明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年09月17日 22:26:48
Yael: We often hear about how human activity and expansion can endanger wildlife habitats. But can you think of any animals that might be threatened by the disappearance of humans?雅艾尔:我们经常听说人们的行为,人类的扩张会如何危害到野生栖息地。但是你能想到一些动物,它们的生存会因人类的消失而受到威胁?Don: It must be something that depends on humans for food or shelter. What about rats?唐:那肯定是依靠人类获得食物和庇护所的动物。老鼠包括在内吗?Yael: Youre on the right track. I was thinking of house mice. Have you heard the story of the extinct St. Kilda House Mouse?雅艾尔:你的思路很对。我想到了家鼠。你听说过灭绝的圣基尔达家鼠的故事吗?Don: No.唐:没有。Yael: St. Kilda is a small group of islands about one-hundred miles off the west coast of Scotland. The isolated archipelago was inhabited by humans for more than two thousand years, from the Bronze Age until 1930. In 1930 the few remaining residents of St. Kilda were permanently evacuated because of sickness, crop failure and casualties of World War I. Scientists believe that as early as 500 , Norse settlers arrived in St. Kilda and brought along a few unwanted stowaways—European house mice. Isolated from their mainland relatives, these house mice evolved over time into a distinct species, larger and shaped differently from their ancestors. St. Kilda is also home to a unique subspecies of field mouse, that probably also arrived as stowaways and evolved into a new species. But the St. Kilda house mouse needed the warm houses, farms and dropped food crumbs of its human neighbors to survive. Within three years of the humans evacuating, all the St. Kilda house mice had died off. In contrast, the field mice survived and are still living on St. Kilda today.雅艾尔:圣基尔达是一座距离苏格兰西海岸100英里的小岛群。人类在这片孤独的群岛上栖息生活了两千多年(从铜器时代到1930年)。在1930年,仅存的为数很少的圣基尔达居民也因疾病,粮荒和一战伤亡,被迫永久地迁离家园。科学家们认为早在公元500年,古代北欧人就来到圣基尔达,同时带来一些不请自来的偷渡者——欧洲家鼠。因为长期与大陆隔离,这群老鼠进化成独特的物种,它们的个头比祖先更大,体型也变得不同。圣基尔达也是一类特殊田鼠的故乡,它们也可能是偷渡过来,经过进化成为新的物种。然而,圣基尔达的家鼠需要温暖的住所,农田还有它们的人类邻居掉落的食物屑而生存。居民搬迁后的三年里,圣基尔达家鼠全部灭绝。相反,田鼠却幸存下来,至今仍生活在圣基尔达岛上。Don: Is that because they didnt depend on humans for food or shelter?唐:这是因为它们不依靠人类获取食物和住所吗?Yael: Exactly.雅艾尔:正是这样。Don: Wow. What a fascinating example of evolution in action!唐:哇,多么引人入胜的行为进化案例啊!原文译文属!201207/191302

Finance and Economics;Bank capital;Half-cocked Basel;财经;资本;操之过急的巴塞尔;Stop-gap rules on banks trading books may add perilous complexity.把交易帐户作为权宜之计可能增加了危险的复杂性。The nnew year hangover throbbed agonisingly for investment bankers this year. Blame Basel 2.5, a new set of international rules which charges banks higher capital for the risks they run in their trading books (as opposed to their banking books, where they keep assets that they intend to hold to maturity). Those charges were too low before. And heaping higher costs on banks should please politicians and Joe Public. But they add another layer of complexity to banks risk management.今年,新年遗留问题沉闷地牵动了投资家的神经。这都得归咎于巴塞尔协议2.5版(以下简称巴塞尔2.5),这是一套新的国际规则,它针对交易帐户(与账户不同,在账户里他们打算持有资产至到期日)中操作的风险性资产收取更多费用。以前收取的费用太低了。成本累加应该会讨政治家和普通百姓的喜欢。但是他们给的风险管理增加了另外一层复杂性。Basel 2.5 came into force on December 31st in most European and major world financial jurisdictions. Switzerland applied the rules a year early, and the costs are substantial. Third-quarter figures for Credit Suisse show a 28% increase in risk-weighted assets, and hence capital charges, for its investment-banking activities purely because of Basel 2.5.12月31日,巴塞尔2.5在欧洲大部分地区和世界主要金融辖区开始实施。瑞士一年前贯彻了这一法规,成本很高。瑞士信贷第三季度数据显示风险加权资产增长了28%,因为巴塞尔2.5,今后资本费用仅仅是针对投行业务的。