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阿城区中心医院总部木兰县妇女儿童医院妇科好不好阿城区做无痛人流哪家医院最好的 Science and technology科学技术Entomology昆虫学Bad beehaviour有失蜂度The strange case of the bandit bumblebees熊蜂:不可思议的土匪TO MOST people, bumblebees are charming, slightly absurd creatures that blunder through garden and meadow with neither the steely determination of the honeybee nor the malevolent intention of the wasp.在人们的印象里,熊蜂可爱、友好而又有些令人可笑。它们跌跌撞撞地穿过花园和草场,既不像蜜蜂,有钢铁般的决心;也不似黄蜂,具备恶意的企图。If you are a plant, though, things look rather different—for from the point of view of some flowering plants many bumblebees are nothing more than thieves.不过,如果你是一株植物,你就会从新定义它们。从一些有花植物角度来看,熊蜂是彻头彻尾的贼:They rob them of their nectar and give nothing in return.它们掠夺花蜜,却未予回报。Nectar robbery, in which a bumblebee carves a hole in the side of a flower as a bank robber might cut his way into a vault, was discovered by Charles Darwin.某些花的形状发生了演化,以促进具有长舌的昆虫为其授粉。昆虫的长舌能探到狭小管道状花的深处。This technique lets bees get at the nectar of flowers whose shapes have evolved to encourage their pollination by insects with long tongues, which can reach down narrow tubes.达尔文最先发现熊蜂抢劫花蜜的行为。熊蜂在花的一侧切开一个口,行径无异于强盗杀进金库。它们凭借这种本领获取狭小管道状花的花蜜。Some bumblebees do have such tongues. But some do not.有的熊蜂的确有长舌,不过有些确实没有。Short-tongued bees are, however, unwilling to deny themselves the bounty of nectar inside these flowers. Hence the hole-cutting.短舌熊蜂难以抵御丰厚花蜜的诱惑,于是就有了切口打孔。By breaking in in this way, though, a bumblebee nullifies the 100m-year-old pact between flowering plants and insects: that the plant feeds the insect in exchange for the insect pollinating the plant.然而这种暴力获取的方式却撕毁了有花植物和昆虫间一亿万年的古老契约:植物为昆虫提供食物,昆虫履行为其授粉的义务。The question about nectar robbery that has intrigued biologists from Darwin onwards is whether the behaviour is innate or learnt.熊蜂抢劫花蜜的行为到底是先天性还是后天性,自达尔文起,生物学家们一直对此感到困惑。Darwin, though he originated the idea that many behaviour patterns are products of evolution by natural selection, suspected that it is learnt.达尔文推测这是后天性的。Insects, in other words, can copy what other insects get up to.换言之,他推测昆虫有能力模仿其他昆虫的行为习惯。Only now, though, has somebody proved that this is true.直到现在,这种推测才被明是正确的。The observations were made by David Goulson, and his colleagues.做出观测的是David Goulson以及他的同事。To test his ideas he had to go from Britain to Switzerland, for only there could he find a flower of the correct shape to conduct the study.为了检验他的想法,他必须远离英国前往瑞士。因为只有那里才能找到形状合适的花以进行研究。His crucial observation was that when the flowers of an alpine plant called the yellow rattle are robbed, the entry holes—because of the structure of the flower—tend to be unambiguously on either the right-hand side or the left-hand side.决定性的观测在于yellow rattle被熊蜂造访后留下的孔。由于这种花的特殊结构,人们可以明确地区分出孔在花的左侧还是右侧。Moreover, preliminary observation suggested that the holes in flowers in a single meadow are often all made on the same side.加之初步观测结果表明,同一块草场中这种花上的孔常常在同一侧。This led him to speculate that bumblebees in a particular area do indeed learn the art of nectar robbery from one another, and then copy the technique with such fidelity that they always attack a flower from the same side.他认为,对于生活在所研究的特定草场中的熊蜂,它们确确实实从其他个体那里学习了抢劫花蜜的技术。并且它们模仿的相当精准,以至于总是从同一侧侵袭花朵。Crime and nourishment罪与馐His team monitored 13 alpine meadows during the summers of and 2011.他的研究组于年和2011年的夏天监测阿尔卑斯山13块草场。They painstakingly recorded the sites of robbery holes in yellow-rattle flowers, and studied the behaviour of 168 bumblebees.