原标题: 哈尔滨市南岗区妇产医院中药科医护问答
Elon Musk roared into the Detroit Auto Show last week and made plain that it’s not only his Tesla TSLA 2.42% electric cars that are expected to meet the very highest performance standards, gunning from zero to 60 miles per hour in a McLaren-like 3.2 seconds. He rides his employees awfully hard, as well.上周,埃隆o穆斯克在底特律车展上明确表示,特斯拉电动汽车有望达到最高的性能水平,从静止到时速60英里只需3.2秒——这完全是麦克拉伦赛车的加速水准。穆斯克还说,在他的调教下,员工们个个都很努力。“If you are fighting a battle, it’s way better if you are at the front lines,” Musk told the Wall Street Journal, describing himself not as a mere micromanager but as something far more intense—a “nano-manager.”穆斯克对《华尔街日报》表示:“如果你在打仗,亲临前线的效果要好得多。”他说,用“微管理”来形容自己还不够确切,他对员工的管理达到了更细致的“纳米级管理”。Indeed, Musk makes no apologies for what theJournal described as “a hands-on obsession with the tiniest operational and car-design details at Tesla.” It’s safe to say that his domineering style doesn’t differ at SpaceX, the rocket company he founded and runs.《华尔街日报》报道称,在特斯拉公司,穆斯克“事必躬亲,无论是日常运营,还是汽车设计的细节,他都会亲自过问”。穆斯克认为,这种描述其实并不夸张。穆斯克在他创办并运营的SpaceX火箭公司,他的管理风格也是如此。Musk is the envy of many—and why not? He’s abillionaire. He was married (twice) to a beautiful actress. He has plans to visit Mars someday. He nonchalantly tosses around the word “Hyperloop.”Heck, he’s the model for Tony Stark, the swashbuckling genius played by Robert Downey Jr. in the “Iron Man” films.穆斯克是很多人羡慕的对象。这当然很好理解,这位亿万富翁结过两次婚,而且娶的都是美艳动人的女明星。他还打算在将来的某一天去火星逛逛,并且经常兜售他的“超回路高铁”理念。小罗伯特o唐尼扮演的钢铁侠,就是以他为原型塑造的。不过,在大批高管试图尝试“纳米级管理”理念之前,我们必须提醒他们:这种管理并不能发挥员工的最大潜能。When people’s autonomy in the workplace is sharply curtailed, they feel as if they’ve lost control—and, in turn, their brains react as if they’re being threatened. That raises their level of stress, which often causes them to perform poorly. “Feeling in control, even if it’s an illusion, is key to … cognitive ability staying intact,” Amy Arnsten, a professor of neurobiology and psychology at Yale, has pointed out.如果人们在职场中的自主性被剥夺,他们就会觉得自己失去了控制力,这会令他们的大脑产生一种被威胁感。这种感受将提高员工感知的压力,从而导致他们的工作效率进一步下降。耶鲁大学神经生物学与心理学教授艾米o阿恩斯坦指出:“觉得自己具有控制力,哪怕那只是一种幻觉,是保持完整认知能力的关键所在。”Great managers have always known the trouble with dictating to employees. Successfully motivating employees “involves teaching rather than telling,” William B. Given Jr., the president of American Brake Shoe Co., wrote in his 1949 classic Bottom-Up Management.优秀的管理者通常都知道搞“一言堂”的后果。美国制动蹄有限公司总裁小威廉oBo盖文在其1949年的经典著作《自下而上的管理》中指出,要想成功地激励员工,需要的是“教育,而非说教”。 /201502/358749For Europe’s upmarket fashion and spirits brands, doing business in China in recent years has been anything but a life of luxury. Lower economic growth and a government crackdown on opulent gift-giving between businesspeople and officials have slashed sales growth and weakened profits.对欧洲的高档时装和烈酒品牌来说,近几年在中国做生意绝不轻松。经济增长放缓、以及政府对商人与官员之间送礼行为的打击,已经大幅削弱了这些品牌的销售增长和利润。But as brands ranging from Rémy Martin and Martell to the likes of Gucci and Louis Vuitton try to compete in the new environment, one thing has become startlingly clear: in the face of China’s newfound temperance, some groups are faring better than others.但随着各大品牌——从人头马(Rémy Martin)和马爹利(Martell)到古驰(Gucci)和路易威登(Louis Vuitton)——努力在这种新环境下展开竞争,有一件事变得极为明显:面对中国新的节制风气,一些集团要比其他同行表现得好一些。Pernod Ricard revealed yesterday that like-for-like sales of wines and spirits in China in the second half of 2014 fell 6 per cent, compared with the same period a year earlier. Shares in the Paris-based group closed more than 4 per cent down as markets swallowed the news.保乐力加(Pernod Ricard)周四披露,2014年下半年该公司在中国的葡萄酒和烈酒的同店销售同比下降6%。受此消息影响,这家总部位于巴黎的集团的股价收盘下跌逾4%。That same morning, however, Hermès said that sales of its luxury leather goods, silk scarves and fashion items in Asia excluding Japan had grown 8.9 per cent on a constant-currency basis during the past three months of 2014.然而,就在同一天上午,爱马仕(Hermès)表示,按固定汇率计算,该公司2014年最后3个月在亚洲(不包括日本)的高档皮具、丝巾和时尚单品的销售增长8.9%。The latest figures helped push annual sales for the luxury group — famed for its Kelly and Birkin leather bags — above /201502/360341

