎反映出印尼政府对此事的重新重视。Late last month, the country’s outspoken vice president, Jusuf Kalla, repeated a statement he made earlier in the year in which he said that neighboring countries “should be grateful” to Indonesia for the clean air they have the other 11 months of the year.上月末,该国说话并不婉转的副总统优素福·卡拉(Jusuf Kalla)重复了他今年早些时候的言论,声称对一年中其他11个月的好天气,邻国“应该感谢”印度尼西亚。During the 2013 haze crisis, Agung Laksono, a senior Indonesian cabinet minister at the time, compared Singaporean leaders to a child having a temper tantrum after they complained about the impact that thick haze was having on tourism, which is a major contributor to Singapore’s economy.2013年烟雾危机期间,在新加坡领导人抱怨浓烟影响了新加坡重要的经济柱旅游业后,当时担任印尼内阁高级部长的阿贡·拉克索诺(Agung Laksono)把他们比作乱发脾气的小孩。“It’s like a blame game,” said Bustar Maitar, global leader of the Indonesia Forest Campaign at Greenpeace.“像是在互相推卸责任,”绿色和平印度尼西亚森林项目(Indonesia Forest Campaign)全球负责人布斯塔尔·迈塔尔(Bustar Maitar)说。“Of course all the fires are coming from Indonesia, but Singapore is enjoying the ‘deforestation economy’ of Indonesia as a financial center,” he said, “and there are many Malaysian palm oil companies operating in Indonesia, and Singaporean companies are there as well.”“当然,所有的大火都来自印尼,但作为金融中心的新加坡也享受着印尼的‘毁林经济’带来的好处,”他说。“而且马来西亚的很多棕榈油公司在印尼有业务,新加坡的公司也是。”Ultimately, Mr. Maitar said, the cycle will continue until rain forest deforestation is severely curtailed in Indonesia, where it remains rampant, and the Indonesian government bans the draining and clearing of peatland for agricultural use. Currently, Indonesian government policy allows peatland of less than about nine feet deep to be cleared.迈塔尔表示,最终这个循环会继续下去,直到印尼依然很普遍的雨林砍伐现象受到严厉限制,并且印尼政府禁止把泥炭地的水排干开荒以用于农业。目前,印尼政府的政策允许开垦不足九英尺深的泥炭地。“That’s the only long-term way to stop haze,” he said.“这是唯一一个阻止烟雾的长久之计,”他说。Then there is the issue of who is responsible for the fires. As in 2013, this time around, there has been ample finger-pointing: Multinational palm oil companies, pulp and paper companies, the smaller plantations that sell to them, traditional farmers and even day laborers have all been blamed for starting the fires — and they in turn have blamed one another.然后就是谁该为大火负责的问题。和2013年一样,这一次也出现了大量的相互指责:跨国棕榈油公司、纸浆和纸业公司、为它们供货的小种植园、传统务农者乃至零工都被指是大火的始作俑者,而它们之间又相互指责。On Wednesday, NTUC FairPrice, Singapore’s largest supermarket chain, released a statement saying it had pulled from its shelves toilet paper and other products sourced from Indonesia’s Asia Pulp amp; Paper, one of the world’s largest pulp and paper companies.周三,新加坡最大的连锁超市职总平价超市(NTUC FairPrice)发布了一则声明,声称已将从印尼的亚洲浆纸业有限公司(Asia Pulp amp; Paper,又称金光纸业,简称APP)采购的厕纸等产品下架。后者是全世界最大的浆纸业公司之一。The supermarket said it had made the move “following notification from the Singapore Environment Council that it has instituted a temporary restriction on the use of the ‘Singapore Green Label’ certification for A.P.P. products,” the statement said.超市在声明中称,做出此举是“遵循新加坡环境理事会(Singapore Environment Council)的通知行事。其中表示,该机构开始实行一项临时规定,禁止对APP的产品进行‘新加坡绿色标志’认”。On Monday, the council had released a statement saying that it took action after an Asia Pulp amp; Paper subsidiary was “one of five companies named by the National Environment Agency (NEA) suspected to be contributing to the haze pollution.”