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2020年01月21日 05:01:43 | 作者:知道互动 | 来源:新华社
Shao Yung (1011~1077) was a Chinese philosopher who greatly influenced the development of the idealist school of neo-Confucianism.绍雍(1011~1077),哲学家,对唯心主义新儒学的发展有很大的影响。Shao Yung#39;s mathematical ideas also influenced the 18th-century European philosopher Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz in the development of a binary arithmetical system—i. e., one based on only two digits.绍雍的数学思想在二进制的发展方面也影响了is世纪欧洲哲学家哥特弗里德·威尔海姆·莱布尼兹。Originally a Taoist, Shao refused all offers of government office, preferring to while away the hours in a humble hermitage outside Henan, conversing with friends and engaging in mystical speculation.最初绍雍信仰道家学说,拒绝当官,宁愿住在河南之外一个偏远朴实的寺院里,通过朋友交谈以及做一些神秘的思索来消磨时光。He became interested in Confucianism through his study of the great Confucian Classic and work of divination, the Yi Ching (“Classic of Changes;). Through the Yi Ching, Shao developed his theories that numbers are the basis of all existence. To him, the spirit that underlies all things could be comprehended if one understood the division of the different elements into numbers.绍雍通过研究儒家经典和预言书《易经》对儒学产生了兴趣。通过《易经》,绍雍发展了一切存在均建基于数字的理论对绍雍而言,如果能理解不同元素分成数字的方法,那么决定一切事物的精神就可以理解了。But unlike most previous Chinese numerologists, who usually preferred the numbers two or five, Shao believed the key to the world hinged on the number four; thus the universe is divided into four sections (Sun, Moon, stars, and zodiac), the body into four sense organs (eye, ear, nose, and mouth), and the Earth into four substances (fire, water, earth, and stone).但是不像中国原来大多数数字命理学家更喜欢二或五那样,绍雍认为世界的关键在于四。所以宇宙分为四个部分(太阳、月亮、星星和黄道带),身体分四个感官(眼、耳、鼻、口),地球分为四种物质(水、火、土、石)。In a similar way, all ideas have four manifestations, all actions four choices, and so forth.以此类推:所有的思想都有四种表现,所有的行动都有四个选择等等。Although this complicated system was outside the basic concerns of Confucianism and exercised only a peripheral influence on the development of Chinese thought, what was important was the basic theory behind the system: there is an underlying unity to existence, which can be grasped by the superior man who understands its basic principles.尽管这一复杂体系不在儒学关注之内,并且对中国思想的发展影响也不大,但是这一体系背后的理论是很重要的:任何存在背后都有决定因素,而能够理解存在的基本原理的高人是可以掌握存在的。The idea that the underlying principle behind the unity of the universe exists in man#39;s mind as much as in the universe was the basis of the idealist school of neo-Confucianism.万物背后的决定原理不但存在于万物中,也存在于人脑中,这一思想就是唯心主义宋明理学的基础。Moreover, Shao brought into Confucianism the Buddhist idea that history consists of series of repeating cycles. These cycles, known to Buddhists as kalpas, were called yüan by Shao and reduced from an astronomical length to a comprehensible duration of 129,600 years.而且绍雍还把佛教的循环学说融入了儒学里,他将佛教叫做劫的这些循环叫做缘,井且把庞大得无法估计的长度缩减至人们可以理解的129,600年。This theory was later accepted by all branches of neo-Confucianism and made part of the official state ideology by the 12th-century Song scholar Zhu Xi.这一理论后来被宋明理学的各个分接受,并且被12世纪宋代学者朱熹发展成国家官方思想意识的一部分。 /201510/404962Have you heard of the ;makeup tax;? It refers to the time and money women spend on their appearances in the hopes of doing well at work. Many career women fear that if they don#39;t live up to society#39;s expectations, they will lose out on promotions and pay raises.你听过;化妆税;吗?它指的是女人为了事业成功而花在经营仪表上的时间和金钱。很多职业女性担心一旦自己辜负了社会(对女性美丽外表)的期望,她们将会失去升职加薪的机会。