他们煞费苦心地记录yellow rattle上抢劫孔的位置,并且研究了168只熊蜂的行为。They tried to follow each bee until it had visited 20 flowers, though they lost sight of some insects before they had reached this score.研究组尽力追踪每只熊蜂,直到它光顾的花达到20朵为止。If they could, they then captured the insect so as not to follow it again on another occasion.尽管有些熊蜂没有达到这个数量就不见了,但若够数,他们旋即捉捕那只熊蜂,以防止二次追踪。Dr Goulson found, as he reports in Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, that two short-tongued bumblebee species which live in the area, Bombus lucorum and Bombus wurflenii, demonstrated handedness when they robbed flowers.士发现,生活在该地区的两种短舌熊蜂在打劫花时表现出利手行为。Moreover, if one species was behaving in a left-handed manner in a particular meadow, the other was likely to do the same.更有甚者,如果针对特定的草场,一种熊蜂是左撇子,那么另一种熊蜂通常也是左撇子。This suggests that one species can learn from another—a trick previously thought to be confined to vertebrates.这暗示一物种可以向另一物种学习—过去人们认为只有脊椎动物才有这种本领。Handedness in any given meadow, Dr Goulson found, increased as the season progressed.他还发现,在任何指定的草场中,利手性随着季节的更替而强化,But each summer appeared to start as a blank slate.但每到夏天则似乎从新形成。The handedness that developed in a meadow in did not predict its handedness in 2011.某块草场中09年利手性并没有预测出11年的利手性。Goulson士将以上发现发表在《生态学与社会生物学》上。The most reasonable explanation, Dr Goulson argues, is that each year a few bumblebees which have learnt the trick of nectar robbery in the previous season come out of hibernation and start robbing flowers again.Goulson士认为最合理的解释是:每一年,一些熊蜂在过去季节里掌握了抢劫花蜜本领,它们冬眠后再次出来抢劫。By chance, they make more holes on one side of the flowers than the other, and as the habit is picked up by other, newly hatched bees, a preference for left or right sps by a process of positive feedback.它们偶然间在花的一侧制造出更多的抢劫孔。由于其他新孵化出的熊蜂效仿了这种习惯,左利手或右利手作为一种正反馈进行传播。The bees have, in other words, created a simple culture.或者说,熊蜂创造出一种简单的文化。It is a criminal culture, admittedly.诚然,这是一种罪恶的文化,But no one ever said that nature was pretty.但没有人曾说,自然界原本是优雅的。 /201312/266849They respond to touch, temperature, currents, and the cycles of the sun and the moon.它们对触碰,温度,洋流及日月的交替都有反应。And their tiny movements combined to give each colony a rhythm of its own.它们轻微的运动形成整个群落的一种独特节奏。The polyps cant build the reef alone.珊瑚虫自己不能建造珊瑚礁。For this, they need parterners that are even smaller.它们需要一种体积更小的同伴。Within each polyps tentacles are millions of tiny brown dots.每个珊瑚虫的触角里都有无数的小棕点。Each is a microscopic plant, which transform sunlight into food and energy for the corals.每一个都是显微镜下才能看到的植物。它们将太阳能转化为食物和能量提供给珊瑚。Its a miraculous parternship that allows the corals to turn the minerals in the water into limestone, building their stony skeletons.这是一种绝妙的合作关系,这使得珊瑚能将水中的矿物质转化为石灰岩从而形成它们石质的骨架。In this way, each colony grows.只有这样每一个珊瑚群才能生长。If we were able to watch a reef over several years, wed see a continuely growing marine metropolis.如果我们每隔几年就观察一次某块珊瑚礁,我们将会发现一个规模持续扩大的海底都市。Its intricate architecture provides homes for thousands of creatures.它错综复杂的构造给无数生物提供住所。201408/322228哈尔滨市妇幼保健在那儿

