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惠州治疗生殖感染哪家医院好惠州治疗尖锐湿疣哪家医院最好惠州市治疗早泄多少钱 Ebola sounds like the stuff of nightmares. Bird flu and SARS also send shivers down my spine. But I’ll tell you what scares me most: artificial intelligence.埃拉病毒听起来像噩梦。禽流感和SARS也让我脊背发凉。但是我告诉你什么让我最害怕:人工智能。The first three, with enough resources, humans can stop. The last, which humans are creating, could soon become unstoppable.如果有足够的资源,人类能阻止前三项疾病的传播。但最后一项是由人类所创造,它很快将变得无法阻挡。Before we get into what could possibly go wrong, let me first explain what artificial intelligence is. Actually, skip that. I’ll let someone else explain it: Grab an iPhone and ask Siri about the weather or stocks. Or tell her “I’m drunk.” Her answers are artificially intelligent.在我们探讨可能出现什么问题之前,让我先解释一下什么是人工智能。实际上不用我解释。我让别人来解释一下。你拿起iPhone,问问Siri天气和股票情况。或者对她说“我喝醉了”,她的回答就是人工智能的结果。Right now these artificially intelligent machines are pretty cute and innocent, but as they are given more power in society, these machines may not take long to spiral out of control.现在,这些人工智能机器非常可爱、无辜,但是随着它们在社会上被赋予更多权力,用不了多久它们就会失控。In the beginning, the glitches will be small but eventful. Maybe a rogue computer momentarily derails the stock market, causing billions in damage. Or a driverless car freezes on the highway because a software update goes awry.一开始只是些小毛病,但是它们意义重大。比如,一台出现故障的电脑瞬间让股市崩溃,导致数十亿美元的损失。或者一辆无人驾驶汽车因软件升级错误在高速公路上突然静止不动。But the upheavals can escalate quickly and become scarier and even cataclysmic. Imagine how a medical robot, originally programmed to rid cancer, could conclude that the best way to obliterate cancer is to exterminate humans who are genetically prone to the disease.但是这些骚乱能快速升级,变得非常可怕,甚至变成大灾难。想像一下,一个最初用来对抗癌症的医用机器人可能得出这样的结论:消灭癌症的最佳方法是消灭那些从基因角度讲易于患病的人。Nick Bostrom, author of the book “Superintelligence,” lays out a number of petrifying doomsday settings. One envisions self-replicating nanobots, which are microscopic robots designed to make copies of themselves. In a positive situation, these bots could fight diseases in the human body or eat radioactive material on the planet. But, Mr. Bostrom says, a “person of malicious intent in possession of this technology might cause the extinction of intelligent life on Earth.”《超级智能》(Superintelligence)一书的作者尼克·斯特罗姆(Nick Bostrom)描述了几种会导致人类灭绝的可怕情况。一种是能自我复制的纳米机器人。在理想情态下,这些机器人能在人体内战胜疾病,或者消除地球上的放射性物质。但斯特罗姆说,“如果有邪恶企图的人掌握了这种技术,那可能导致地球上智能生命的灭绝。”Artificial-intelligence proponents argue that these things would never happen and that programmers are going to build safeguards. But let’s be realistic: It took nearly a half-century for programmers to stop computers from crashing every time you wanted to check your email. What makes them think they can manage armies of quasi-intelligent robots?人工智能持者们辩称,这些事情永远都不会发生,程序员们会设置一些防护措施。但是让我们现实一点:程序员们花了近半个世纪才能让你在每次想查看邮件时电脑不崩溃。是什么让他们认为自己能够驾驭这些准智能机器人大军?I’m not alone in my fear. Silicon Valley’s resident futurist, Elon Musk, recently said artificial intelligence is “potentially more dangerous than nukes.” And Stephen Hawking, one of the smartest people on earth, wrote that successful A. I. “would be the biggest event in human history. Unfortunately, it might also be the last.” There is a long list of computer experts and science fiction writers also fearful of a rogue robot-infested future.