The most notable laggard is America. US financial regulators do not oppose Basel 2.5, but it clashes with the Dodd-Frank act, Americas big wet blanket of a financial reform. Basel 2.5 uses credit ratings from recognised agencies such as Moodys and Standard amp; Poors to calibrate capital charges. Dodd-Frank expressly forbids the use of such ratings agencies, whose poor judgments are held partly responsible for the crisis. Instead American regulators are working on their own cocktail of credit-risk calibrations for Basel 2.5, using market data and country-risk ratings from the OECD. Their solution is still months away from application (though not as distant as implementation by the Russians or Argentines).最引人注意的拖延者是美国。美国金融监管机构并不反对巴塞尔2.5,但是巴塞尔2.5与美国大的金融监管改革法案《多德-弗兰克法案》却存在冲突。巴塞尔2.5使用的信誉评级从评级机构穆迪和标准普尔到校准资本收费。《多德-弗兰克法案》特别禁止了使用评级机构,他们匮乏的判断力对危机负有部分责任。而美国的校准人都忙于利用来自世界经济合作发展组织的市场数据和国家风险评级,应付他们自己在巴塞尔2.5下的信用风险校验。他们的方案距离实施仍有数月之久(虽然执行力不和俄国或者阿根廷一样虚幻)Basel 2.5 for the first time charges banks extra capital for the credit risk of what they hold in their trading portfolio (because the crisis showed that markets are not always liquid enough to be able to offload assets). That includes a charge for the risk that a counterparty goes bust. It also imposes heavy charges on securitised bundles of assets unless the credit risk of each piece of the bundle has an identifiable market price. Banks that have portfolios of trading positions which they reckon offset each other have to convince regulators that their risk models work or face being charged at a cruder, standardised rate.巴塞尔2.5第一次针对于交易性资产的信贷风险收取额外费用(因为危机显示了市场并不是一直有足够流通性来剥离资产)。这包括了交易对象破产的风险。它也对资产券化产品征收了高额的费用,除非产品包中每种资产的信贷风险有明确的市场标价。那些自己认为拥有彼此抵消投资组合的必须说监管机构他们所使用或者面临的风险模型正在被以野蛮的、标准的费率收费。The problem with Basel 2.5, recognised by regulators and bankers alike, is its complexity. The risk of a trading portfolio must now be broken down into five “buckets”—value at risk (VaR), a measure of how much could be lost in an average trading day; stressed VaR (how much could be lost in extreme conditions); plus three types of credit risk ranging from the risk of single credits to those of securitised loans. Traders are understandably confused. For some banks, developing risk models and getting them approved is just too expensive: more complex businesses will be shut down. That will please those who want banks to be more boring.监管机构和家似乎承认了巴塞尔2.5 问题的复杂性。交易性资产的风险现在必须分解成五个“桶”:风险值(VAR),估计平均每个交易日的可能损失;极限风险值(极限状态下的可能损失);再加上三个不同类别的信用风险值,从单个信贷风险到抵押贷款依次排列。交易员都觉得很困惑。对于一些而言,开发风险模型并获得通过成本太高了:更复杂的业务将被停止。这将使一些想让更加令人厌烦的人非常满意。But unintended consequences will doubtless follow. Useful products may become less tradable. Trading of riskier products could migrate to unregulated entities. Banks may be tempted into new forms of regulatory arbitrage, by juggling assets between their trading book and their banking book. Worst of all, perhaps, is the increased risk of back-office bungling because of the extra complexity.但是这无疑将招致意外的后果。实用的产品交易量会减少。风险产品的交易可能转移至不受监管的实体。可能会被交易账户和账户之间变换的资产诱惑,进入一套新的监管套利模式。最坏的情况可能是由于额外的复杂性造成的后台拙劣的工作风险增加 。Regulators recognise this risk. The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, which drew up the rules and is also responsible for the full Basel 3 regime that will come into force in 2019, is still conducting what it calls a “fundamental review” of capital rules for banks trading books. Publication is not expected before March. Those sore heads will not soon clear.监管部门认识到了这种风险。起草规则并负责2019年开始执行的全部的巴塞尔3的巴塞尔委员会监督机构,仍在指挥着他们称之为对交易账户的资金制度“基本审查”的行动。三月前是不会发行官方文件的。头疼的问题也一时不会被解决。 /201301/220320

