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重庆有效的瘦脸方法酉阳土家族苗族自治县opt嫩肤多少钱No textbook can prepare you for being in charge of people for the first time. All the plans you made in the glow of promotion to manager collapse in those early days with the realisation that people do not always do what you tell them to do.没有哪本教科书能让初为管理者的你做好准备。你在升任经理的欣喜中制定的所有计划都会在最初的几天轰然倒塌,因为你意识到,人们不会总是照办你的指令。There are two accepted ways to deal with this. You can try to enforce your will or you can accept that your team know their jobs and allow them to get on with it.处理这种情况有两种公认的方法。你可以尝试强制执行你的意志,或者你可以接受这一点:团队成员懂自己的工作,不如让他们放手去做。Douglas McGregor called these approaches Theory X and Theory Y. You may not have heard of McGregor or his book The Human Side of Enterprise. But whether you have heard of him or not, you probably manage, or are managed, according to one of his two theories.道格拉斯#8226;麦格雷戈(Douglas McGregor)把这两种方法称为X理论和Y理论。你可能没有听说过麦格雷戈或者他的著作《企业的人性面》(The Human Side of Enterprise)。但不管你听过还是没听过,你管理他人或者被管理的方式,很可能正是基于他的两种理论的其中之一。What are Theory X and Theory Y? Theory X assumes people do not particularly want to work and need to be “coerced, controlled, directed, and threatened with punishment”.什么是X理论和Y理论?X理论假设人们不特别想工作,所以需要对他们进行“强迫、控制、指示,并用惩罚措施威胁。”Theory Y assumes people want to do a good job. There is no need to order them about. They are naturally inventive and look for the best ways to get work done.Y理论假设人们想要做好工作。没有必要对他们发号施令。人们自然而然地富于创造性,会寻找完成工作的最佳方法。McGregor favoured Theory Y. His book appeared in 1960, at the beginning of a period of western belief in greater freedom and equality, and it found an eager audience.麦格雷戈更青睐Y理论。他的著作出版于20世纪60年代,正是西方对更大的自由和平等抱有信心的一段时期的开端,因此招来了一批热忱的受众。“Our biggest asset is our people” was a Theory Y-influenced slogan. But many employees saw through it. While many managers talked Theory Y, they practised Theory X.“我们最大的资产是我们的员工”就是受到Y理论影响而提出的口号。但许多雇员看透了这样的口号。尽管许多经理嘴上说着Y理论,他们实际做的却是X理论。There have always been exceptional workplaces – some, but not all, in the professional services or technology sectors – where managers gave their staff the freedom to set their own hours, work from home or find the best ways of serving customers.始终有一些例外的优秀工作场所(有一些,但不是全部,在专业务业或者科技业),经理允许员工自由设定工作时间、在家工作或者找到务客户的最佳方法。But there are many more companies where managers claim to believe in their people but micromanage, noting who leaves when, and insisting things be done their way.但是,另一类企业要多得多,这些企业的经理声称相信员工,但在实践中事无巨细,什么都要管,留意谁在什么时候离开岗位,并且坚持要按他们的方式完成工作。Why has it happened? McGregor did his research in the US from the mid-1930s to the mid-1950s, a period that culminated in a great rise in prosperity and work opportunities. People expected to have long careers with just one or two companies, as a 2003 paper entitled “A Kind Word for Theory X” pointed out.为什么情况会是这样?麦格雷戈的研究是在20世纪30年代中期到50年代中期的美国完成的。在这个时期,美国的繁荣程度和工作机会都大幅增长。一篇发表于2003年、标题为“为X理论说句好话”的论文指出,当时的人们期望在一家或者两家公司里度过漫长的职业生涯。Michael Bobic and William Eric Davis, the writers, accept that McGregor’s writings “revolutionised the field of management theory”, but argue that benign Theory Y management fell victim to today’s insecure working world, where companies offer their staff no loyalty and receive little in return.这篇论文的作者迈克尔#8226;比克(Michael Bobic)和威廉#8226;埃里克#8226;戴维斯(William Eric Davis)承认,麦格雷戈的著作“彻底改变了管理学理论领域”,但他们认为,在当今这种缺乏安全感的工作环境下,企业和员工彼此都谈不上忠诚,良性的Y理论管理模式缺乏合适的舞台。But there are other reasons things have not gone McGregor’s way. Many easy-going, creative workplaces rely on outsourced data processing and call centres. Like clothing sweatshops, these are not full of managers eager to let their employees decide their own working practices.