Major Styles of Traditional Chinese Residences raditional Chinese residences reflect the national culture,the sub-culture of a specific region and that of the ethnic group within it.中国传统民居的主要风格传统的中国民居反映了民族文化、一个特定地区的亚文化以及居住其中的族群的亚文化。The traditional domestic architecture of China has five major styles. There is the compound with a courtyard(Si He Yuan)to be seen in northern China,Farmers#39; Caves(Yao Dong) in Northern Shaanxi Province and Earthen Buildings(Tu Lou ) in southeast China#39;s Fujian Province,Stilt Houses that may be on steep inclines or projetting over water(Diao Jiao Lou)in southern China and the Seal-like Compound (Yi Ke Yin)in Yunnan province.中国传统的国内建筑分为五种主要风格。在中国北方有四合院,陕西省北部有窑洞,中国东南的福建省有土楼,中国南方有耸立在陡峭的斜坡或伸向水面的吊脚楼以及云南省的一颗印。Traditional residences tend to conform to their environment and to become integrated with it. They are expelled to blend with the surrounding rivers and mountains, thus complementing but never spoiling the natural beauty.传统的民居一般遵循其环境的特点并与其融为一体。它们要与周围的山川河流融合在一起,因此要突出而绝不能破坏自然的美感。Our ancestors made use of local materials and took the natural factors into consideration whenever they built a house.我们的祖先在建造房屋时都要使用当地的材料并考虑到自然因素。The Si He Yuan in northern China features a thick roof and walls and a wide courtyard to draw in maximum sunlight while ventilation is a prime feature of the diao jiao lou in the much warmer tropical climate of southern China.中国北方的四合院的特点是厚顶、厚墙和宽敞的院子,这样可以最大限度地进行采光,而对于地处中国南方温暖的热带气候中的吊脚楼来说,通风条件则是它的主要特点。The Si He Yuan in Beijing reflects the formal royal ambiance with its symmetrical style while garden-residences such as the famous Garden of the Master of the Nets in Suzhou,Jiangsu Province,gives priority to a harmonious blend with nature.Prince Gong#39;s Mansion in Beijing is the world#39;s largest Si He Yuan.北京的四合院通过其对称的风格体现出正式的皇家氛围,而园林住宅则注重与自然的和谐统一,诸如江苏省苏州著名的网师园。北京的恭王府则是世界上最大的四合院。In calligraphy,the Chinese characters with a roof-like component relate to various houses. For example,with。pig , it is。home; with。cow, it is。prison;with a combination of iwo mouths it means #39;many houses’一it is palace. Such characters combined with that for‘woman’imply peace and safely. The logic behind this is based on two layers of meaning. Frstly,when a woman sits peacefully at home,it means there is no war. Secondly, when they lived in simple caves in open air, our ancestors faced the hazards of rough weather, wild animals and hostile tribes. By building houses,they were better protected,thus there was safety.在书法中,带有宝盖头的汉字都与各种房屋有关。例如“占”加上猪之后就成了“家”,加上牛之后就成了牢,加上两个口之后就表示“许多房屋”—也就是宫。而和“女”字旁组合在一起的汉字则表示和平与安全。这其中的逻辑建立在两层含义之上。首先,当一名女子安全地坐在家中时,这就意味着没有战争。其次,当我们的祖先住在野外简单的洞穴中时,他们面对的是恶劣天气、野生动物以及敌对,落的危险。通过建造房屋,他们便获得了更好的保护,因而就得到了安全。Chinese Residence — Earliest Form of Architectural Art中国住宅——最早的建筑艺术形式Before the Qin Dynasty,the residential houses both for emperors and folks were all called palace. The term palace became a specific title for emperors#39; residente since the Qin and Han dynasties(221一220AD ).In modern times, all the other residential houses except palace and official buildings are called folk residente.在秦朝以前,皇帝和老百姓的住房都被称作宫殿。“宫”这个称谓是从秦朝和汉朝时才开始专门指皇帝的住居。在现代,除了宫殿和官方建筑之外的所有住房都被称作民居。The Chinese wooden framework house first appeared in the late Neolithic Age.The Hemudu Culture Site (5 OOO一3 300) in Yuyao County, Zhejiang Province reflected the wood construction techniques of this period. The Banpo Site in Xi#39;an and Yangshao Culture Site in Jiong village, Lintong, Shaanxi Province revealed the overall layout of villages and constructions of this period. Chinese residences can be divided roughly into nine kinds:中国的木质框架房屋最早出现在新石器时代晚期。浙江省余姚县的河姆渡文化遗址(公元前5000一公元前3300年)表现了当时的木质建筑艺术。西安的半坡遗址和陕西省临撞姜寨的仰韶文化遗址都反映出当时村落与建筑的整体布局。