Science and technology科学与技术Policing治安The aftershocks of crime犯罪余震An idea borrowed from seismology may help to predict criminal activity.从地震学上获取的灵感或许能预测犯罪行为。LOS ANGELES is one of the most under-policed cities in America.洛杉矶是美国警力最不足的城市之一,With a mere 26 officers for every 10,000 residents, the Los Angeles Police Department needs all the help it can get.每一万个市民只分配了26名警察,因此洛杉矶警局急需各方援。That help may be at hand, with a modification of technology used to predict another type of threat that the city is prone to: the aftershocks from earthquakes. Big earthquakes are unpredictable.援也许就近在咫尺,只要将一项技术修改一下便可。这项技术原本是用来预测余震的—这个城市很容易受到的另一种灾难。Once they have happened, however, they are usually followed by further tremors, and the pattern of these is tractable.大地震是无法预测的,但是大地震发生后随之而来的余震模式却是可以掌控的。George Mohler, a mathematician at Santa Clara University, in California, thinks something similar is true of crimes.加利福尼亚州的圣克拉拉大学的数学家乔治·默赫勒认为,余震和犯罪有着相似之处。There is often a pattern of “aftercrimes” in the wake of an initial one.在初始犯罪后,常会尾随一种“犯罪后效应”模式。The similarity with earthquakes intrigued him and he wondered if the mathematical formulas that seismologists employ to predict aftershocks were applicable to aftercrimes, too.这种和地震的相似性激起了他的兴趣,于是他想,如果地震学家应用的预测余震的数学公式应用到犯罪后效应中,又会如何呢?To test this idea, he and a team of researchers from the University of California, Los Angeles, adapted a computer program used by seismologists to calculate the likelihood of aftershocks.为了测试这一想法,他和一队来自加利福尼亚大学的研究人员采用了一套地震学家用来计算余震可能性的电脑程序,They then seeded it with actual LAPD data on 2,803 residential burglaries that occurred in an 18km-by-18km region of the San Fernando valley, one of the city’s largest districts, during 2004.输入了2004年,在圣费尔南多谷中面积为18*18km2的区域里发生的2803起住宅爆窃案的警方数据。Using the seismological algorithms, the computer calculated which city blocks were likely to experience the highest number of burglaries the next day, and thus which 5% of homes within the area were at particular risk of being broken into.通过地震学的运算法则,电脑计算出了哪些街区在第二天可能会遭到大批盗窃,因此区域内5%的住宅都冒有很大被盗的风险。In one test the program accurately identified a high-risk portion of the city in which, had it been adequately patrolled, police could have prevented a quarter of the burglaries that took place in the whole area that day.在一项测试中,这个程序精确地辨识出了该市的一块高风险区,而如果巡逻充足,警方本可以在那一天阻止该地区四分之一的盗窃案。In addition to modelling burglary, Dr Mohler examined three gang rivalries in Los Angeles, using data from 1999 to 2002, and discovered that similar patterns emerge from gang violence as retaliations typically occur within days—and metres—of an initial attack.除了用盗窃案做模型,默赫勒用1999到2002年的数据,也检测了三起洛杉矶的帮派斗争,并发现了相同的模式:在最初的袭击之后,几天内会在邻近区域很典型地发生复仇暴力。That, too, should help police deploy their limited resources more effectively.这也能帮助警方更有效地部署有限的资源。RoboCop move over, then. ComputerCop is coming.机器战警已经过时,现在是电脑战警的时代了。 /201302/225460


  Hawaiis Next Island 下一个夏威夷超级火山Look at a map of Hawaii and youll seevolcanic islands strung outlike pearls on a necklace. The biggest–and theyoungest–is Hawaii, in thesouth-east corner. 随便翻看一张夏威夷的地图,你会发现夏威夷的火山岛分布得就像串在一条项链上的一颗颗珍珠一样。其中威力最大——也是最年轻的火山,当属夏威夷东南角的夏威夷火山。 As the islands stretch away to thenorth-west they become olderand more worn. While Hawaii is about a millionyears old, the extinctvolcano ofKauai on the north-west end is five timesolder. 随着岛屿不断地向西北方向延伸,各大火山变得越来越陈旧,破败。虽然说夏威夷已历经了一百万年的岁月,但是,在西北端考艾岛的死火山却已是其五倍了。 The Hawaiian islands were formed by whatgeologists call “hot spot”volcanos. These occur where hot magma from theEarths liquid mantle issteadily forced through the Earths crust. 夏威夷群岛是由地质学家们所称的“火山热点”组成。“火山热点”处在由地幔(又称软流层,很可能是岩浆的发源地)产生的炽热的岩浆不断地被喷出地壳的地方。Hot spots can last for millions of years,staying in the sameplace while the plates of the Earths crust move graduallyoverhead. “火山热点”能持续活动数百万年。就算是地壳板块活动而渐渐居于其上,“火山热点”也一直都不会改变地方。 The plates of the Earths crust move atuneven speeds, so when theplate moves slowly, this allows a tremendous volcanoto build up. Thats why weget a string of separate volcanos, rather than acontinuous line. 