事情没有按照麦格雷戈期盼的方式发展,还有其他原因。许多宽松和富有创意的工作环境依赖外包的数据处理和电话务中心。就像制衣业的血汗工厂那样,这两类工作场所没有多少热切希望员工自己决定工作方式的经理。Even in the most go-ahead offices, the human resources and legal departments increasingly insist on the dismal completion of online forms for the most routine activities. Managers who want to run grown-up departments are ground down. We need a different type of thinking about management. If we want to find an effective way of treating our staff like adults, perhaps we should turn to an expert in dealing with children.即使在最自由的企业里,人力资源和法务部门也越来越坚持员工对大多数日常任务填写令人厌烦的在线表格。想要以成年人的方式经营所在部门的经理受到压制。我们需要采取不同的管理思路。如果我们想找到一个把员工当做成年人看待的有效方法,或许我们应该向儿童专家求助。Diana Baumrind is a US psychologist known for her research on good parenting. Unlike McGregor’s two management styles, Ms Baumrind came up with three ways of dealing with children: permissive, authoritarian and authoritative.美国心理学家戴安娜#8226;鲍姆林德(Diana Baumrind)因其对好的育儿方式的研究而闻名。不像麦格雷戈的两种管理风格,她提出了3种对待儿童的方式:宽容型、专制型和权威型。“The permissive parent attempts to behave in a non-punitive, acceptant, and affirmative manner,” she wrote. This is like McGregor’s Theory Y.“宽容型父母试图表现出不惩罚、接纳和肯定的样子,”她写道。这与麦格雷戈的Y理论类似。The authoritarian parent tries “to shape, control, and evaluate#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;She values obedience as a virtue.” This is the parenting version of Theory X.专制型父母试图“塑造、控制和评估……她认为从是一种美德。”这是X理论的育儿版。Then there is the authoritative parent, who “attempts to direct the child’s activities in a rational, issue-oriented manner”. This is the parent who “encourages verbal give and take”. She exerts control only at points of real divergence “but does not hem the child in with restrictions”.还有权威型的父母,他们“试图以一种理性、问题导向型的方式引导孩子的行为。”这种父母“鼓励言语上的公平交换。”她只在真正的分歧点施加控制,“但不会用各种限制来束缚孩子”。There are differences between parenting and management. Children cannot resign. But the authoritative parent, who sets clear parameters yet allows freedom within them, who reasons rather than rules (and makes the numbers), strikes me both as an excellent model for managers and a realistic middle route between Theories X and Y.育儿和管理存在差异。孩子可没法辞职。但权威型的父母设定了清晰的界限,在界限之内允许自由,他们讲道理,而不是发号施令(以达到预期数字);对我来说,这既是经理们的好榜样,也是X理论和Y理论之间一条切合实际的中间路线。 /201502/357440遂宁去疤哪里好 Archaeologists in France have unearthed the extraordinarily well-preserved corpse of a 17th-century noblewoman -- still dressed in her dress, bonnet and shoes。法国考[微]古学家发掘一具17世界贵妇遗骸,遗体上依旧穿着长袍以及鞋帽,保存完好。A team from the French National Institute for Preventive Archaeological Research discovered the body when they pried open her lead coffin during a rescue excavation on the construction site of a new conference center in Rennes in northwestern France。在法国西北城市雷恩的新会议中心建筑工地上,法国国家考古人员研究所的一组人员在抢救性挖掘时发现了这具遗体,并撬开了这座铅质棺椁。;When we opened the coffin (we) saw a body, a lot of volume of fabric, the shoes,; said anthropologist Rozenn Colleter, who is part of the team. ;We didn’t know how well-preserved she was until we scanned her.;“打开棺椁,我们看到了遗骸,里面还有大量织物和鞋子,”小组成员考古学家罗森·柯莱特说道,“我们并不知道她到底保存的怎样,只有等到扫面之后。”Colleter describes her as a ;natural mummy -- particularly well preserved.;柯莱特描述到“自然木乃伊——保存十分完好”。Inscriptions allowed the archaeologists to identify the nearly intact body as belonging to Louise de Quengo, Lady of Brefeillac, who died in 1656.考古学家根据碑文基本上可以确定这具遗体的主人很可能是露易·迪昂古(Louise de Quengo),死于1656年。Louise was buried in a cape, serge wool dress and plain shirt and leather mules with cork soles. Her face was covered with a shroud, two bonnets and a hood。迪昂古的遗体上穿着披肩,粗缝毛衣,粗布衬衫,软木底皮革穆勒鞋。她的头上戴着帽子,脸上蒙着面纱。