周一,理事会曾发表声明称,APP的一家子公司“被新加坡国家环境局(National Environment Agency,简称NEA)列为涉嫌制造烟雾污染的五家公司之一”后,促使它采取了行动。Aida Greenbury, managing director of sustainability for Asia Pulp amp; Paper, said in a statement on Thursday that the company was “firmly against” the intentional setting of forest fires and would disengage from any supplier proven guilty of illegally starting one.APP负责可持续发展的执行董事艾达·格林伯里(Aida Greenbury)在周四发表的声明中称,公司“坚决反对”故意放火烧林,并将与一切明犯有非法纵火罪行的供应商解除关系。“We understand why FairPrice feels the need to take urgent action and we feel the same urgency also in addressing this haze issue, but accuracy is just as important,” she said. “The fire situation is complex, and both the Singapore and Indonesia governments, and authorities are still investigating the situation.”“我们理解职总平价超市为什么觉得有必要采取紧急行动,我们也感觉到了应对这一烟雾问题的紧迫性,但准确也同样重要,”她说。“火情复杂,新加坡和印尼政府及权威机构仍在调查情况。”Ang Peng Hwa, a university professor and founder of an antihaze activist group in Singapore, is promoting an American model for dealing with environmental negligence: suing those responsible, using a law passed by the Singaporean Parliament in 2014.在新加坡创立了一个反烟雾活动团体的大学教授汪炳华(Ang Peng Hwa)正在倡导美国处理环境疏忽的模式:用新加坡议会2014年通过的一项法律起诉责任人。Mr. Ang noted that under the Transboundary Haze Pollution Act, Singapore-listed companies involved in illegal land clearance in Indonesia can be sued in civil court for causing financial losses to businesses and individuals.汪炳华指出,按照《跨境阴霾污染法令》(Transboundary Haze Pollution Act)的规定,与印尼非法垦荒活动有牵连的新加坡上市公司,可以因为给企业和个人造成经济损失而被告上民事法庭。People have been coming forward to say that they have lost business because of the haze, Mr. Ang said. The prospective plaintiffs include a sporting events company and a sports training academy, though no lawsuits have yet been filed under the new law.汪炳华称,人们纷纷站出来说,因为烟雾,生意受到了影响。可能的原告包括一家体育赛事公司和一家体育训练学校,不过尚未有人依据这部新通过的法律提起诉讼。Possible injured parties include upscale hotels that suffer canceled bookings during haze periods and the organizers of the annual F1 Singapore Grand Prix. The F1 race was held on Sept. 20 despite concerns about air quality.可能的受害方包括高档酒店和每年一届的F1新加坡大奖赛的组织方。烟雾出现期间,酒店遭遇了预定取消的现象。9月20日,尽管有人担心空气质量,但F1大奖赛仍照旧举行。The problem, Mr. Ang said, is that it is very difficult to determine liability because “there are layers that protect ultimate owners of companies.”汪炳华称,问题是很难界定责任,因为“有一层又一层的外壳保护公司的最终所有人”。Yet, he said, the fact that some people have aly come forward asking about financial compensation for haze through Singapore’s courts leads to an inescapable conclusion that should concern governments around the region. “People are getting more angry, more worked up.”但他表示,一些人已经站出来,询问通过新加坡的法院获得经济赔偿的可能,而这一现象会引出一个必然的结论,当令该地区的各国政府警醒。“民众正变得愈发愤怒和激动。”Whether that anger will lead to more lasting change is yet to be seen. Mr. Ang is not optimistic. “They burn for a period, everyone gets upset, and then people forget,” he said of the fires.这种愤怒是否会带来更持久的变化还有待观察。不过汪炳华对结果并不乐观。“大火烧一段时间,于是群情激奋,过后又都忘了,”他说。 /201510/402722

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