不是只有我一个人有这样的担心。硅谷的常驻未来主义者埃隆·马斯克(Elon Musk)最近说,人工智能“可能比核武器还危险”。斯蒂芬·霍金(Stephen Hawking)是地球上最聪明的人之一。他写道,成功的人工智能“会是人类历史上最重大的事件。不幸的是,它也可能会是最后一个大事件”。还有很多计算机专家和科幻小说作家担心未来的世界充满故障机器人。Two main problems with artificial intelligence lead people like Mr. Musk and Mr. Hawking to worry. The first, more near-future fear, is that we are starting to create machines that can make decisions like humans, but these machines don’t have morality and likely never will.人工智能有两个主要问题让马斯克和霍金等人担忧。离我们较近的一个问题是,我们正在创造一些能像人类一样做决定的机器人,但这些机器没有道德观念,而且很可能永远也不会有。The second, which is a longer way off, is that once we build systems that are as intelligent as humans, these intelligent machines will be able to build smarter machines, often referred to as superintelligence. That, experts say, is when things could really spiral out of control as the rate of growth and expansion of machines would increase exponentially. We can’t build safeguards into something that we haven’t built ourselves.第二个问题离我们较远。那就是,一旦我们创造出和人一样智能的系统,这些智能机器将能够建造更智能的机器,后者通常被称为超级智能。专家们说,到那时,事情真的会迅速失控,因为机器的增长和膨胀速度将是迅猛的。我们不可能在自己尚未建立的系统中设置防护措施。“We humans steer the future not because we’re the strongest beings on the planet, or the fastest, but because we are the smartest,” said James Barrat, author of “Our Final Invention: Artificial Intelligence and the End of the Human Era.” “So when there is something smarter than us on the planet, it will rule over us on the planet.”“我们人类掌控未来不是因为我们是地球上最强壮或最快的生物,而是因为我们是最智能的,”《我们的终极发明:人工智能和人类时代的终结》(Our Final Invention: Artificial Intelligence and the End of the Human Era)的作者詹姆斯·巴拉(James Barrat)说,“所以当这个星球上有比我们更智能的东西时,它将统治地球。”What makes it harder to comprehend is that we don’t actually know what superintelligent machines will look or act like. “Can a submarine swim? Yes, but it doesn’t swim like a fish,” Mr. Barrat said. “Does an airplane fly? Yes, but not like a bird. Artificial intelligence won’t be like us, but it will be the ultimate intellectual version of us.”更难理解的是,我们并不确切知道超级智能机器的外形或行为方式。“潜水艇会游泳吗?会,但它的游泳方式跟鱼不同,”巴拉说,“飞机会飞吗?会,但它的飞行方式跟鸟不同。人工智能不会跟我们一模一样,但它将是我们的终极智能版本。”Perhaps the scariest setting is how these technologies will be used by the military. It’s not hard to imagine countries engaged in an arms race to build machines that can kill.也许最可怕的是这些技术将会如何被军队利用。不难想像那些正在进行军备竞赛的国家会制造能杀人的机器。Bonnie Docherty, a lecturer on law at Harvard University and a senior researcher at Human Rights Watch, said that the race to build autonomous weapons with artificial intelligence — which is aly underway — is reminiscent of the early days of the race to build nuclear weapons, and that treaties should be put in place now before we get to a point where machines are killing people on the battlefield.邦妮·多彻蒂(Bonnie Docherty)是哈佛大学的法律讲师,也是人权观察组织的高级研究员。她说,人工智能自主武器的军备竞赛正在进行,这让人想起了核武器竞赛的初期;在这些机器人上战场杀人之前,我们必须先订好条约。“If this type of technology is not stopped now, it will lead to an arms race,” said Ms. Docherty, who has written several reports on the dangers of killer robots. “If one state develops it, then another state will develop it. And machines that lack morality and mortally should not be given power to kill.”“如果现在不制止这种技术,它将会导致军备竞赛,”多彻蒂说。她写过几个报告,讲述杀手机器人的危险。“如果一个国家在开发它,那另一个国家也会开发。这些致命的机器缺乏道德观念,不应该被赋予杀人权力。”