Her lead coffin was first opened in March 2014. It was -- among approximately 800 graves -- found at the site, which has housed the Convent of the Jacobins since the 12th century。她的棺椁于2014年3月首次打开。自12世纪起,这里是雅各宾派的修道院,在大约800多坟墓中,发现了她的墓地。A lead reliquary containing the heart of her husband, Toussaint de Perrien, who died in 1649 was also discovered nearby。在一个铅质圣骨匣里,发现了她丈夫特桑·佩雷(Toussaint Perrien)的心脏,他死于1649年,就在她的旁边。Once the coffin was open, the team had to rush to preserve her body。一旦打开棺椁,工作人员需要立刻保护遗体。A unique set of circumstances had preserved the corpse for hundreds of years, but it was not embalmed so they knew decomposition would start rapidly。独特的环境使遗体存放了几百年,但并不防腐,所以他们遗体会马上腐烂。;We had only a few days to work,; said Colleter。“我们只有几天时间。”柯莱特说。They collaborated with scientists from the Molecular Anthropology and Synthetic Imaging Laboratory at the University of Toulouse to scan the entire body。他们和图卢兹大学分子人类学和合成成像实验室的科学家合作扫描整具遗体。They also collected samples of uncontaminated human tissue and DNA and pathogens including tuberculosis. Samples could help researchers looking for a cure of tuberculosis, said Colleter。他们还收集了未被污染的人体组织,DNA以及病原体,包括肺结核。柯莱特表示,样本可以帮助研究人员找出肺结核治愈方法。From analysis, the scientists concluded that Louise de Quengo died from an infection。通过分析,科学家得出结论露易·迪昂古死于传染病。;It’s extraordinary,; said Colleter of finding such a well-preserved corpse. ;You have to have a lead coffin, but it has to be (hermetically sealed), without insects and the humidity has to be low. ;The doctors said the body was like (one) that has been buried for two weeks, but she is 350.;“太赞了,”发现这样保存完好的遗骸,柯莱特说,“必须要用铅质棺椁,但要密封,不能有虫子,保持很低的湿度。”医生说这具遗体就像是刚下葬两周,但实际上已经350年了。”Louise de Quengo will be reburied once all the scientific tests are completed。当所有检测完成后,露易·迪昂古将会入土长眠。 /201506/3791967.It Slows Your Metabolism7.减缓新陈代谢If you#39;re sedentary and you#39;re eating more than you burn, you can put on weight. But staying seated all the time can wreak additional havoc on all the processes that make up your metabolism.如果一直坐着不动,进食的脂肪比燃烧的还要多,就会增胖。久坐还会影响人体正常的新陈代谢。It doesn#39;t take much time sitting around to slow down the process by which your body converts food into energy and regulates multiple biological processes. In the time it takes to watch just one episode of ;Game of Thrones; (about an hour of sitting), your body slows down its production of the fat-burning enzyme lipase by 90 percent. When your metabolism slows down, if you don#39;t also slow down your caloric intake and up your exercise you#39;re going to gain weight. But you also lose, too -- your body loses the good cholesterol, HDL, that keeps the bad LDL cholesterol in check, putting you on a path toward cardiovascular disease. You#39;ll also lose efficiency in how well your body is able to effectively manage insulin, steering you toward diabetes.只坐一会儿,你的身体将食物转化为热量、调节体内多个生物进程的速度就会减缓。看一集《权力的游戏》(大约1个小时),身体产生的脂肪酶就会减少90%。当新陈代谢减缓的时候,如果不降低卡路里的摄入量或者增加运动量的话,就会增加体重!与此同时,还会损失有益的胆固醇和高密度脂蛋白,诱发心脑血管疾病。体内调节胰岛素的能力也会弱化,从而提高糖尿病的发病率。6.Underused Muscles, Underused Insulin6.肌肉退化,胰岛素过盛You may be inactive, but your pancreas didn#39;t get the memo. The muscle inactivity that comes along with sitting disease has been associated with a decrease in your body#39;s sensitivity to the insulin your pancreas makes, and that puts you at an increased risk of developing chronic diseases including metabolic syndrome (conditions associated with pre-diabetes) and type 2 diabetes (by about 7 percent). Researchers are finding that women may be more at risk for this side effect of sitting than men.你也许不爱运动,但是你的胰腺并不会意识到。久坐症会影响肌肉活跃度,使身体对于胰腺分泌的胰岛素的敏感程度下降,并增加感染慢性疾病的风险,包括代谢症候群(与糖尿病前期症状有关)以及2型糖尿病(大约7%)。研究人员还发现久坐对于女性的副作用大于男性。