地壳板块不是以均匀速度移动的,因而,当板块运动较慢时,一个巨大的火山就可“趁机”形成。这就是为什么火山是一个单独的火山,而不是一片连续不断的火山了。 This is exactly whats happened with theHawaiian islands. The hotspot stayed in the same place, pushing up a string ofvolcanos as the Earthscrust moved over it. 在夏威夷群岛上也就是如此。“火山热点”一直在某个地方,在地壳板块对其作用时形成了一座又一座的火山。 Because of this, the volcano on north-westKauai is old andextinct, while the volcanos on Hawaiis south-east edge are themost active inthe world. 因此,西北端考艾岛上的火山都是很老的死火山,然而,位于夏威夷东南边的火山却是世界上活动最频繁的活火山。 The Hawaiian hot spot is now located aboutseventeen miles off thesouth-east coast of Hawaii. Theres nonew island there,but thereis a huge, underwater volcano, rising almost three miles above theocean floor. 而今,夏威夷的“火山热点”位于夏威夷东海岸约17英里的地方。目前,那里还没有新的岛屿形成,但是那里有一座很大很大的海底火山,高出海底足有三英里高。 Thisnew volcano will break the oceanssurface in about fifty thousand years,giving us our next Hawaiian island. 在未来的五万年里,这座新火山将会使海底地壳断裂,创造出下一个夏威夷火山。 /201212/213184。


  Business Ethnic advertising One message, or many?商业 种族广告 要一个还是多个声音?The uses and limitations of ethnic ads种族广告的使用和限制IN THE television series ;Mad Men;, a 1960s adman makes a pitch to a television-maker whose sales are flat.电视剧《广告狂人》,描述了二十世纪六十年代的一个广告制作人向电视制作人推销其对付销售平淡的招数。;Among Negroes sales are actually growing,; he chirps.他很兴奋地提出;黑人的购买额确实在上升。;He proposes making ;integrated; ads that appeal to both black and white consumers.他建议制作;一体化;广告以吸引黑人和白人消费者。His idea bombs. This being the era of segregation, one of his listeners wonders if mixed-race ads are even legal.他的想法遭到狂轰烂炸。那时还处于种族隔离时期,其中一个在场人员甚至怀疑种族混合的广告是否合法。Such days are long gone. Americas minorities will eventually be a majority of the population: by 2045, according to the most recent census.今非昔比。根据最新的人口普查资料显示,至2045年,美国的少数族裔将最终在人数上成为主流大众。Advertisers have noticed.广告商知晓这趋势。Many now favour cross-cultural ads that emphasise what black, Hispanic and Asian-American consumers have in common.如今许多广告商热衷于拍跨文化的广告,强调黑人、西班牙人和亚裔美国人的消费共性。This approach is thought to work well with the young, who often listen to the same music, eat the same food and wear similar clothes regardless of their ethnic background.这一方法非常对年轻一代人的胃口,这些年轻人不管是何种族背景,他们通常听同一首歌,吃同一种食物和穿相似的衣。Ogilvy amp; Mather, a big ad agency, formed OgilvyCulture in 2010 as a unit specialising in cross-cultural marketing.广告业巨头奥美于2010年组建了奥美文化作为一个业务单元专门从事跨文化营销。;The ethnic ad model has not changed since the 1960s,; says Jeffrey Bowman, head of OgilvyCulture.奥美文化的部门主管杰弗瑞?鲍曼说;种族广告模式自从二十世纪六十年代以来一成不变。It was the census data that made Ogilvy change its model.正是人口调查资料让奥美改变了其营销模式。In 2010 Burger King stopped employing ethnic agencies such as LatinWorks, which specialised in the Hispanic market, to address its consumers as a whole rather than taking a segmented approach.2010年快餐连锁品牌汉堡王炒掉了如LatinWorks那些专攻西班牙市场,具有种族色的广告代理商。汉堡王将顾客视为一体而不再采取细分的方式。Yet some admen feel ethnicity remains relevant.但是有些广告人仍感到种族与广告还是有千丝万缕的关系。;Every ten years we go through a rethink of targeted versus one voice,; says McGhee Williams Osse, co-chief executive of Burrell, a Chicago-based agency specialising in the African-American market.专攻非洲裔市场,总部位于芝加哥的Burrell公司的联合行政长官 McGhee Williams Oss说 ;每隔十年,我们会重新考虑反对传播一个声音的广告;She argues that ethnic origin is the key to peoples identity, much more than education, income, religion, sex and sexual orientation.她认为种族血缘是人的身份认同的主要因素,比教育、收入、宗教、性和性取向等更重要。She would say that, of course.她是这样说的,千真万确。Maurice Lévy, the boss of Publicis Groupe, the French ad giant that owns 49% of Burrell, says that ethnic advertising makes sense for advertisers that are very big (and so can afford multiple ad campaigns), or very specialised.法国广告业巨头阳狮集团拥有Burrell49%的股票份额。阳狮的老板马千里说,种族广告对大公司(因能付得起多个广告活动)或专业型公司还是有商业意义的。