中国的民居可以大致分为九种类型:Beijing#39;s Siheyuan北京的四合院This is the most important form of Chinese traditional residential house.It is great in number and wide in distribution,popular among the Han,Manchu,Bai, and some of other minority groups.Most of the houses are of wood framework. The principal room is built on the southnorth axis, and iwo wing rooms are located on both sides of it. The family elders live in the principal room and wings are the bedrooms for the younger generations. Women live in the inner yard. Guests and male servants live in the outer yard. This distribution is in accordance with the feudal regulations. 5i He Yuan sps over towns and villages throughout China,but each developed its own characteristics as a result of respective natural conditions and different way of life. 5i He Yuan in Beijing is the most tive.这是中国传统民居中最重要的形式。它的数量多、分布广,并且在汉族、满族、白族以及其他少数民族中一十分流行。大多数房屋采用木质框架。主屋建在南北走向的轴线,而厢房则位于四合院的两侧。家庭中的长者住在主屋中,而两翼则由年轻一代居住。妇女住在内院。客人和男仆住在外院。这种分布符合封建礼制。四合院遍布全国的城乡,但由于各地自然条件和生活方式各有不同,因此发展出各自的特征。北京的四合院是最具代表性的。Jiangsu Residence江苏民居Residential houses distributed in areas south of the Yangtze River have a lot of names, but the overall arrangement is generally the same with Si He Yuan. The difference between the two is that houses in the south have smaller yards(or tianlin9 ),with only two functions; drainage and daylighting. The principal room in the first yard is usually a big hall. The yards in the back are usually smaller, mostly with storied buildings. Roof covered with small tiles and floor with flagstones help to adapt the rainy climate in the south. Houses in watery regions are usually built along rivers,with the front door leading to the alley and backdoor facing the river.Every household has a small dock where they do the washing, bailing and getting on boats.长江以南的地区所分布的房屋有很多名称,但是整体安排通常与四合院是相同的。两者的不同就在于南方房屋的院子(或称为天井)更小而且只有两个功能:排水和采光。第一间院子中的主屋通常是一间大厅。后面的院子则通常小一些,而且大部分都带有楼房。房顶盖_L小瓦而地面则铺上了石板,这有助于适应南方的多雨气候。在雨水充沛的地区,房屋通常是沿着河流建造的,而且前门通向小巷而后门面向河流。家家户户都有一个小型码头,以便在这里洗衣、取水、乘船。U-Shaped Houses of South China中国南方的U形房屋The houses in Yunnan Province in southwest China can be a good representative of this kind of building,and they could also be found in southern provinces like Hunan. The overall structure arrangement is more or less the same with Si He Yuan,but the houses are all connected together at every comer, forming the shape of U. The houses are made of wood truss with earth walls, on which are color I paintings.在中国西南部的云南省,那里的房屋可以很好地代表这一类建筑,在湖南等南方省份也可以见到这种建筑。它的整体结构安排多少与四合院比较相似,但是所有的房屋的每个角落都连在一起,因此就形成了U形。这些房屋是由木质析架和土墙建造的,上面还有色图画。Lingnan Hakka Group Houses岭南客家房屋群Tu Lou is a traditional dwelling for Hakkas in west Fujian Province. There are three to four floors in average, and the tallest can have up to six floors. Including the houses in the yard,Tu lou can usually hold more than 50 families. Halls,storage houses, domestic animal houses,wells and other public houses are in the yard. The Hakkas created this special defensive building to protect themselves, and it#39;s still in use now.土楼是福建省西部的客家传统住宅。它平均为三至四层,最高达六层。包括院子里的房屋在内,土楼通常可以容纳50多个家庭。大厅、储藏室、牲口圈、水井以及其他公共房屋都位于院子中。客家人建造这种特殊的防御性建筑的目的是为了保护自己,而且现在依然在使用这种建筑。Cave Dwelling of Northwest China中国西北的窑洞Cave dwellings are mainly distributed in central and west provinces like Henan,Shanxi,Shaanxi,where the loess is of great depth.The loess has little seepage and a very strong vertical nature,which provides a very good precondition for the development of cave dwellings. The cliff cave dwelling is an earth cave dug horizontally along the vertical earth cliff. Residence built in this way saves raw materials and requires less complicated technology.The cave dwelling is cool in summer and warm in winter.窑洞主要分布在河南、山西、陕西、甘肃以及青海等中西部地区,那里的黄土十分深。黄土的性质不容易渗水而且垂直方向强度很大,因此为窑洞的发展提供了极好的先决条件。悬崖上的窑洞是沿着垂直土崖水平挖成的土洞。通过这种方式建造的民居节省了原材料而且不需要复杂的技术。窑洞冬暖夏凉。