Too much insulin in addition to higher levels of C-reactive protein and other chronic inflammation markers circulating in your sedentary body are also linked to certain cancers, such as breast and colon cancer (about a 10 percent risk increase). It#39;s theorized that when the body becomes less sensitive to insulin, levels build up in the body; the excess insulin in your body stimulates cell growth. It#39;s also possible hours of sitting decreases production of antioxidants, which are the body#39;s natural way of protecting itself against free radicals, known cell damagers (and cancer causers).在你习惯于久坐不动的身体里,除了C反应蛋白水平过高和其他慢性炎症反复发作,胰岛素过多也易患癌症,例如乳腺癌和结肠癌(增加大约10%的风险)。理论上来说,当身体对于胰岛素的敏感度降低,体内血糖水平会升高;体内多余的胰岛素会刺激细胞生长。久坐也会降低抗氧化剂的分泌。抗氧化剂是机体祛除自由基对人体损害(及癌症)的自然保护剂。5.It Clogs Your Heart5.心肌梗塞Researchers have reported couch potatoes who spend more than four hours a day sitting passively in front of a screen have roughly a 125 percent greater risk of developing symptoms of cardiovascular disease, such as angina (shortness of breath) or experiencing a heart attack than their peers who only spend about two hours doing so.研究表明,相比于一天只花两个小时坐在电视机前的同龄人,那些花四个小时以上的电视迷们将患心血管疾病的风险提升至125%,例如心绞痛(气促)、心脏病发作。Sitting is clogging your heart. Excessive sitting changes the way your body handles fats (known as lipids) in your blood, and the outcome isn#39;t good. It puts the brakes on HDL production; HDL is known as the good cholesterol because it cleans up the bad cholesterol, LDL, which builds up on the walls of your arteries. Researchers have associated all that sitting you#39;re doing with lower amounts of HDL circulating in your body, and that means lipids and triglycerides are allowed to build up -- and that fat in your blood puts you at a greater risk of developing cardiovascular disease.坐着可致心肌梗塞。久坐会改变身体处理血液内脂肪(也称脂质)的方式,其结果总归是不好的。这样会抑制身体产生高密度胆固醇;高密度胆固醇是一种有益胆固醇,帮助人体清除低密度胆固醇(低密度胆固醇可使脂肪在动脉血管壁沉积)。研究人员认为久坐可降低身体内部循环的高密度胆固醇量,并增加脂类和甘油三酸酯量,从而增加患心血管疾病的风险。4.Poor Circulation in Your Lower Extremities4.下肢血液循环不良When you sit for more than an hour at a time, you increase your risk of developing peripheral edema -- that#39;s swelling caused when fluid builds up in the tissues in your lower extremities (legs, ankles, and feet). The lack of circulation also ups your odds of developing or worsening varicose veins, suffering from thrombophlebitis, or suffering a blood clot, specifically deep vein thrombosis.坐着超过一个小时,将增加患外周性水肿的几率——当体液在下肢(即,双腿、脚踝和双足)组织中淤积,就会引起水肿。血液循环不良会增加静脉曲张恶化的几率,另外,也易引发血栓性静脉炎或血栓——尤其是增加深静脉血栓的患病几率。Poor blood flow doesn#39;t just affect your lower extremities; it also can cause damage to other organs in your body as well as cause you to feel dizzy, numb or as though you#39;re in a mental fog.血流不畅不仅会影响到下肢健康,对身体其他器官也会造成伤害。不仅如此,你还会因此感到眩晕,身体失去知觉,仿佛处于一种精神恍惚状态。审校:哎呀 校对:落花生 编辑:Freya然 /201507/384792梁平区中心医院激光脱毛多少钱

奉节县做双眼皮修复手术费用Cute Harry可爱的哈利It#39;s was little Harry#39;s first visit to the country,这是小哈利第一次停留在乡下,and feeding the chickens fascinated him.并且喂食吸引他目光的小鸡。Late one evening he caught his first glimpse of peacock strutting in the yard,有一天晚上,他第一次看到孔雀在院子里神气 十足地昂首阔步,feathers sp beautifully in all its glory.得意地将羽毛很优美地向外展开,Rushing indoors excitedly,Harry called out for his grandma.小哈利很兴裔地,向屋内冲,大声叫他的奶奶来看……;Oh,Granny,come see!Come see!; he exclaimed.他高声地叫说:“喔,奶奶,快来看!快来看!”;one of your chickens is in bloom!;“你们家有一只鸡开花罗!” /201503/361451梁平区妇女医院挂号 南川区上睑下垂矫正多少钱

重庆大坪医院网上预约;The truth shall set you free...especially when you#39;re talking to your boss!;事实真相将让你获得自由,特别是当你和你老板交谈的时候。 /201506/379824 江北区做眼袋手术多少钱江北区儿童医院是公立医院么



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