A maker of cream for black skin, for example, will probably not bother marketing it to Asians.例如,为黑人制造的面霜就没有必要进军亚洲市场了。Nestlé, a huge food firm, aims some ads at Hispanics, Americas largest minority.食品巨擘雀巢公司针对美国最大的少数族裔西班牙裔制作了一些广告。It recruited four Hispanic mothers to blog on a new bilingual website, El Mejor Nido (The Best Nest), offering tips about parenting and healthy eating.它招聘了4名西班牙裔母亲在其新设双语版的 El Mejor Nido (雀巢最佳)网上写客,提供为人父母之道和健康饮食的小贴士。Hispanics are younger than other Americans, have more children and spend more on food, says Juan Motta,负责雀巢西班牙裔广告促销的美国加利福尼亚分部主管胡安?莫塔说,who heads the California-based unit running Nestlés Hispanic campaign in the ed States,西班牙裔人比其他美国人更年轻,育有更多小孩且更舍得在食品上花钱。which promotes both the firms Latin American brands, such as La Lechera and Abuelita, and the rest of its larder.该分部主要负责促销公司的两个拉丁美洲品牌如La Lechera 和Abuelita和其他的食品柜。McDonalds has been a pioneer of ethnic advertising since the 1960s.自从二十世纪六十年代,麦当劳一直是种族广告的先驱者。Minorities represent about 40% of its customers in America.在美国少数民族裔占其消费者总数的40%。Neil Golden, the firms American chief marketing officer, argues that other Americans often follow trends set by ethnic minorities.麦当劳主要负责美国市场首席营销官尼尔?戈登认为其他美国人常跟在少数族裔掀起的潮流后面。So he watches minorities for insights he can use in ads aimed at the general market.故他深入地了解少数族裔就可将其特色用于针对整个市场的广告中。In 2010 McDonalds learned that African-Americans liked sweeter, weaker caramel mocha, so it started offering such blends everywhere, with great success.2010年麦当劳得知非洲裔美国人喜欢更甜一点,咖啡味更淡一点的焦糖卡。A similar thing happened with its mango and pineapple smoothies, a big hit with Hispanics.故麦当劳开始到处提供这种混合物,结果一跑打响。它的芒果和凤梨冰沙也如法炮制,在西班牙裔人中大受欢迎。McDonalds featured the drinks in restaurants nationwide and they quickly overtook strawberry banana, the traditional favourite.麦当劳将此类饮品推广至遍布全国的门店,结果一夜之间便取代了传统畅销品草莓香蕉饮料。David Burgos, co-author of a book on marketing to the ;new majority;, says that in spite of the increasing importance of minority consumers, advertisers still put ethnic ads into a separate budget—which tends to be cut first when the economy goes sour.David Burgos和别人合写了一本针对;新生大众;营销的书。该书上说尽管少数族裔消费者的重要性日益俱增,广告商仍将种族广告单独预算——一旦经济不景气,首先便拿这块预算开刀。Only 7% of marketing dollars are spent on targeted ethnic campaigns, although nearly half of Americans belong to ethnic minorities.尽管少数族裔占了将近一半的美国人口,但只有7%的营销费用花在针对种族的广告活动上。He thinks ad-agency staff need to be more diverse.他认为广告机构应招聘各种族的工作人员以使营销更多样化。Getting the right ethnic perspective is tricky.在广告中从不同种族角度看问题这是非常高难度的工作。Hispanics are a varied lot.同为西班牙人却迥然不同。An ad that delights Cuban-Americans may irritate migrants from Venezuela.能让古巴裔美国人捧腹大笑的广告可能会让委内瑞拉移民暴跳如雷。Asians are hardly monolithic, either.亚洲人也很是众口难调。Even the wittiest Korean catchphrases will provoke only bafflement in Chinatown.即便是韩国的警言妙句也可能令唐人街的中国人迷惑不解。Saul Gitlin of Kang amp; Lee, an agency specialising in selling to Asian-Americans, argues that recent Chinese and Korean immigrants are best reached with communications in their mother tongue.专门针对亚洲裔美国人的广告公司Kang amp; Lee的Saul Gitlin认为和新一代的中国和韩国的移民用其母语沟通能收到最好的效果。They are generally ignored by advertisers, however, with the exception of financial firms.但是除了金融公司做到这一点外,广告商一般都置若罔闻。This is a mistake, he reckons: the median household income of Asian-Americans is some ,000 higher than that of non-Hispanic whites.广告商的做法大错特错,他推测:亚洲裔美国人的家庭收入中值比非西班牙裔白人还高10,000美元。Many modern Mad Men think digital media will allow them to know their audiences better, and feed them more precisely-tailored messages.许多现代的广告狂人认为数字媒体能让他们更加了解受众,从而更易提供量身定制的信息来满足他们的需求。This can be costly (see Schumpeter).这要付出很高的代价(请看熊彼得文)。But many consumers seem to like it.但是许多消费者看来很喜欢这样。When Latinas disagree with something the four mommy bloggers at El Mejor Nido have written, they can go to the El Mejor Nido Facebook page, and let loose.如果拉丁裔美国人不喜欢在 El Mejor Nido网站上4位母亲所写的客观点,他们可以移步至El Mejor Nido脸谱网,可在此畅所欲言。 /201211/210954