Ganlan干栏Ganlan(a wood or bamboo storied house)are mainly distributed in the southwest provinces of China,such as Yunnan,Guizhou,Guangdong and Guangxi. It is the residence for Dai,Jingpo,Zhuang and other minority groups.干栏(木质或竹质多层房屋)主要分布在中国的西南省份,例如云南、贵州、广东以及广西。它是傣、景颇、壮以及其他少数民族的民居。A Ganlan usually stands alone, seporated from other Ganlan houses.Supported by poles,the living sector of GanIan is usually on the second floor high above the ground,while the first storey is retained for raising domestic animals and storing;in this way Ganlan can ward off moisture,as well as the attack of insects,snakes and other animals.干栏通常是与其他千栏建筑分开的独立建筑。通过撑杆的撑,干栏的居住部分通常位于较高的第二层,而第一层则用于饲养家畜和储物,这样干栏不仅可以防潮,而且可以防止昆虫、蛇以及动物的袭击。Diaofang碉房Diaofang(Stone Chamber) is the most popular kind of dwellings in Tibet and some areas in Inner Mongolia. According to rh,} Hi.}cory of Later Harp HmZa.sry,this stone and earth dwellings existed before 111 AD. The height of the dwellings varies from two to three storeys. Built mostly of stone and earth,they look like Diaolou (blockhouse),and hence got the name of Diaofang. The origin of its name can be traced back to 1736 in the era of Qianlong Reign of the Qing Dynasty.碉房是西藏和内蒙古部分地区最普遍的民居。根据《后汉书》记载,这种土石民居早在公元111年之前便存在了。这种民居的高度为两层或三层。它们主要用土石建造,外观像碉楼,因此便被叫做碉房。它这个名称的由来可以追溯到清朝乾隆年间的1736年。The first floor is often used for livestock and poultry,and the second is retained as bedrooms,living rooms,kitchen and storehouse. Some have a third floor for the family sutra hall and the balcony.第一层经常用于饲养家畜和家禽,而第二层则留作卧室、客厅、厨房以及储藏室。有些碉房还有第三层,这用作家庭藏经室和阳台。The nomadic Mongolians and Tibetans also live in tents,which are convenient to assemble and unassembled.从事游牧的蒙古族和藏族人也住在帐篷中,这十分便于拆卸。Mongolian yurts蒙古包The Mongolian felt tent in northwest China is called Mongolian yurts.The wooden wattles are fastened with leather thongs and studs to form a fence-like structure. Each part of the yurt is ingenious and quite convenient to dissemble and carry. The diameter of a small yurt is about four to six meters,with no pillar inside, while the bigger one needs two to four poles to support the yurt. There are thick felts on the ground of yurts. Every yurt has an opening on the top,and there#39;s usually a stove under it.中国西北部蒙古族人的毡帐被称作蒙古包。它的木条用皮带和钉子固定而形成类似于篱笆的结构。蒙古包的每一个部分都十分精巧并且十分便于拆装。小型蒙古包的直径大约为四至六米,里面没有柱子,而较大的蒙古包则需要两至四根杆子来撑。蒙古包的地面有厚毡。每个蒙古包的顶部都有开口,而且这下面通常还有一个炉子。Ayiwang阿以旺Ayiwang is the Uygur residence. The houses are all connected together, with yard around them. The front room with a skylight is called Ayiwang,also known as summer room,which serves as the living room as well as reception room. The back house called winter room is the bedroom,usually without a skylight. The plane arrangement is very ingenious.阿以旺是维吾尔族的民居。所有的房屋都连成一片,周围还有院子。前面带天窗的房间被称作阿以旺,又叫夏室,它是用来当客厅和会客室的;后室称作冬室,它通常没有天窗。其平面布局非常精巧。There are also some other special residential houses such as the boat house. Nowadays,as a result of economic development, population increase and modernization,people in the cities usually live in storied buildings, which have increasingly diversified styles and a tendency of height rise.还有诸如船屋等一些特殊的民居。如今由于经济的发展、人口的增加以及现代化程度提高,城市里的人们通常住在楼房里,楼房的风格日益多样化且高度得以增加。 /201506/379728Women’s shoes are often regarded as small torture chambers for our feet, designed to give us an instant leg-up in the glamor charts while reducing us to an eye-watering hobble come the end of the day。女士高跟鞋通常被看作是脚的刑室,高跟鞋能够立即提升魅力指数,但一天结束时,你会累到泪流满面、蹒跚而行。But there is so much more to the female footwear story than this one cliché。但是有关女性高跟鞋,除了这种说法之外,还有很多说法。Manolo Blahnik莫罗·伯拉尼克On improving upon nature: The feet have always been the inspiration. If you have horrible feet, I always see the challenge to make it better. . Even the ugliest foot is going to be okay with a shoe that I do. This is the redeeming quality of a shoe well-made。改进天性:脚一直都是灵感所在。如果脚部不舒,我通常会看到需要改进改进的挑战。