七台河市中医院在哪里Gallaghers ghostsGallagher之魂Art inspired by myth and stories源于神话的艺术ELLEN GALLHER was born in 1965 in Rhode Island, the daughter of an African-American father with ties to Cape Verde in West Africa and an American-Irish mother. Now she divides her time between New York and Rotterdam. Ms Gallagher mines sci-fi, marine biology and black history for her art, variously making use of cut-up paper, pencil, plasticine, printed matter, rubber, gold leaf and photogravure. It is out of this rich interbreeding of method and materials that her astonishing work arises.ELLEN GALLHER,1965年出生于罗德岛,父亲是非洲裔美国人,曾居于西非佛得角,母亲则是爱尔兰裔美国人。如今她多往来于纽约和鹿特丹港市。Gallagher的艺术灵感多源于科幻、海洋生物学以及黑人历史。利用剪纸、铅笔、粘土、印刷品、橡胶、金箔、凹版印刷等各式各样的材料工具,她独创出了令人叹为观止的作品。This summer two new Gallagher exhibitions will open, one on each side of the Atlantic. A substantial survey at Tate Modern in London will be followed by a 20-year retrospective at the New Museum in New York.今夏在大西洋两岸将各举办一场Gallagher的新作展览会。伦敦泰特现代美术馆所做的大量探索研究将继续由纽约当代艺术馆以20年回顾展的名义进行。The first room at the Tate Modern show has been covered with ruled writing paper, a reminder of the importance that the line and the grid play in Ms Gallaghers work and of the inspiration of minimalist artists such as Agnes Martin and Sol LeWitt. This humble papering provides a formal background for her work and helps steer it away from pomposity. But there is much more to Ms Gallaghers work than linear scaffolding—much to be into it and much to be resisted, especially easy clichés about race or gender.泰特现代展览的第一间陈览室里挂满方格纸作品,可见Gallagher颇为青睐横格线条,并从Agnes Martin 、Sol LeWitt等极简抽象派艺术家那获得颇多的灵感。这种极简贴纸展现出匀称的布局,避免浮夸。但Gallagher的作品并不仅仅是组建线条,还有更多发人深省的隐藏讯息,类似于种族性别这种常谈之事。Early works from the 1990s, such as “Untitled, 1992”, for instance, play with the red lips and white-ringed eyes that recall black and white minstrels. An abstract pattern emerges, then disembodied “golliwog” smiles. “Negroes Ask for German Colonies”takes its title from a phrase in an article that was written in 1919 by a Harlem radical, Hubert Harrison, and which Ms Gallagher cuts into paper. Above the words is a grid of 20 female wig models with black, white and brown faces. The wigs, one named “Innocence” and another “Coquette”, are made from elaborately cut white paper. Pink plasticine curls emerge from the models eyes. It is exquisitely constructed and at the same time funny to behold, alluding to the rise of American black consciousness and poking at the covert racism of so much consumer advertising.Gallagher 在其90年代的早期作品“Untitled, 1992”中,利用红唇与白环状眼眸的搭配唤起人们对纯粹的游吟诗人的回忆。先是抽象图案,再是出人意料的灵肉分离式的怪诞微笑。2002年的作品“Negroes Ask for German Colonies”得名于一篇文章中的短语,该文由Harlem radical, Hubert Harrison于1919年撰写。Gallagher将其刻于纸上。那是一组20位黑、白、棕面色的假发女郎方格图。名为“天真无邪”和“卖弄风情”的假发均由白色剪纸精心拼贴而成。女郎的双眸浮现出粉色的泥卷发。该作构思精巧,新潮逗趣,并意指美国黑人思潮运动的兴起,剑戳众多消费广告中暗涌的种族歧视。The works Ms Gallagher calls the “Yellow paintings”—which include “Falls and Flips” from 2001 and “Double Natural” from the year after, as well as “Pomp-Bang”, which Ms Gallagher painted in 2003—take this theme further (detail pictured above). Each one is a monumental grid of 396 advertisements for wigs and other items, such as hair grease or skin-whitening cream, as well as illustrated articles from black magazines of the 1950s and 1960s, such as Ebony, Our World, or Black Stars. Each face wears an elaborate, fantastical yellow plasticine wig. What could be dry social history becomes exuberant art-making.Gallagher的“Yellow paintings”系列—包括2001年的“Falls and Flips”、2002年的“Double Natural”和2003年的“Pomp-Bang”—继续深入该种族的主题。每一格都是对396假发、发胶、美白面霜等产品广告的纪念,是对五六十年代Ebony,Our World,或Black Stars等黑人杂志中插图的致敬。每一张面孔都戴着梦幻而精致的金色泥假发。谁能想到枯燥的社会史也能成为生机勃勃的艺术作品呢。