  The idea of time travel is fascinating and interesting. And certainly, the newer ideas about how the university system constructed, raised the possibility that more dimensions than the 3-dimesions of space and one dimesion of time that we used to hear in the university exist.时光旅行既有趣又吸引人。当然,新观点指出宇宙组成有多维的可能性,人们认为在三维的基础上还有一维时间,自宇宙诞生之时就已开始的时间。The ideas that are often used in fiction where you travel faster than the speed of light in order to change the past. For example at the end of superman 1, superman whizzes around the planet earth, because he is shocked that the Louis Lanes just died. In the great earthquake caused by nuclear explosion when Lex Lothor detonates something.科幻小说中最常见的观点就是,当一个人的速度超越光速,他就能穿越时空改变过去。例如在《超人》1的结尾,超人不敢相信Louis Lane因核爆炸引发的地震而死去,他绕着地球飞行。He breaks the light barrier, travels faster than the speed of light, and then the earth starts go backwards, all of a sudden, Lois Lane rises from the dead.他打破了光的束缚,超越了光速,接着时空倒转,Louis Lane又活了过来。The fanciful ideas of travelling backwards through time by moving faster than the speed of light. Simply, mathematically dont work.超越光速穿越时空的这种奇幻的想法,从数学角度上看并不能实现。Michael J.Fox put plutonium in his lorry and he rocked back the time while plutonium does not have the enough energy to drive the time machine. To energize a time machine, to bend time into a presser, to punch a hole in the fabricated space and time would require the energy of the star. One version of a time machine uses whats called a wormhole. Think of a looking glass in Alice Wonderland. That looking glass is the wormhole. What happens if you go back in time, and kill your parents before youre born. Well, if you kill your parents before you are born, how could you be born because you just kill your parents before youre born. If you go back within time, and you saved Abram Lincon from being assasinated, you would have essentially saved somebody elses Abram Lincon, your Aram Lincon died. If you change the fabricated time, you are changing another parallel universe. These people are genetically identical to the people of your past. But theyre different.Michael J.Fox将钚元素放入车中,结果扭曲了时间,因为钚并没有足够的能量驾驭时间机器。时间机器需要能量来将时间压缩成环状,在重组的时空中创造一个时空洞,而这需要来自恒星的能量。影视作品中有一个版本的时间机器运用了虫洞的能量。《爱丽丝梦游仙境》中的镜子就是虫洞。另外,如果你回到过去,杀死还没有生孩子的你的父母。也就是说,你杀死了还没有生你时你的父母,那么你又怎么会存在呢,因为你的父母在生你前就已经死了。而如果你穿越时空,解救了被刺杀的林肯,实际上,你解救的林肯将不再是未来世界中的“林肯”,而在你未来时空中的“林肯”还是死了的。如果你改变了过去的时空,你就改变了未来的平行世界。在这个平行世界中的人们和你的过去世界中的人看似一模一样,但实际上他们是不同的。If I can go back any time in past to see any event, I think I will go back in the past about 3.5 billion years ago, to witness the creation of first molecules of life. I would like to go back to the time that the earth formed, that our sun formed and see how it was, and what exactly was the process that made it possible for our sun to collect together, and force of gravity in all that space dusts and gas coming together to form a star. When people aske: Is time travel just a philosophical structure or hypothetic or mathimatically show. The answer is its a combination of them all.如果我能回到过去的任何时间点,我想我会回到35亿年前去见第一个生命分子的诞生。我想回到地球和太阳成型的时期去看看究竟,去看看到底是什么关键步骤使我们的太阳最终聚集成型,我想去见宇宙尘埃和气体因引力和重力而聚集成星体。人们可能会问:时间旅行是属于哲学范畴,数学科学,还是一种科学假设。而就是这三者的结合。注:本篇文章英文来自普特论坛,译文属原创,,。201208/196715