So how do we ensure that all these doomsday situations don’t come to fruition? In some instances, we likely won’t be able to stop them.那么我们如何保所有这些世界末日的情形不会成为现实?在某些情况下,我们很可能无法阻止它们。But we can hinder some of the potential chaos by following the lead of Google. Earlier this year when the search-engine giant acquired DeepMind, a neuroscience-inspired, artificial intelligence company based in London, the two companies put together an artificial intelligence safety and ethics board that aims to ensure these technologies are developed safely.但是在谷歌的领导下,我们能阻止某些可能出现的混乱。今年年初,这个搜索引擎巨头收购了DeepMind公司,后者是伦敦的一家以神经系统科学为基础的人工智能公司。这两家公司建立了一个人工智能安全伦理委员会,旨在保这些技术安全发展。Demis Hassabis, founder and chief executive of DeepMind, said in a interview that anyone building artificial intelligence, including governments and companies, should do the same thing. “They should definitely be thinking about the ethical consequences of what they do,” Dr. Hassabis said. “Way ahead of time.”DeepMind的创始人、首席执行官杰米斯·哈萨比斯(Demis Hassabis)在一次视频采访中说,所有开发人工智能的机构,包括政府和公司,都应该这样做。“他们一定要考虑自己的所作所为会带来的伦理后果,”哈萨比斯说,“而且一定要早早考虑。” /201411/342616Web 1.0 phenom Justin Kitch sold his Homestead small-business site to Intuit in 2007 and went to work there. After a while, he left.2007年,Web 1.0时代的传奇人物贾斯丁·基奇将他创办的小规模网站Homestead Technologies 卖给了金融务软件公司财捷集团,后一度还在这家公司任职。但不久之后他就辞职了。But just a few months ago, after mulling the tech scene, he was back with .5 million from Redpoint Ventures, as well as prominent individual investors such as Bill Campbell.就在数月之前,在仔细分析了信息技术领域的发展季候之后,他从知名创投公司红点投资跳槽,带着7500万美元回归这个领域,和比尔·坎贝尔等高级个人投资者的选择一样。The idea? Curious, a lifelong learning startup aimed at connecting teachers and students via short-format -based interactive lessons, from salsa dancing to banjo picking. The education space online is booming, with a myriad of experiments being launched in many genres.他回归这一行业的目的是什么?是创办Curious 这样一家在线的终身教育公司,致力于通过以视频为基础的互动课程使教师和学生相互沟通,课程内容五花八门,从萨尔萨舞课到班卓琴演奏课。在线教育空间正在迅猛发展,在各个学科领域展开了无数的教育实验。Kitch recently opened up the platform to allow more teachers on it, giving them a variety of tools to make money, of which Curious gets a cut.基奇最近新创建了一个网络教育平台,这一平台将可以容纳更多的教师网上授课,使他们获得利润的方式多样化,而Curious公司则将从中分一杯羹。 /201311/264944惠东中医院治疗阳痿多少钱

惠州友好属于几级医院Apple appears poised to change the way Americans pay for stuff. Or at least, it will try.苹果(Apple)似乎要改变美国人的付方式了。或者至少,他们准备尝试一下。Sources confirm several reports that the iPhone 6, expected to be introduced on Tuesday, will include technology that will turn the device into a mobile wallet that could be used to pay for items at retail stores. Apple’s mobile wallet will be based on NFC, or near field communications, a technology that uses radio communications to transmit data and that works in a growing number of point-of-sale systems. The iPhone’s Touch ID fingerprint scanner will be used to authenticate users, and Apple AAPL -0.83% has teamed up with credit card companies to make the service broadly useful, the sources, who agreed to speak on condition of anonymity, said.消息源确认了iPhone 6将包含一项新技术,可以将移动设备作为钱包使用,从而在商店购买物品。这项移动钱包技术将采用NFC,也就是利用无线电来发射数据的近场通信技术(near field communications)。该技术已被越来越多的销售终端系统所采用。匿名消息源表示,iPhone将采用Touch ID指纹扫描来鉴别用户身份,苹果也将与信用卡公司合作,扩大这项务的应用范围。An Apple spokeswoman declined to comment.苹果的一位女发言人拒绝对此发表。