Ms Gallagher often folds historical characters into her work, including “Peg Leg” Bates, a one-legged tap dancer, and Eunice Rivers, a nurse who was implicated in the notorious Tuskegee syphilis experiment carried out on black Alabamans between 1932 and 1972. At the age of 20, sponsored by the Sea Education Association, Ms Gallagher spent some time aboard an oceanographic research vessel collecting, studying and drawing pteropods—microscopic wing-footed snails. This experience has combined with her interest in the myth of Drexciya, an underwater country peopled with the unborn babies of pregnant African slave women thrown overboard mid-Atlantic. It has generated an extraordinary body of work collectively entitled “Watery Ecstatic”. Detailed drawing, intricate paper cutting, and dreamy watery colour, together create a universe of strange sea creatures. They suggest an imagination gripped equally by precision and fluidity, by science and poetry, and a mind that feeds on the beauty of nature while being haunted at the same time by the many layers of human history.Gallagher常在其作品中融入一些历史人物,包括“Peg Leg” Bates,一位独腿踢踏舞者;1932年至1972年,以阿拉巴马州的黑人为对象进行了臭名昭著的塔斯基吉梅毒实验,名为Eunice Rivers的护士卷入其中。通过海教协会的赞助,Gallagher 20岁时得以在海外学习海洋学,集舰,研究绘制翼足目动物—微小的翼足蜗牛。这一经历更是和她感兴趣的水城Drexciya,一群被推下甲板的怀有身的非洲奴隶居住在大西洋中央的传说,水乳交融。由此诞生了一组名为“Watery Ecstatic”的非凡佳作。细致入微的刻画,错综复杂的拼剪,梦幻的水色,共同造就了海洋生物的奇幻世界。精细性与流动性、科学性与诗意同时抓住人们的想象力,思绪浸食自然之美的同时又被人类历史的复杂多样困扰着。“Bird in Hand”, the great 2006 work on paper that is owned by the Tate, also draws on these preoccupations, generating out of myth and marine biology the startling figure of a one-legged pirate standing at the bottom of the ocean. His hair floats upwards in the water in a baroque confection of seaweed made from card and paper, all painstakingly cut by hand. His stump has sprouted seaweed. His black face is occluded by a white mask. This is a work that indulges in patterned beauty even as it freezes the spirit.2006年的“Bird in Hand”,一幅所有权归泰特美术馆的杰作,同样利用这些勾魂摄魄的元素刻画出传奇的海洋生物、出人意料的人物形象,一个站在海底的独腿海盗。他的头发,以一团精细的巴洛克式纸片海藻的姿态漂浮在水面。这全是Gallagher煞费苦心的手工拼贴。他的假肢也萌生出一撮撮水藻。白色面具紧紧咬合他黑色的面孔。即使寒从心起这也是一幅令人沉溺于精美纹路的作品。Many of the works exhibited, including the films she has made with her longtime collaborator, Edgar Cleijne, and the double-sided paintings called “Morphia”, reveal a determination to express complexity through an elaborate process of making. Canvasses are built up in collaged layers. Mysterious, balletic animations are projected alongside archival film that has been doctored to produce strange new narratives. The paper Ms Gallagher uses is meticulously drawn on, painted, cut, stuck, pierced, both on the front and the back, and then hung in glass boxes. Her works are dense with thought, but thought transformed by intensive creative workmanship into something rich and strange.被展出的众多作品中,还有她与长期合作伙伴Edgar Cleijne共同拍摄的影片,及双面画作“Morphia”,这幅作品力图通过精巧错综的创作过程揭露其复杂性。多层抽象拼贴的效果极具说力。神秘莫测的芭蕾舞式动画制作与剪辑过的档案电影共同创造出了新异的故事。Gallagher所选纸张的正反面均经过精心绘制、裁剪、拼接,最后才挂上玻璃画框。她的作品寓意繁多,通过别出心裁的手工将那些思想付诸于天马行空的画作。“Ellen Gallagher: AxME” is at Tate Modern in London until September 1st. It will travel to the Sara Hildén Art Museum in Tampere, Finland, in the autumn and to the Haus der Kunst in Munich, Germany, in 2014. “Dont Axe Me” will be at the New Museum in New York from June 19th until September 15th.“Ellen Gallaghe:AxME正于伦敦泰特现代美术馆展出,9月1日截止。秋季展将在芬兰坦佩雷的Sara Hildén 美术馆举办。