  Obituary逝者Maria Altmann玛丽亚·奥特曼Maria Altmann, pursuer of looted paintings, died on February 7th, aged 94被劫名画的原告玛丽亚·奥特曼于2月7日去世,享年94岁 “Suffering” was the first word that came to Maria Altmann when she was asked about Aunt Adele Bloch-Bauer. Frail, dark, beautiful, always with a headache. Children annoyed her, because she had none of her own; small-talk made her furious, because she wanted to discuss religion and politics. (“My darling,” Mrs Altmann would sigh, “Adele was a modern woman living in the world of yesterday.”) Adele smoked like a chimney, and would drift around in loose white gowns with a gold cigarette-holder. Or she would sit, regal in black, holding court for musicians, artists and writers in the salon of her huge house just by the Vienna Staatsoper.当人们向玛丽亚·奥特曼(Maria Altmann)问及“姨妈阿黛尔·布洛赫-鲍尔(Adele Bloch-Bauer)”一事时,她说的第一句是“身心俱痛”。当年的阿黛尔有头痛症,脆弱、黝黑、美丽。孩子使阿黛尔烦恼,因为她自己没有孩子。闲聊使阿黛尔狂怒,因为她想谈论的是宗教和政治(玛丽亚·奥特曼夫人这时会一声叹息:“亲爱的,阿黛尔是一位生活于昔日尘世的现代女性”)。 阿黛尔吸烟,像个烟囱,而且,她会身着白色宽松长衣,带着金制烟斗四处游逸。有时,她会一袭黑色的雍容华贵,坐在她那大宅的客厅里,引领音乐家、艺术家、作家们海阔天空。她那大宅刚好位于维也纳国家歌剧院旁。But the Adele the world came to know was as Gustav Klimt had painted her in 1907. It took him four years, longer than he spent on any other painting. He placed her in a swirling gown within a blaze of gold rectangles, spirals and Egyptian symbols from which she looked out in nervous loveliness, the epitome of Viennas Golden Age. Her hands were strangely bent because, Mrs Altmann knew, she had a crippled finger, which she always tried to hide. She was also fairly sure that Aunt Adele and Klimt, with his satyr face and wild sexuality, had had a mad affair; her mother angrily denied it, said it had been just “an intellectual thing”, but you only had to look at her aunts dark, languorous, faintly smiling eyes to think otherwise.不过,世人最终熟悉阿黛尔是因于古斯塔夫·克里姆特(Gustav Klimt)于1907年为她作画。克里姆特为她作画耗去了四年时光,比他作的任何其它画所花的时间都长。画面上,克林姆特把阿黛勒包裹在长裙旋转之中,四周用无数金光闪烁的长方、螺旋和埃及象征图形点缀。在此背景下,她呈弥望状,具有迷离的美感,成为维也纳黄金时代的缩影。她的双手奇怪地呈弯曲状,奥特曼夫人知道,那是因为她有一根手指残了,她总是想法掩住这一残指。奥特曼也十分肯定,姨妈阿黛尔和体格强劲、性欲狂野的克里姆特曾有过一段火热的私情;虽然奥特曼的母亲愤怒地对此予以否认,说那只是“精神柏拉图行为”,然而,你审视了她姨妈阿黛尔那双黑色温柔、隐含微笑的眼睛后,你会不得不生出别样想法来。“Golden Adele” haunted Mrs Altmann for the rest of her days. As a girl she led much the same “beautiful” life, dressed up in silk and organza, in a stately townhouse nearby, where artists and philosophers came and went to the sound of her father playing on a Stradivarius cello. After 1925, when Adele died at 43, the regular Sunday brunch at Uncle Ferdinands would always include a viewing of the Klimt portrait, hung in Adeles bedroom in a sweet haze of fresh flowers. Four other Klimts also hung there. Three were landscapes: a beechwood, a dappled apple tree, houses by a river. The other was a later painting of Adele, pale and strained, standing in a big hat with her arms loose amid fauve colours of red, mauve and green.《金色阿黛尔》使奥特曼夫人的晚年备受折磨。少女时,她过着与阿黛尔大致一样的“美丽”生活——穿丝绸着轻纱,住在附近富丽堂皇的联排别墅里,这是来来往往的艺术家和哲学家们听她父亲用斯特拉迪瓦里大提琴演奏音乐的地方。1925年,阿黛尔去世,43岁。之后,奥特曼姨父费迪南德家里的例行周日餐会总有一个内容是观赏克里姆特肖像画。画被悬挂于阿黛尔的鲜花散发迷蒙的芳香卧室里。克里姆特的另四贴画也悬挂在该室内,其中有三幅是风景画,一幅是山毛举林,一幅是斑纹苹果树,一幅是河边房子。另一幅是关于阿黛尔后期的油画,[画中]阿黛尔显得苍白紧张、膀腕松弛,戴一大帽站立着,四周是红、紫红和绿色映衬。All five paintings were stolen when the Nazis took Austria over in 1938. Mrs Altmann remembered the jubilation of the Anschluss, the church bells ringing; only the Jews wept. By then, she was just married to Fritz Altmann; and she sometimes wore, next to her skin, some of Adeles diamonds, which Uncle Ferdinand had given her as a wedding present. The Nazis stole them in short order, as they also seized Ferdinands entire art collection, his delicate porcelain and his sugar refinery. “Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer I”, became the symbol of all that the family had lost.1938年,德国纳粹吞并奥地利,这五幅画全被偷走。奥特曼夫人深深记得那伴着清脆教堂钟声,唯有犹太人在哭泣的德国纳粹吞并奥地利的庆典。当时,她刚与弗里茨·阿尔特曼结婚;她有时还戴上阿黛尔的一些钻石饰品,那是她姨父费迪南德作为结婚礼物送给她的。就像纳粹夺走费迪南德的全部艺术画、精美瓷器、制糖厂一样,不久,纳粹就把这些东西也偷走了。《阿黛尔·布洛赫-鲍尔夫人画像I》成为这个家族失去一切的标志。