最丑陋的脚穿上我设计的鞋子也能差强人意。这也是好鞋子的补偿特质。On the wealth of history: I’ve always love extremities in statues, Greek and Roman, in museums all around the world. Some of the shoes [I design] go back to the Hellenistic period, and things like that, but they’re completely different. Nothing like that was in Hellenistic times. My mind works that way: I just put details that remind of me of that kind of period。历史财富:我一直非常喜欢世界各地物馆中希腊和罗马雕塑的肢体部分。我设计的一些鞋子可以追溯至希腊时期,但又完全不同。希腊化时期根本没有这样的鞋子。只是我的思维是那样的,在设计中融入一些可以让我想起那段时间的元素。On perfection: I like to do with absolute perfection the best I can. This is really my challenge nowadays. As you get to a certain age, you’ve got to do the best you can because it’s the only way you can really get satisfaction。完美:我喜欢尽善尽美,这正是我今天面临的挑战。到了一定年龄,你一定要做到最好,因为这是获得满足感的唯一方式。Charlotte Dellal夏洛特·德拉尔On the high heel as object of art: I love collecting beautiful things. I love objects and, to me, the shoe looks good on the foot, off the foot, or on your mantelpiece。将高跟鞋看做艺术品:我喜欢收集漂亮的东西,我喜欢物品,对我来说鞋子穿或不穿,或者放在壁炉边上时,都是漂亮的艺术品。Just from a design aesthetic, they have a wonderful shape. With the high heel, there’s the negative space between the heel and the ball of the foot, as well as the shoe itself. It becomes sculptural。从设计美学角度,高跟鞋拥有完美的外形。因鞋子有跟,高跟与前脚掌和鞋子之间是负空间设计。这样高跟鞋与雕塑就有很多相同之处。On the transformative power of accessories: It’s a cliché in saying, but I do think accessories -- shoes particularly -- change an outfit. You can literally dress up when you put on a pair of high heel shoes. It changes the whole thing: the posture, the attitude, the feeling. Everything. It elevates you in every sense of the word; it makes you feel somewhat special。配饰的转换性力量:这么说很老套,但是我确实认为配饰,尤其是鞋子,能够改变装效果。如果穿了高跟鞋,你自可以尽情着上盛装。高跟鞋能带来很大的改变:姿势,态度,感觉。它能改变一切。它在方方面面都将你提高至新的水平,赋予你与众不同的感觉。Pierre Hardy皮埃尔·哈迪On the future present: Fashion is short-view sci-fi. It’s sci-fi for tomorrow, not into a century or two centuries。时尚是短期的“科幻小说”,只是明天的“科幻小说”,而非一两百年之后的“科幻小说”。There is something about the projection that you have to reach to create new shapes and to invent a new type of object, but at the same time fashion talks about femininity and about elegance and about chic. All these notions are from the past and make reference to ideal shapes that we aly know。当然,设计时需要创造新的形状或者设计新型物品,但与此同时,时尚反应的还有女性气质、高雅与时髦。所有意向都源于过去,并参考我们一直的理想形状。That’s something I love about fashion: to combine the desire for the future with with the knowledge of what was before; to try to combine those two opposite elements。这也是时尚吸引我的地方:将我们对未来的期待和之前的知识融为一体,试着融合两种对立的元素。There was a period when people were much more prospective, and believed much more in the future and in progress -- for example, in the 50’s and the 60’s, and even the 70’s sometimes. But nowadays we embrace a lot of different periods, a lot of different styles altogether. I think regarding artists and the history of art, our period is very baroque moment, a much combined moment。有段时间,人们更具前瞻性,更加相信未来和进步。比如,在五六十年代甚至在七十年代的一些时候。但现在,我们接纳不同阶段,不同风格。我认为对于艺术家以及艺术史来说,我们这个时代是巴洛克形式的,是个大融合的时代。In our society, you know, civilization, walking barefoot is forbidden. Totally. Even if you aren’t aware of it, this taboo is included in your mind. It’s an obligation, a constraint. I think shoes and this love of shoes is a way to twist this constraint into a pleasure. It’s the definition of feminism or desire. Because you don’t have this reason to go barefoot, let’s make the shoe as glorious as possible。在当今社会文化下,不允许赤脚步行。即使你对此并不了解,这种禁忌也是隐藏在你的意识之中的。这是一种义务一种约束。我认为鞋子以及都鞋子的热爱是将这种约束转化成乐趣的一种方式。它是对女性主义或欲望的诠释。鉴于你不能赤脚行走,那么我们尽可能设计好的鞋子吧。 /201507/385621