2014年在德国慕尼黑的Haus der Kunst展出。“Dont Axe Me”将于六月19日至9月15日在纽约New Museum展出。 /201405/295257哈尔滨外阴白斑治疗的医院 Schumpeter熊彼特Hidden gems束之高阁的宝藏Reviving old brands sometimes makes more sense than creating new ones有时,重启旧品牌比创造新品牌更有价值“CASH IN THE ATTIC” is one of the jewels in the Bs crown: “The show that turns hidden treasures into cash and viewers dreams into reality”. The format is as addictive as it is straightforward. A camera crew turns up at an ordinary-looking house and searches the attic and other nooks and crannies for things that might have hidden value. The choicest items are sold at auction. Joy is unconfined when a ragged doll turns out to be worth a small fortune. The business world has its own version of this game: entrepreneurs rummaging in corporate attics for neglected but valuable old brands. It is thanks to such treasure-hunting that you can ride an MV Agusta motorbike, wear a Shinola watch, stuff yourself with Twinkies, wash them down with Orangina and play a Gibson guitar.“阁楼里的宝藏”是B最热门节目之一,“把束之高阁的宝贝换成钱,把观众的梦想变成现实”。节目形式不仅简单,甚至容易上瘾。一个拍摄团队来到一座普通的房子里,到阁楼和其他边边角角搜寻可能存在价值的东西。最珍贵的那部分会被拍卖。当一个破旧的布娃娃卖出了一小笔钱时,总能带来抑制不住的喜悦。商界也存在这样的游戏:企业家们会从公司的阁楼里翻找被忽略的、却仍有价值的老品牌。也正是因为这些寻宝活动,我们才能骑上奥古斯塔托车,戴 Shinola手表,吃Twinkies 奶油蛋糕吃到撑,再喝上一大罐 Orangina,玩一会儿吉布森吉他。There are two reasons why such rummaging is so popular. The first is that companies often discard brands that contain plenty of what marketers call “equity”. In plain English, ones that people still remember fondly. Healthy brands can be sacrificed on the altars of corporate takeovers and restructurings: Brim Coffee bit the dust when a succession of mergers and acquisitions left it sharing a stable with Maxwell House; Procter amp; Gamble abandoned White Cloud toilet paper to focus on its Charmin brand. Or they can become orphans when their parent companies die: former household names that are currently looking for a new guardian include Hidden Magic hairspray, Climax ginger ale and Pussn Boots cat food.这种翻箱倒柜之所以如此盛行,原因有二。首先,公司经常会丢弃一些充满了营销专家所说的“资产”的品牌。简单来说,就是那些仍然存在于人们美好记忆中的品牌。好品牌有时会成为公司收购重组时的牺牲品。在一系列收购兼并之后, Brim咖啡不得不和麦斯威尔咖啡同处一室,最后一败涂地;宝洁为了集中发展 Charmin,抛弃白云卫生纸。有时,当母公司破产,旗下品牌便成了孤儿: Hidden Magic喷发定型剂,Climax 姜汁汽水和 Pusssn Boots猫食都曾是家喻户晓的名字,如今全在寻找下一位东家。The second reason is that reviving an old brand often beats spending months and millions on creating a new one, with a lower risk of failure. If something has worked before there is a good chance that it will work again. Old brands come with y-made logos, slogans, jingles and memories. Brim Coffees previous owners had spent 35 years and hundreds of millions of dollars drumming the phrase “Fill it to the rim—with Brim” into American brains. Besides equity, another folkloric quality brands are said to need is “authenticity”: whereas Wally Olins, a veteran branding expert, warns creators of new brands that the worst thing they can do is to try to fake this (see article), old brands are more likely to possess it.第二大原因,重启老品牌经常好过花数月时间、砸数百万美元来创造新品牌,而且失败的可能性还更低。一样东西如果曾经成功过,就极可能再一次成功。老品牌有现成的标志,口号,广告语和回忆。 Brim咖啡曾经的老东家们花了 35年时间、投入数亿美元让“倒满杯缘为止”这句话深深烙在美国人脑海中。除了资产,另一个传说中的品牌必要特质是“正宗”。资深品牌专家威利·奥林斯警告新品牌创造者们,他们能做的最糟糕的事情就是装得很“正宗”;而老品牌则更可能拥有这一特质。