Apple, which aly has payment credentials for some 800 million people globally through iTunes accounts, has long been expected to make a bid to dominate mobile payments.苹果通过iTunes账户,已经获得了全球范围内大约8亿用户的付授权。公司要争取主宰移动付领域,这也早在人们预料之中。While Apple’s move is certain to shake up the mobile wallet market, the company’s success is far from guaranteed. And it comes at a time when the utility of digital wallets is being called into question, even as other forms of mobile payments are taking off.尽管苹果此举必然会引起移动钱包市场的震动,但苹果能否成功却远未确定。数字钱包的实用性究竟如何尚存疑问,而其他移动付手段也正在逐渐兴起。Indeed, there is no longer a mobile payments market, but rather, several mobile payments markets.确实,这不是一个移动付市场,而是好几个移动付市场。Mobile wallets, which were expected to take the world by storm, have languished in the past few years. Giants like Google, PayPal, wireless carriers, and major retail chains, as well as promising startups like Square, have all struggled to make wallets popular. After years of effort, just .1 billion in purchases came from mobile wallets last year, according to Javelin Strategy, a research firm. That’s just a tiny fraction of the roughly .5 trillion in annual retail payments in the ed States.本以为将如风暴般席卷全球的移动钱包,在过去几年中可谓命途多舛。谷歌(Google)、贝宝(Paypal)等巨头、无线运营商、大型连锁店,以及Square等前途光明的初创公司,在推广移动钱包上都步履维艰。根据研究公司Javelin Strategy的数据,在多年的努力后,通过移动钱包完成的交易额在去年仅有31亿美元。相对于美国去年零售交易额的大约4.5万亿美元来说,这只是极小的一部分。The challenges have been myriad. Google’s Wallet has been hamstrung by the company’s inability to get enough partners—most notably merchants and credit card companies—on board. Google also struggled to overcome roadblocks put up by some wireless carriers, who were promoting the own rival wallet.这其中遭遇的挑战数不胜数。由于谷歌无法找到足够的合作伙伴——尤其是商家和信用卡公司,公司的钱包产品萎靡不振。谷歌还难以克某些无线运营商设置的障碍,后者也在推广自己的钱包类产品。That service, which is backed by Verizon, ATamp;T, and T-Mobile, struggled as well, first because it was plagued by delays, and later, because of its ill-fated name: Isis. After the emergence of the violent jihadist group in Iraq by the same name earlier this year, the carriers announced that they would ditch the brand. Just this week, CEO Mike Abbott announced that the service would be renamed Softcard.而由威瑞森通讯(Verizon)、美国电话电报公司(ATamp;T)和T-Mobile开发的钱包务也一样经历着困顿。起初是因为这项务一直跳票,随后又因为那个倒霉的名字:Isis。随着今年早些时候拥有同样名字的伊拉克暴力圣战组织兴起,运营商宣布他们准备放弃这个品牌名。就在这周,Isis的首席执行官迈克o阿尔伯特宣布这项务将更名为Softcard。Square, for its part, pulled its Wallet app in May, replacing it with Order, an app that allows users to order ahead and skip the line at local restaurants.而另一方面,Square在今年5月放弃了其钱包业务Wallet,推出了新产品Order,这项应用可以让顾客提前预定餐馆,免去了排队的烦恼。From a consumer standpoint, all these efforts suffered from the same pitfalls: acceptance at merchants was spotty and paying by phone was not necessarily more convenient than paying with plastic.从顾客的角度来看,这些努力都走入了同一个误区:并非所有商家都接受这种付方式,而用手机付也并没有比信用卡付更方便,这让它显得可有可无。Some analysts believe that Apple, with its market clout and experience designing consumer products, could change the dynamics. In particular, the inclusion of NFC technology in the iPhone, could encourage more merchants to upgrade their point-of-sale system so they can accept mobile payments from both iPhones and the growing number of Android phones that are also equipped with NFC.一些分析家相信,拥有强大市场影响力、拥有丰富的设计消费品经验的苹果能够改变这一现状。