The ;makeup tax; affects a lot of women. US presidential candidate and former secretary of state Hillary Clinton is no exception. Last month, in an online Qamp;A session on Facebook, Clinton was asked about her morning grooming routine by Libby Brittain, a female Facebook staffer. Brittain complained that she has to spend more than 30 minutes getting y for work while her boyfriend ;zip[s] out the door;.;化妆税;影响了大批女性,连美国总统候选人、前国务卿希拉里·克林顿也不例外。上个月,在脸书的一档在线问答互动活动上,脸书公司的女性雇员莉比·布里顿问希拉里是如何应对日常打扮的。布里顿还抱怨说自己每天要花30分钟以上用来梳洗准备才能去工作,而她的男朋友;开门就能去上班;。;I wonder about how the ‘hair and makeup tax#39; affects other women–especially ones I admire in high-pressure, public-facing jobs,; wrote Brittain, who added that as a ;young professional woman; she#39;d like to know how Clinton handles it while ;staying focused on the ‘real#39; work ahead;.布里顿写道:;我想知道‘美发和化妆税#39;是如何影响其他女性的,特别是那些我崇拜的,身居要职,工作压力大还经常要抛头露面的女性;,之后她又补充说,作为一个;年轻的职业女性;,她想知道克林顿是如何在一堆;真实弹;的工作摆在面前时还兼顾美发和化妆的。Clinton acknowledged that the ;makeup tax; is a problem. ;Amen, sister,; she wrote in her answer. ;It#39;s a daily challenge. I do the best I can –and as you may have noticed, some days are better than others!;克林顿也承认;化妆税;确实是个问题。;你我同在,,;她回答到。;这是每天都要面对的挑战。我尽力做到最好——如你所见,有些时候做的好些,有些时候不尽人意。;Olga Khazan, writing in The Atlantic, thinks Clinton shouldn#39;t have treated the question so lightheartedly. The ;makeup tax; is very real, Khazan says. Women invest time and money into makeup because it impacts their relationships and their careers. Men also use grooming products, but they never have to worry about the price of makeup.奥尔加·卡赞在《大西洋月刊》上撰文提到她认为克林顿不应该用这么随意的态度对待这个问题。卡赞说;化妆税;是真实存在的。女人投入大把的时间和金钱化妆,因为这关系到她们的爱情和事业。男人也会用些化妆品,不过他们可不必担心化妆的成本。According to a Washington Post report, the cosmetics industry makes billion (384 billion yuan) each year in the US. The personal finance website Mint.com claims that the average US woman will spend ,000 on makeup in her lifetime. Applying makeup also costs time. If it takes you an average of 10 minutes to apply makeup every morning before going to work, that#39;s an hour per week, or two full days per year.根据《华盛顿邮报》的报道,美国的化妆品行业每年能挣600亿美元(3840亿人民币)。个人理财网Mint.com说平均每个美国女性一生中要花1万5千美元用于购买化妆品。同时,化妆也是个耗费时间的活儿。如果每天早上上班之前你平均要花10分钟来化妆,那么每周有一小时用于化妆,每年有整整两天用在了化妆上。Critics might say, ;Just don#39;t wear makeup!; But few people can afford to ignore society#39;s expectations. Years of research have shown that attractive people earn more, yet men aren#39;t expected to wear makeup in order to look good.批评者说:;那就别化妆嘛!;但基本上没有人敢无视这种社会期望。一项历经数年的实验显示外表迷人的人挣得更多,而社会并没有期待男人通过化妆变得好看。According to The New York Times, a 2014 study published in the Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology found that both male and female participants thought ;regular; women looked best when they applied a moderate amount of makeup. Another 2012 study found that subtle makeup made women seem not only attractive, but more likable and competent. A 2006 study published in the Journal of Applied Social Psychology found that participants were more likely to award ;prestigious jobs; to women who used makeup than to the same women when their faces were unadorned.据《纽约时报》消息,《实验心理学季刊》曾在2014年刊登过一项研究,研究发现男性和女性参与者都认为淡妆状态下的女性颜值最高。2012年的另一项研究则表明淡妆不仅让女性更好看,还让她们看起来更讨人喜欢和能干。2006年《应用社会心理学杂志》发布的一篇研究发现被试更愿意把优越的职位提供给化过妆的女性而非那些未施粉黛的。;I wish society didn#39;t reward this,; Daniel Hamermesh, an economics professor at the University of Texas at Austin and author of Beauty Pays, told The New York Times. ;I think we#39;d be a fairer world if beauty were not rewarded, but it is.;德克萨斯大学奥斯汀分校经济学教授、《美丽有价》一书的作者丹尼尔·汉默许说;我不希望社会鼓励这种行为。如果美貌不被嘉奖,那么世界将更公平,可惜这是不可能的。; /201510/402068