The simplest version of this strategy is for a company to revive one of its own brands. The textbook case is Volkswagens revival of the Beetle in the 1990s. VW played on nostalgia for the 1960s, when the Beetle became the semi-official vehicle of the hippie movement, while reassuring purchasers that it was thoroughly modern: “less flower, more power”. A second version is for a healthy firm to take over an ailing rivals brands and breathe new life into them. BMW acquired Mini when it bought Rover in 1994, retooled the car to German standards, and made it a huge success.实施这种策略,最简单的方式莫过于重启公司过去已有的品牌。一个被写进教科书中的案例是上世纪九十年代大众甲壳虫的重生。大众打的是六十年代的复古牌,当时它可是嬉皮运动人士的半官方座驾,但同时它让买家坚信这款车从内到外都是现代的:“更少点缀,更多动力。“第二种方式,是让一家健康的企业收购正在衰落的对手的品牌,并让其重现生机。 1994年,宝马收购路虎之后获得 Mini品牌。重整为德国标准汽车之后, Mini大获成功。There are now companies that, like the Bs antique-hunters, specialise in rooting out undervalued gems. The Himmel Group, based in Florida, buys old health and beauty brands and relaunches them with a blitz of advertising. Its successes include Ovaltine, a hot drink, Topol tooth polish and Lavoris, a mouthwash. Private-equity groups have also become enthusiastic recyclers. In 2006 the Blackstone Group and Lion Capital joined forces to buy the rights outside America to Orangina, a soft-drink brand discarded by Cadbury, and sold it three years later to Suntory of Japan, realising a 30% annual return on equity. In 2013 Apollo Global Management and Metropoulos amp; Co acquired Hostess Brands for 410m, and relaunched Twinkies and Ho Hos in what it billed as “the sweetest comeback in the history of ever”. Supermarkets are also savvy purchasers, buying old brands and keeping their distinctive appearance, to justify charging a bit more than for their own-label products. Walmart did this with White Cloud nappies andtissues, for example.和B的寻宝活动一样,如今有一些公司专门挖掘那些价值被低估的宝藏。福罗里达的 Himmel集团买下老的保健和美容品牌,通过广告轰炸再次将它们推向市场。成功案例包括热饮料 Ovaltine,美白牙膏Topol 和漱口水 Lavoris。同样热衷于回收再利用的还有私募集团。 2006年,黑石集团和利安资本合力买下 Orangina的海外所有权。Orangina是吉百利公司丢弃的软饮料品牌。三年后,两家投资公司将其卖给日本的三得利,获得 30%的年股本回报率。2013年,阿波罗全球管理和梅特珀罗斯公司以 4.1亿美元买下美国著名面包生产商 Hostess Brands,并重启 Twinkies和Ho Hos 两大品牌,被其称作“史上最甜蜜回归”。超市也是精明的买家,买下老品牌,保留其独特的外观,以便收取比自有品牌稍高一些的价格,如沃尔玛对白云尿布和餐巾纸的处理方式。Some striking examples of brand revival are the work of individual entrepreneurs. Shinola was once such a successful producer of shoe polish that Americans reprimanded each other with the phrase, “You cant tell shit from Shinola.” Tom Kartsotis, a college drop-out turned businessman, revived the name for a new company that produces luxury watches in Detroit and sells them for up to 975 each. The East India Company once controlled half the worlds trade, commanded its own army and issued its own currency, but went out of business in 1873. Sanjiv Mehta, an Indian diamond trader, bought the brand in 2005 and applied it to a new, upmarket retail chain.一些品牌的惊天大逆转是由企业家们个人完成的。 Shinola曾是极成功的鞋油品牌,美国人在埋怨对方的时候甚至会说:“你啥也不知道,连 Shinola都不知道!”大学辍学改做生意的 Tom Kartsotis在一家新公司重塑了Shinola品牌,这是一家底特律的奢侈表公司,手表每块能卖到 975美元。东印度公司曾经控制世界一半的贸易,有自己的军队和货币,却在 1873年破产。2005 年,印度珠宝交易商 Sanjiv Mehta买下这一品牌,以此命名一家新开的高端零售连锁店。