There are many things believed to make a woman more attractive in a man#39;s eyes – but a curved spine isn#39;t usually thought to be one of them.女人有很多方面可以让男人觉得具有吸引力,但是弯曲的脊椎一般来说不被认为是其中之一。However, researchers claim men are particularly attracted to a women with a back that curves exactly 45 d egrees above the top of her bottom.但是研究人员称女人的脊惟和臀部如果呈45度的话对男人来说特别具有吸引力。The findings provide a new explanation as to why voluptuous celebrities such as Kim Kardashian and Jennif er Lopez are considered to be so attractive, with extra mass around the buttocks enhancing the curvature c the spine.这项发现解释了为什么像卡戴珊和洛佩慈这样的名人特别具备吸引力了,臀部越大就越强化了脊椎的弯曲度。Such an angle would have given a woman an advantage while pregnant in early hunter-gatherer societies and so has evolved as beingseen as attractive around the world, they claim.在早期的采集狩猎社会里,这样的角度会给怀的妇女以优势,随后演变成了具有吸引力的特征,研究人员称。However, the researchers also found that a physical curvature of the spine - known as vertebral wedging - was seen as more attractive than extra buttock mass.然而,科学家发现脊椎的弯曲度比大臀部更加具备吸引力。Dr David Lewis, a psychologist at Bilkent University in Turkey, said: #39;It#39;s an independent and previously undiscovered standard of attractiveness.来自土耳其比尔肯大学的心理学家David Lewis说:;这是一个独立的、先前没被发现的吸引力标准。;#39;(The curve) would have enabled ancestral women toshift their centre of mass back over their hips during pregnancy, a time during which there is a dramatic forward shift of their centre of mass.“这样的曲线将能允许古代的妇女在怀时将质量中心转移到臀部上方,因为在怀期间妇女的质量中心会大量的向前转移。;This benefit is critical: without being able to do this, women would experience a dramatic increase in h ip torque (pressure)subjecting them to risk of muscular fatigue and injury.这个优势非常重要:如果无法这么做,妇的臀部扭矩(压力)将大大增加,就会有肌肉疲劳和损伤的风险。”#39;Consequently, ancestral women who possessed this degree of lumbar curvature would have been able to forage longer into pregnancy and would have been able to carry out multiple pregnancies with a reduced risk of spinal injury.#39;;所以,拥有这种脊椎曲线的古代妇女在怀期间就可以进行更加长久的觅食,就可以进行多胎妊娠,而且脊椎受伤的风险变小。Dr Lewis said that this trait would have becomesexually attractive to men due to the evolutionary advantage it gave.David Lewis说,由于具备了进化上的优势,这个特征对于男人来说具备了性吸引力。Without such a curve, the pressure on a woman#39;s hips during pregnancy increases by nearly 800 per cent, rendering her largelyimmobile and increasing the risk of health problems.如果没有这样的曲度,妇女怀期间臀部所受的压力将增加800%,这将导致妇几乎无法移动并且增加了患病的风险。A 45-degree angle was optimal because it would have aided movement, yet would not have been so great so as to expose women to the back pain and risk of slipped discs that can come with excessive spinal curvature.45度是最理想的,因为这有助于人们行动,但是也有不好的地方,因为如果脊椎过度弯曲,将会导致背痛或者有椎间盘突出的风险。For the study, which was published in the journal Evolution and Human Behaviour, the psychologists showed 300 men silhouettes of women withdifferent angles of curvature.这份研究发表在了《进化和人类行为》期刊上,为了进行研究,心理学家向300名男子展示了不同脊椎弯曲度的妇女的轮廓。They were then asked to rate the images accordingto how attractive they found the silhouette.然后每个男子根据这些图像的吸引力做出评分。Most of the men were significantly more attractedto those with a spine curve of 45.5 degrees, the researchers found.研究人员发现,大部分男子觉得拥有45.5度脊椎的女性更加有吸引力。Analysis of the results also found that the preference for this level of spine curve was #39;unequivocally not a by-product of a preference for buttock mass#39;, they added.对结果进行分析后发现人们对这种弯曲度的偏好并非是人们对臀部偏好的副产品。Men who think they like big bottoms may actually bemore into spines, Dr Lewis said.那些以为自己喜欢大臀部的男性其实更加喜欢脊椎,Lewis士说。He said: #39;Men may be directing their attention to the butt and obtaining information about women#39;s spines, even if they are unaware that that is what their minds are doing.他说:;男人们可能将自己的注意力放在臀部上了,从而获得有关女性脊椎的信息,尽管他们没有意识到这正是他们的脑袋正在做的事情。;#39;Alternatively, men may have preferences for both lumbar curvature and buttock size.;或者,男性对脊椎曲度和臀部大小都有偏好。;#39;Future research is needed to better understand the latter.#39;;未来将对后者进行更多研究。; /201503/362859