尤其是包含NFC技术的iPhone会促使更多的商家升级他们的销售终端系统,从而接受iPhone以及越来越多同样配有NFC技术的安卓(Android)手机的移动付。“Smartphones didn’t take off until Apple came in,” says Mary Monahan, research director for mobile at Javelin. “Tablets didn’t take off until Apple came in. A lot of people are hoping that this is a game changer.”Javelin的移动产品研究总监玛丽o莫纳汉表示:“智能手机在苹果加入后才开始高速发展,平板电脑也是在苹果加入后才广泛流行起来。许多人希望苹果能够化腐朽为神奇。”But recent publicity about hacking into Apple accounts of celebrities could pose a new obstacle for the company.但最近美国明星的苹果账户被黑事件传得沸沸扬扬,将会给苹果造成新的麻烦。“For this to work, Apple has to garner much more confidence in the security of what they offer,” says Tim Bajarin, a veteran Apple analyst with Creative Strategies.Creative Strategies的资深苹果分析师蒂姆o巴加林表示:“如果苹果要在移动付领域取得成功,就必须在安全性上获得比现在多得多的信任。”In the meantime, other parts of the mobile payment market are growing quickly. Javelin estimates consumers spend more than billion in “mobile commerce” last year. The category includes not only e-commerce purchases made with mobile phones or tablets, but also purchases of services like rides through apps like Uber and Lyft, deliveries of food and merchandise through apps like Postmates and Seamless GrubHub, and others. Those in-app payments have quickly become a multi-billion business dominated by companies like PayPal’s Braintree and Stripe, one of the hottest payment companies to emerge in recent years.与此同时,移动付市场的其他领域正在蓬勃发展。Javelin估计消费者去年在“移动商务”上花费了超过560亿美元。这不仅包括使用手机或平板电脑完成的网上购物,还包括通过应用购买务,如Uber和Lyft的打车务、Postmates和Seamless GrubHub的食物和商品快递等等。这些通过应用实现的消费已经很快形成了规模达数十亿美元的市场。贝宝的Braintree以及近年来最炙手可热的付公司Stripe成为了该领域中的领头羊。Finally, mobile person-to-person payments, which are enabled by banks and by companies like PayPal and Square, are also growing, though the total number of transactions remain small. It’s not clear whether the iPhone’s mobile wallet will enable these kinds of transactions.最后,由以及贝宝和Square等公司提供的个人对个人(p2p)移动付也在日渐成长,不过该领域的交易总额仍然较小。iPhone的移动钱包是否会持这类交易,目前尚不得而知。 /201409/327316河源不孕不育预约 惠州包皮包茎手术多少銭

惠州什么地方有男科医院Wireless carrier ATamp;T (T) was the top target of so-called patent trolls in 2013, having been sued more than 54 times by them in 2013—more than once a week. This year#39;s list of top ten patent troll targets was published today in a Fortune magazine feature story about RPX Corp.(RPXC), which compiled the statistics.2013年,无线运营商美国电话电报公司ATamp;T成为了 “专利流氓”的首要攻击目标。一年之内,ATamp;T被这类公司起诉达54次,平均下来每周超过一次。今天,《财富》杂志在一篇关于专利集成公司RPX Corp的专题报道中公布了这家公司统计、编撰的2014年“专利流氓十大目标公司”名单。The article, called ;Taking on the Trolls,; states: ;ATamp;T is no anomaly. Google (GOOG) was hit with 43 [such] suits last year; Verizon (VZ), 42; Apple (AAPL), 41; Samsung (SSNLF) and Amazon (AMZN), 39 each; Dell and Sony (SNE), 34 each; Huawei, 32; Blackberry (BBRY), 31. Every brand on this unenviable top-ten list was sued by [a patent troll] at least once every 12 days.;这篇标题为《迎接魔头的挑战》(Taking on the Trolls)写道:“ATamp;T并不是一个特例。谷歌公司(Google)去年被起诉达43次,威瑞森通信(Verizon)被起诉42次,苹果公司(Apple)被起诉41次,三星(Samsung)和亚马逊(Amazon)分别被起诉39次,戴尔(Dell)索尼(Sony)分别被起诉34次,华为(Huawei)32次,黑莓公司(Blackberry)31次。进入这张榜单并不是一件令人羡慕的事,榜单中的这些公司至少12天就要被(专利流氓)起诉一次。”