Whole lotta lolly一大堆棒棒糖There is no guarantee that your dead brand in the attic will turn into cash: Daimler tried to revive its Maybach luxury marque as a competitor to Rolls-Royce and Bentley, but sales were dire, and it gave up in 2013. You need to choose your brand well—there is a big difference between Shinola and, say, Enron—and manage its revival carefully. Many of the most successful exercises in reviving brands are also exercises in repositioning them. Henry Juszkiewicz revitalised Gibson Guitars because he focused on selling to ageing lawyers and doctors, who were willing to pay 20,000 to own the same type of guitar as Eric Clapton and Jimmy Page, rather than struggling young musicians. He has since added brands such as Slingerland drums and Wurlitzer jukeboxes to his portfolio. Claudio Castiglioni revived his familys MV Agusta brand by repositioning a classic racing bike as a mid-market roadster.没人能保,在阁楼里躺着的品牌一定能赚钱:为与劳斯莱斯和宾利抗衡,戴姆勒下力气复兴奢侈品牌梅巴赫,但业绩暗淡,最终在 2013年放弃。你必须选择一个好品牌: Shinola和,比方说安然,差别是巨大的;同时你还必须小心处理。品牌复兴最成功的案例当中,有很多对品牌进行了重新定位。 Henry Juszkiewicz之所以能让吉布森吉他死而复生,是因为他专注于年长的律师和医生,而不是生存都成问题的年轻音乐人,理由是前者愿意掏两万美元,买下和艾瑞克·克莱普顿、吉米·佩吉同一品牌的吉他。之后他又加上了 Slingerland鼓和Wurlitzer 自动唱机。克劳迪奥·卡斯蒂格利奥尼复兴家族品牌 MV奥古斯塔,就是通过将经典竞赛自行车重新定位为中端敞篷跑车。Such quibbles aside, rediscovering and restoring a neglected brand, tapping into consumers fond memories of times gone by, is surely a cost-effective way of competing in a marketing landscape where start-up costs are prohibitive and the chances of failure are high. If capitalism is a system of creative destruction, in Joseph Schumpeters famous phrase, it is a system of creative reconstruction as well.尽管存在种种争议,在起步费用高昂,失败几率极高的当今市场,挖掘和重塑一个被遗忘的品牌,挑起消费者美好的回忆,绝对是一个性价比颇高的竞争手段。如果说资本主义是一个创造性毁灭的体系,就像约瑟夫·熊彼特的那句名言,它也是一个创造性重建的体系。 /201404/289609大庆龙南医院做全身检查要多少钱

黑龙江哈市妇儿可以做NT检查吗 Finance and economics财经商业Rigging currency markets操控货币市场Bank, fix thyself,作茧自缚The Bank of England faces questions over its role in rigged forex deals.英格兰面临非法操控外币市场的指控。ABOUT two dozen staff have so far been fired or suspended by banks for allegedly tampering with foreign-exchange markets.目前为止,总共约有24名员工因操纵外汇市场而被解雇或停职。The latest twist in the saga came from an unexpected quarter:给这一漫长风波带来新波折的,是令人意想不到的一方:on March 5th the Bank of England announced that it too had suspended an official following an internal investigation.3月5日,英格兰经过内部调查后宣布将一名职员停职。Awkwardly, Britains central bank has gone from inquisitor to a possible protagonist in the latest episode of financial-market chicanery.尴尬的是,这次金融市场诈骗案的最新发展却使英国中央从审问官变为了犯罪嫌疑人。Regulators globally have spent months investigating whether forex traders at big banks rigged global currency markets,全球监管部门已花费数月来调查大型的外汇交易员们是否操纵了全球货币市场,the worlds largest, where turnover is over trillion a day.这个世界最大的市场中的日流通额度达到了5万亿美元。They suspect that bankers used their knowledge of what currencies their clients wanted to buy and sell to nudge market prices against them.它们怀疑员工利用其客户想要买卖的现金种类的消息来推动市场上的汇率下跌。If so, it would be the latest in a long list of financial benchmarks that have been rigged in ways that have bolstered bankers bonuses.如果情况属实,这将成为那一长串纵以获取大量红利的基准数字中的新成员。Fines are still pouring in over LIBOR, an interest rate used to peg contracts worth trillions, which traders fiddled.因操纵LIBOR一个涉及到数万亿合同的利率数字,而受到巨额罚款的仍在不断增加。A plausible defence from the bankers in the latest probe might be that they had told the Bank of England exactly what they were doing.在最新一次调查中,员工辩称曾告知英格兰他们的具体行为。Minutes from regular meetings between the central bank and traders showed widesp concern about the structure of the currency markets as early as 2006.中央和交易员日常会议的记录文件显示,早在2006年货币市场的结构就引起了广泛关注。