For many years—after she had fled to America with Fritz and made a new life in California, he working at Lockheed, she selling cashmere—Mrs Altmann supposed that the Klimt paintings had legitimately ended up in the Austrian National Gallery. But when the law changed in 1998, in favour of restitution, she vowed to get them back. The Austrian government refused. Adeles will, they said, had given the paintings to the gallery. And, they might have added, all Austria now thought it owned her golden, Klimtian beauty.多年以来(这些年里,奥特曼与弗里茨一起逃离到了美国,并在加州开始了新生活,弗里茨在洛克希德公司工作,奥特曼出售羊绒毛),奥特曼夫人认为,克里姆特画作已是合法地属于奥地利国家美术馆了。直到1998年,在法律作出了有利于物归原主的修订后,她才发誓要让克里姆特画作回到家族。奥地利政府拒绝归还。奥府称:阿黛尔遗嘱已把这些画作赠与了国家美术馆。奥府还委婉补充到:现在,举国上下,同此观点:克里姆特画中阿黛尔的金色之美属于奥地利。Battling in cashmere着羊绒装的战士Mrs Altmann went to war. At 82, in cashmere and silk scarves, she made an unlikely fighter. Her dress boutique in Cheviot Hills, where clients sat in her living room drinking Kaffee mit Schlag and nibbling on sausage, was probably the last vestige of a Viennese salon in the New World. Golden Adele, in paperweight form, lay on the coffee table and was rubbed hard for luck. But Mrs Altmann was all persistence, charm and energy—and the law was on her side.奥特曼奔赴战场了。八十有二的高龄,穿羊绒、披丝巾的装束,使得奥夫人看起来不像一个真正的战士。她在切维厄特街区经营的饰精品店,或许是“新世界”的最后一家古典维也纳沙龙,在这里,客户们坐在客厅,品尝奥式咖啡(Kaffee mit Schlag),细嚼香肠。咖啡桌上放着做成镇纸石的“金色阿黛勒”, 为求诉讼顺利,它被精心抚拭。奥特曼为争取胜诉,投进了她全部的毅力、智慧和物力——而法律,也站在她这一边。Adeles will, as it turned out, only made a “kind request” to her husband to leave the paintings to the gallery. It was not binding, and in any case Mrs Altmann knew Adeles mind. She wanted the paintings left to the Vienna she knew, the vibrant, glittering, tolerant city of the early 20th century; not to a place from which all Jewish life had gone. She would never have felt at home there, as Mrs Altmann no longer did when she visited, defying security guards at the National Gallery to be photographed beside Aunt Adele, and saying loudly: “That painting belongs to me.”阿黛尔的遗嘱表达的原本意思,只是对其夫提过一个“意向性”的要求,把画作留给艺术馆,该遗嘱并不具备法律约束力。再者,奥特曼清楚阿黛尔内心的真正意愿,那就是把画作留给她生前亲身体验的一座城市,一座在20世纪初期充满生机、灿烂辉煌、富于宽容的城市——维也纳,而不是一个别的地方,一个所有犹太人的生命都已消失的地方。阿黛尔在这个地方绝不会有归属感,就像奥特曼自己回访奥地利之后再也没有归属感一样。回访时,奥夫人在国家美术馆公开对抗安保人员的禁令,站在阿黛尔姨妈的肖像旁拍照,并大声宣示:“那幅画是我的!”In 1999 she and her lawyer, Randol Schoenberg, tried to sue the Austrian government. When that proved too expensive, they argued as far as the Supreme Court that the case should be heard in America. They won; but then, in 2004, they went to independent arbitration. Three Austrian academics decided that the paintings should be returned. In 2006 Aunt Adele and the rest arrived with fanfare in Los Angeles: the largest single return, in monetary terms, of Nazi-looted art.1999年,奥特曼和她的律师兰多尔·勋伯格努力起诉奥地利政府。当发现起诉费用太昂贵后,他们据理争取美国最高法院审理本案,结果遂愿。不过到了2004年后,他们转而申请独立仲裁。三位奥地利仲裁专家作出裁决:画作应当退还。 2006年,“姨妈阿黛尔”肖像与另外几幅画在礼乐曲中抵达洛杉矶:这是纳粹掠夺艺术品中单幅价值最高的回归。Only a few months later they were sold. All but one went away to private houses. The exception was Aunt Adele. She had always wanted her golden portrait in a public gallery, Mrs Altmann said, and so it was “beautiful” that Ronald Lauder, a businessman and philanthropist who had loved Adeles face from boyhood, instantly paid 5m to enshrine her in his Neue Galerie in Manhattan. Of course, she was too far away for many visits now. But Mrs Altmann could imagine her there, glowing and frail, wearing just the faintest aroma of those long-vanished cigarettes.也就是仅仅数月之后,尽数拍卖了回归的数画。除了“姨妈阿黛尔”肖像,它们几近都被藏之于私宅深院。奥特曼道:阿黛尔一直希望自己的金色肖像能展示于公共画廊。此愿有了一个“美丽”的结局———自孩提时就喜爱阿黛尔芳容的商人、慈善家罗纳德·劳德,在拍卖场立马付费1.3亿美元,把肖像买下,置于他在曼哈顿的画廊(Neue Galerie),供若神明。虽然,而今要常常拜见阿黛尔的话,自然是太远了点,但奥特曼尚能于此展开想像力,想像姨妈阿黛尔的热情洋溢、脆弱娇柔,想像从那已怅然远去的烟草中散发的淡淡芳香…… /201210/205215

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