How a New World bird came to be named after countries halfway around the globe.这种新世界的鸟类为什么会以半个地球外的国家的名字来命名。Within the turkey lies the tangled history of the world.在土耳其境内有着错综复杂的世界历史。OK, not quite. But not far off, either.好吧,或许并非如此,但也相差无几了。;Turkey; the bird is native to North America. But ;turkey; the word is a geographic mess—a tribute to the vagaries of colonial trade and conquest. As you might have suspected, the English term for the avian creature likely comes from Turkey the country. Or, more precisely, from Turkish merchants in the 15th and 16th centuries.;火鸡;这种鸟是原产于北美洲。但是;turkey;一词来源是一种地理上的大杂烩 — — 是对殖民地贸易和征的异想天开的献礼。你可能认为这种鸟类的英文名字可能来自于土耳其这个国家的名字。或者,更确切地说,从第十五和十六世纪的土耳其商人那里得名。How exactly the word ;turkey; made its way into the English language is in dispute. The linguist Mario Pei theorized that more than five centuries ago, Turks from the commercial hub of Constantinople (which the Ottomans conquered in the mid-15th century) sold wild fowl from Guinea in West Africa to European markets, leading the English to refer to the bird as ;turkey cock; or ;turkey coq; (coq being French for ;rooster”), and eventually ;turkey; for short. When British settlers arrived in Massachusetts, they applied the same terms to the wild fowl they spotted in the New World, even though the birds were a different species than their African counterparts. The etymology expert Mark Forsyth, meanwhile, claims that Turkish traders brought guinea fowl to England from Madagascar, off the coast of southeast Africa, and that Spanish conquistadors then introduced American fowl to Europe, where they were conflated with the ;turkeys; from Madagascar. Dan Jurafsky, another linguist, argues that Europeans imported guinea fowl from Ethiopia (which was sometimes mixed up with India) via the Mamluk Turks, and then confused the birds with North American fowl shipped across the Atlantic by the Portuguese.“土耳其”这个单词如何出现在英语语言中依然有争议。语言学家Mario 裴理推测大概在五个多世纪前,君士坦丁堡这个商业中心的土耳其人 (在15 世纪中叶被土耳其人征)将来自西非几内亚的野禽(即珍珠鸡)卖到欧洲市场 ,所以那时的英国人称这种鸟为;土耳其公鸡;,并最终以;土耳其;来简称这种动物。当英国移民抵达(美国)马萨诸塞州时,在这块新大陆上他们用同一个词来称呼他们在这片土地上看到的野禽,尽管这里的野禽不同于非洲的那种。词源学专家马克福赛思说土耳其商人把几内亚的这种野禽从马达加斯加带到英国,而西班牙征者把美洲的野禽引到欧洲,所以就和来自马达加斯加的“土耳其”混合在一起了。丹 Jurafsky,另一个语言学家,认为欧洲人通过马穆鲁克土耳其人从埃塞俄比亚 (有时候人们将埃塞俄比亚同印度混在一起了) 进口几内亚野禽,然后与葡萄牙通过大西洋从北美进口的野禽混淆在一起了。The guinea fowl (left) vs.the North American turkey (Wikipedia)珍珠鸡(左图)和北美火鸡对比(图片来源:维基百科)Here#39;s where things get even more bewildering. Turkey, which has no native turkeys, does not call turkey ;turkey.; The Turks ;knew the bird wasn#39;t theirs,; Forsyth explains, so they ;made a completely different mistake and called it a hindi, because they thought the bird was probably Indian.; They weren#39;t alone. The French originally called the American bird poulet d#39;Inde (literally ;chicken from India;), which has since been abbreviated to dinde, and similar terms exist in languages ranging from Polish to Hebrew to Catalan. Then there#39;s the oddly specific Dutch word kalkoen, which, as a contraction of Calicut-hoen, literally means ;hen from Calicut,; a major Indian commercial center at the time. These names may have arisen from the mistaken belief at the time that the New World was the Indies, or the sense that the turkey trade passed through India.事情还要更复杂。土耳其当地没有火鸡,他们也不把火鸡叫做“turkey”。他们“知道这玩意不是他们国家的“, 福赛斯是这么解释的,因此他们犯了一个完全不同的错误,把火鸡叫做hindi(印度语的意思),因为他们认为这玩意也许是印度的。有这种想法的人不止是土耳其人。法国人一开始把这种美国鸡称为poulet d#39;Inde(字面意思为来自印度的鸡),后来简称为dinde,类似的称谓也存在于波兰语、希伯来语和加泰罗尼亚语中。还有一个非常奇怪的特定荷兰语称谓kalkoen,是从Calicut-hoen这个词提炼出来的,字面意思是“来自卡利卡特的母鸡”, 卡利卡特曾是印度的主要商业中心之一。这些名称的来源也许是因为当时他们认为新世界指的是西印度群岛一带,或者是认为火鸡贸易途径印度。So what is the bird called in India? It may be hindi in Turkey, but in Hindi it#39;s arki. Some Indian dialects, however, use the word piru or peru, the latter being how the Portuguese refer to the American fowl, which is not native to Peru but may have become popular in Portugal as Spanish and Portuguese explorers conquered the New World. The expansion of Western colonialism only complicated matters: Malaysians call turkey ayam blander (“Dutch chicken”), while Cambodians opt for moan barang (“French chicken”).