All sides agreed that it was open to abuse because many clients,各有关方面都认为这极易受到利用,因为众多顾客,from multinational companies to mutual funds with foreign holdings,从跨国公司到有外国资本的共同基金都以一个当日参考汇率来买卖货币,tended to buy and sell currencies from their banks at a single daily reference rate, the London fix, which is calculated using trades executed in 60 seconds of trading at 4pm in London.而伦敦定价是基于下午四点开始60秒钟内发生在伦敦的所有交易来计算的。That means rigging the market for just a minute could reap rich rewards.这意味着操纵市场一分钟就能带来丰厚的回报。A bank that had agreed to sell lots of Canadian dollars, say,比方说,一家在定价时为客户公司卖出大量加元,for a corporate customer could, in effect, depress that currencys price at the fix and so buy them for itself at a slightly lower price.这就会压低货币的价格,从而使能以低一些的价格买入加元。Bankers allegedly shared trading positions ahead of the fix, in internet messaging groups, among them The Cartel and The Bandits Club.据称,员工在在定价之前会在网络上共享交易头寸,比如在卡特尔和强盗俱乐部交易员从不以谨慎著称。Regulators think this is tantamount to fraud; banks have argued they were injecting order in an otherwise unworkable marketplace.监管部门认为这等同于诈骗;而辩解称,他们是在维护市场秩序,以保市场的正常运行。Notes taken by a trader at a meeting organised by the Bank of England in April 2012 suggest the traders had told the bank that they regularly shared information on forex positions.一位交易员在2012年4月英格兰会议上的笔记显示,交易员已经告知他们定期共享外汇头寸的信息。According to Bloomberg, the central bank at least tacitly endorsed their attempts to match buyers and sellers,根据彭社消息,英国中央至少是默许了交易员匹配买家和卖家的行为,purportedly to limit the volatility of everyone trading at the fix.据称这是为了限制定价时各类交易的不稳定性。Discomfitingly, the bank explicitly said notes should not be taken at the meeting. Its own minutes reportedly shed no light on the matter.尴尬的是,曾明确表示开会时是不允许记笔记。方面的会议记录中并未涉及相关事件。The Bank of England denies it endorsed any wrongdoing.英格兰否认自己曾允许违规操作。After reviewing 15,000 e-mails, 21,000 chat messages and 40 hours of phone-call recordings, it said it had found no evidence its staff were privy to any collusion.该表示,在其调查的15,000封邮件、21,000聊天信息和40小时的电话记录中,没有据显示员工私下勾结。But one person at Thneedle Street had breached rigorous internal control processes,但是针线街的一名员工确实违反了严格的内部控制流程,and others have been reminded of the importance of keeping accurate records and telling higher-ups when they hear something noteworthy.而其他人则被提醒了保管好准确的记录以及在得到重要消息时告知上级的重要性。A fuller investigation has been launched.进一步的调查正在进行中。It is not the first time the central bank is painted as a conspirator in financial fiddling—or at least a tolerator of it.这已经不是英国中央第一次被描述为金融舞弊的谋划者或者至少是默许者。In 2012 the then-deputy governor, Paul Tucker, had to flatly deny he had sanctioned duff LIBOR submissions by Barclays at the height of the financial crisis.在2012年,时任副行长的保罗塔克坚决否认自己在金融危机高潮时持了巴克莱提交的经过粉饰的LIBOR意见书。Chummy exchanges with Bob Diamond, at the time the boss at Barclays, made for awkward ing.而他与时任巴克莱行长的鲍勃戴蒙德之间的暧昧谈话,又像是在自打耳光。One potential problem for banks is that, unlike the people affected by LIBOR, it is easy for those who were fleeced by their forex bankers to figure it out.对而言,一个潜在的问题是这些被外汇交易员痛宰的客户不同于受到LIBOR影响的那些,他们更容易发现事实。Perhaps the most curious thing is the timing: much of the currency-market skulduggery happened after the banks had aly come under investigation for LIBOR.最值得玩味的事情也许是,大量货币市场舞弊发生在已经因为LIOBR受到调查之后。That suggests banks were slow to clean up the rotten culture on their trading floors,这表明在清除交易市场上的陈腐文化时非常缓慢,or that they genuinely thought their colluding ways had been officially endorsed.或者他们是真的认为串通行为被官方允许。 /201403/279797黑龙江妇儿医院正规吗黑龙江省社会康复医院门诊电话热线

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