;Patent troll; is a pejorative term. A more neutral term, and the one that RPX uses, is ;non-practicing entity,; or NPE. An NPE is a company that sells no products or services of its own. In their most controversial form, NPEs purchase patents on the open market and then assert them against operating companies, like ATamp;T and Google, seeking licensing fees and, often, suing to get them.“专利流氓”这个称呼带有鄙夷的意味,而RPX公司所使用了一个更中性的称谓——“非专利实施主体”,即NPE。NPE公司本身不为他人提供任何产品或务。它们最具争议的做法是,在公开市场上购买各种专利,然后声称运营公司(比如ATamp;T或谷歌)使用了他们的专利,然后要求对方付授权费。NPE拿到授权费的方式通常是向这些公司发起法律诉讼。RPX is what#39;s known as a defensive patent aggregator. In exchange for a subscription fee—currently paid by some 168 companies, including Google, Verizon, and Samsung—it attempts to buy up potentially problematic patents on the open market, before NPEs can get their hands on them.RPX则是所谓的防御型专利集成公司。RPX向公司收取会员费,然后赶在NPE动手之前,抢先买下公开市场上对成员公司具有潜在隐患的专利。目前RPX共有约168家客户,其中包括谷歌、威瑞森通信和三星。According to RPX#39;s statistics—which have been relied upon by academics and government agencies—NPEs filed 3,608 new suits in 2013, up 19% from the 3,042 they filed in 2012, and their suits named 4,843 total defendants, up 13% from the 4,282 sued a year earlier. NPE suits accounted for 67% of all new patent cases filed last year, and 63% of all new patent defendants, according to the figures RPX shared with Fortune.学术及政府机构均仰仗RPX提供的统计数据。根据它向《财富》杂志提供的资料,2013年,NPE共提起了3,608起诉讼,比2012年的3,042件增加了19%。这些诉讼指向的被告共有4,843名,比2012年的4,282名增加了13%。NPE提起的案件占去年全部专利案件的67%,被告人数为总被告人数的63%。When one takes into account NPE cases filed in previous years and still unresolved as of December 31, 2013, the top NPE target was Google, which was fighting 72 active cases as of that date. The next nine companies in line after it were ATamp;T (70), Apple (68), Samsung (63), Sony (58), Amazon (54), Verizon (46), HTC (42), LG Electronics (42), and Dell (41). (The figures for Google include suits against its Motorola Mobility unit, which Google announced last month that it is selling to Lenovo (LNGVY).)如果按在2013年12月31日前未终结案件的总数来计算,谷歌是NPE的首要目标。截至这一日期,谷歌手头上还有72件没有终结的专利官司。其余九大目标公司依次为ATamp;T(70件),苹果(68件),三星(63件),索尼(58件),亚马逊(54件),威瑞森通信(46件),宏达国际电子HTC公司(42件),LG电子(LG Electronics,42件)及戴尔(41件)。【谷歌的案件数中包括针对托罗拉移动部门(Motorola Mobility)的诉讼,谷歌上月已宣布计划将这一部门卖给联想(Lenovo)。】NPEs have their defenders, as the Fortune story explains: ;These argue that giant tech corporations routinely pilfer innovations dreamed up by independent inventors, and that NPEs simply give these powerless individuals the financial support and litigation muscle they need to vindicate their rights. NPEs therefore serve not only small inventors, the argument continues, but also society at large, by preserving the incentive systems that our Founding Fathers wrote into the Constitution to ensure that the Thomas Edisons of the world would be motivated to provide the rest of us with the maximum possible benefit from their genius.不过,《财富》文章同时也写到,也有些人在为NPE辩护。“这些人的观点是,大型科技公司经常窃取独立发明家的创新专利,NPE公司不过是为这些无力反抗的人们提供了他们所需要的经济援和法律手段,以维护他们自身的权利。为了保世界上所有像托马斯?爱迪生一样的发明家能运用自己的天赋为社会带来更多福利,开国元勋们已将发明创新激励机制写进了宪法。而通过维护这一机制,NPE公司不只在为个体发明家务,更是在造福整个社会。”;Still, the sheer numbers have many people skeptical. Is ATamp;T really stealing breakthrough ideas from various Edisons at a rate of more than once a week?;“然而,仅仅从数字上看,很多人就对这种说法表示怀疑。难道说,ATamp;T在以超过每周一次的速度窃取爱迪生们的突破性成果吗?” /201403/279155 惠州包皮手术一般多少钱惠州一般的包茎手术多少钱



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