Jin Dynasty晋朝General概况At the end of the Three Kingdoms Period, Sima family became prominent in the Wei.三国时代末期,司马家族的地位在魏国变得卓著。In 265 AD, Sima Yan (司马炎)usurped the power and founded a new dynasty Jin.公元265年,司马炎夺权并建立了一个新朝代——晋朝。They also conquered the Wu, thus ending the period of The Three Kingdoms.司马家还征了吴国,从此结束了三国的局面。Jin was historically divided into two periods:the Western Jin (西晋)with Luoyang (洛阳)as its capital city and Eastern Jin (东晋)as Jiankang (建康)(present Nanjing) became the capital city.晋朝在历史上被分为两段时期:以洛阳为都城的西晋和以建康(今天的南京)为都城的东晋。Jin Dynasty was the only period which unified the country during the period between the Wei,the Jin and the Southern and Northern Dynasties (220—589), though this kind of achievement was not lasting.晋朝是在魏晋南北朝时期(220——589)唯一统一了国家的朝代,尽管这一成就没有持续多久。Although Jin Dynasty was short and full of conflicts,the mix between nationalities was accelerated through the long-term contacts and mutual influences.虽然晋朝短暂而充满冲突,在长期的接触与互相影像中,民族融合加快了进程。 /201510/398397

Property tycoon Wang Jianlin, who is worth more than 20billion pounds, has bought a ten-bedroom home on Kensington Palace Gardens, which is on the same super-secure street as Roman Abramovich and Tamara Ecclestone. Wang, who owns Dorset-based Sunseeker Yachts, is now expected to spend tens of millions giving the mansion a makeover.王健林,房地产大亨,身价约为200亿英镑,日前在肯辛顿宫附近购买了一套拥有十个卧室的豪宅,肯辛顿宫被认为是伦敦最安全的地区。王健林的邻居将包括英格兰超级联赛的切尔西足球俱乐部老板罗曼·阿布拉莫维奇以及名流塔玛拉·埃克尔斯通。王健林拥有一艘圣汐游艇,目前预计将花费数千万用于豪宅装修。The property, which was previously the home of the Nigerian High Commissioner, boasts nine bathrooms, grand entertaining rooms and an indoor swimming pool. When the mansion was originally sold in 1856, it cost Kensington gentleman Peter Carthew around 7,000 pounds. Fully refurbished, the mansion is likely to be worth up to 140m pounds, or 7,000 pounds per square foot.据悉,该豪宅曾被用作尼日利亚驻英国大使馆,拥有九个卫生间、大型室以及室内游泳池。当这栋豪宅在1856年第一次被出售时,彼得·卡修花费了七千英镑购得。精装修后,这栋豪宅预估价值为1亿4千万英镑,即每英尺7000英镑。The staggering deal was revealed by the London Evening Standard. Guiliana La Pera, the buying agency reported to have worked on the deal, declined to comment. But documents from the Land Registry show a lease has been agreed between The Crown Estate, The Queen and Lin Ning, who is Mr Wang#39;s wife. Property consultant Charles McDowell said the mansion was a unique buy.王健林购房这一消息来自《伦敦旗帜晚报》,交易由英国房地产公司负责,而该公司拒绝对此事作出回应。当地地政局资料显示,签约的三方是英国地产、英国女王和王健林的妻子林宁。地产咨询员查尔斯称这是一笔特殊的交易。He said: #39;It is not very often a house comes onto the market on Kensington Palace Gardens. This home has palatial dimensions, is very large and has a nice indoor swimming pool. It is a very good home which in a good position on Kensington Palace Gardens but it does need to be modernised. The road is a desirable place to live because it is secure, which is very important, is in a good location and is also a very attractive road. Finding houses like this in London is difficult which makes Kensington Palace Gardens unique.#39;他表示:“肯辛顿宫花园的房子不常出售,这栋豪宅面积很大,拥有一个非常好的室内游泳池。这栋豪宅地理位置非常好,整体风格不需要被现代化。这条街非常安全,这一点很重要,位置也很好,景色非常美。在伦敦找到这样一栋房子非常困难,这也使得肯辛顿宫非常特别。”The deal will see Wang, who is ranked by Forbes as one of the world#39;s wealthiest and most powerful men, pay a stamp duty bill of 9,513,750 pounds.作为全世界最富有的人之一,挤进福布斯排行榜的王健林在此次交易中,需要交付高达951万3750英镑的印花税。 /201512/417735

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