那么火鸡在印度被称为什么呢?在土耳其他们称之为hindi,但是在印度语里他们称之为#7789;arki。在一些印度方言里使用piru或者peru这个词,后者是葡萄牙语对美国火鸡的叫法,火鸡的原产地不是秘鲁,但是在西班牙和葡萄牙征新大陆时在葡萄牙很受欢迎。西方殖民主义的扩张使事情更加复杂:马来西亚人把火鸡叫做ayam blander(荷兰鸡的意思),缅甸人选择了moan barang这个叫法(意思是法国鸡)Then there are the turkey truthers and linguistic revisionists. In the early 1990s, for instance, a debate broke out in the ;letter to the editor; section of The New York Times over the possible Hebrew origins of the word ;turkey.; On December 13, 1992, Rabbi Harold M. Kamsler suggested (as a follow-up to a Thanksgiving-themed piece titled ;One Strange Bird;) that the New World fowl received its English name from Christopher Columbus#39;s interpreter, Luis de Torres, a Jewish convert to Catholicism. In an October 12, 1492 letter to a friend in Spain, de Torres had referred to the American bird he encountered as a tuki, the word for ;peacock; in ancient Hebrew and ;parrot; in modern Hebrew (a more dubious version of this story claims that Columbus himself was a Jew who hid his identity in the aftermath of the Spanish Inquisition but drew on his lineage to christen the fowl).然后出现了火鸡真相者和语言学上的修正主义者。比如在1990年代初期的时候,在《纽约时报》的“给编者的话”板块上就引发了一场有关“火鸡”这个词可能来自希伯来语的可能性的争论。1992年12月13号,犹太拉比Harold M. Kamsler认为这种新世界飞禽的英文名字源于航海家哥伦布的口译人员 Luis de Torres(他是一名犹太人,后来皈依天主教)。在1492年12月12号给西班牙一位朋友的信件中, Luis de Torres将他在美国遇到的这种飞禽称为tuki,在古希伯来文中指的是“孔雀”的意思以及在现代的希伯来文中指的是“鹦鹉”的意思(而在一个更加可疑的故事版本中称哥伦布本人就是个犹太人,在西班牙宗教法庭建立后他隐藏了自己的身份,但是利用自己的血统为这种飞禽命名)。Kamsler#39;s letter, however, was met with a firm rebuttal from the president of the Association for the Study of Jewish Languages, David L Gold. ;Rabbi Kamsler#39;s explanation, not original with him, is an old yarn spun in uninformed Jewish circles,; Gold wrote. ;Along with countless other pseudoscientific claims about supposed Hebrew influence on English and other languages, the myth of the Hebrew origin of #39;turkey#39; was quietly exploded in volume 2 of Jewish Linguistic Studies (1990).;Kamsler的看法遭到了犹太语言研究协会主席David L Gold的反驳。“拉比Kamsler的解释简直胡说八道。可以在《犹太语言研究》的第二卷(1990)中找到据明:“火鸡”这个词并非来自希伯来语。The turkey#39;s scientific name doesn#39;t make much more sense than its vernacular one. Its binomial nomenclature, Meleagris gallopavo, is a hodgepodge. The first name comes from a Greek myth in which the goddess Artemis turned the grieving sisters of the slain Meleager into guinea fowls. The second name is a portmanteau: Gallo is derived from the Latin word for rooster, gallus, while pavo is the Latin word for peacock. So, effectively, the official name for a turkey is guinea-fowl-rooster-peacock.火鸡的科学命名并不比它的俗称更有意义。双名命名法,Meleagris gallopavo(吐绶鸡),本来就是一个大杂烩。第一个词来自于希腊神话:月亮女神阿耳忒弥斯将被杀死的梅利埃格的悲伤变成了珍珠鸡(guinea fowl)。第二个词是一个混合词:Gallo来源拉丁词”公鸡“,pavo来源拉丁词”孔雀“。所以,最终,火鸡的正式名称就是:珍珠鸡-公鸡-孔雀(guinea-fowl-rooster-peacock)。Reflecting on his interview with Mario Pei, NPR#39;s Robert Krulwich noted that ;for 500 years now, this altogether American, very gallant if not particularly intelligent animal has never once been given an American name.; But the turkey does have many authentically American names—Americans just choose not to use them. After all, pre-Aztec and Aztec peoples domesticated the turkey more than a millennium before Columbus reached the New World (the Aztecs called the bird huehxolotl). There are numerous Native American words for the bird, including the Blackfoot term omahksipi#39;kssii, which literally means ;big bird.; It#39;s a bit vague, sure, but it certainly beats guinea-fowl-rooster-peacock.回顾语言学家利奥-佩(Mario Pei)的采访,美国国家公共电台(NPR)的罗伯特-科尔维奇(Robert Krulwich)提到过”500年来,所有美国人非常殷切期盼这种并不太聪明的动物能有一个美国化的名字。”但是火鸡却有很多真正的美国名字,只是美国人没选用而已。毕竟,在哥伦布到达新世界前,阿兹特克人驯养火鸡(阿兹特克人称火鸡为“huehxolotl”)已经超过一千年了。有很多原生美国词汇形容这种鸟,包括黑脚部族把它叫做“omahksipi#39;kssii”,意思是“大鸟”。这么叫是有点含糊,没错,但是确实好过“珍珠鸡-公鸡-孔雀(guinea-fowl-rooster-peacock)”。 /201501/353697

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